hemachandraachaarya

taadpatr-prati par aadhaarit hemachandraachaarya ki chhavi

aachaarya hemachandr (1145-1229) mahaan guru, samaaj-sudhaarak, dharmaachaarya, ganitjnya evam adbhut pratibhaashaali maneeshi the. bhaarateeya chintan, saahitya aur saadhana ke kshetramein unka naam atyant mahatvapoorn hai. saahitya, darshan, yog, vyaakaran, kaavyashaastr, vaadmayake sabhi andgo par naveen saahityaki srushti tatha naye panthako aalokit kiya. sanskrut evam praakrut par unka samaan adhikaar tha.

sanskrut ke madhyakaaleen koshakaaron mein hemachandr ka naam vishesh mahatva rakhata hai. ve mahaapandit the aur 'kaalikaalasarvajnya' kahe jaate the. ve kavi the, kaavyashaastr ke aachaarya the, yogashaastramarmajnya the, jainadharm aur darshan ke prakaand vidvaan the, teekaakaar the aur mahaan koshakaar bhi the. ve jahaaain ek or naanaashaastrapaarangat aachaarya the vaheen doosari or naana bhaashaaon ke marmajnya, unke vyaakaranakaar evam anekabhaashaakoshakaar bhi the.

samast gurjarabhoomiko ahinsaamaya bana diya. aachaarya hemachandr ko paakar Gujarat ajnyaaan, dhaarmik rudhiyon evam andhavishrvaason se mukt ho keerti ka kailaas evam dharmaka mahaan kendra ban gaya. anukool paristhiti mein kalikaal sarvajnya aachaarya hemachandr sarvajanahitaaya evam sarvaapadeshaaya pruthvi par avatarit hue. 12veen shataabdi mein paataliputr, kaanyakubj, valabhi, ujjayini, kaashi ityaadi samruddhishaali nagaron ki udaatt svarnim paramparaamein Gujarat ke anahilpur ne bhi gauravapoorn sthaan praapt kiya.

anukram

jeevanavrut tatha rachanaaen

sanskrut kaviyonka jeevanacharitr likhna kathin samasya hai. saubhaagyaki baat hai ki aachaarya hemachandrake vishyamein yatr-tatr paryaapt tathya upalabdh hai. prasiddh raaja siddharaaj jayasinh evam kumaarapaal raaja ke dharmopadeshak hone ke kaaran aitihaasik lekhakon ne aachaarya hemachandr ke jeevan charitra par apna abhimt prakat kiya hai.

aachaarya hemachandraka janm gujaraatamein Ahmedabad se 100 kilomitr door dakshin-pashrvim sthit dhandhuka nagaramein vikram savant 1145ke kaartiki purnima ki raatri mein hua tha. maataapita shivpaarvati upaasak modh vansheeya vaishya the. pitaaka naam chaaching athva chaach aur maataaka naam paahini devi tha. baalakaka naam chaangadev rakha. maata paahini or maama neminaath donon hi jain the. aachaarya hemachandr bahut bade aachaarya the at: unki maataako uchchaasan milta tha. sambhav hai, maataane baad mein jain dharmaki deeksha le li ho. baalak chaangadev jab garbh mein tha tab maataane aarshrvajanak svapn dekhe the. isapar aachaarya devachandr gurune svapnaka vishleshan karte kaha sulakshan sampann putr hoga jo deeksha lega. jain siddhaantaka sarvatr prachaar prasaar karega.

baalyakaalase chaangadev deekshaake liye dadh tha. khambhaant mein jain sanghaki anumatise udayan mantreeke sahayogase nav varshaki aayumein deeksha sanskaar vikram savant 1154mein maagh shukl chaturdashi shanivaarako hua. aur unka naam somachandr rakha gaya. shareer suvarn samaan tejasvi evam chandrama samaan sundar tha. isaliye ve hemachandr kahalaaye.

alpaaayume shaastromein tatha vyaavahaarik jnyaaanamein nipun ho gaye. 21 varshaki avasthaamein samast shaastrokaan manthan kar gyaan vruddhi ki. Nagpur (naagaur, maaravaad) ke dhanad vyaapaareene vikram savant 1166mein sooripd pradaan mahotsav sampann kiya. aachaaryane saahitya aur samaaj seva karna aarambh kiya. prabhaavakacharit anusaar maata paahini deveene jain dharmaki deeksha grahan ki. abhayadevasoorike shishya prakaand gurushri devachandrasoori hemachandrake deekshaaguru, shikshaaguru ya vidyaaguru the.

vrudvaavasthaamein hemachandrasooreeko ko loota rog lag gaya. ashtaangayogaabhyaas dvaara unhonne rog nasht kiya. 84 varshaki avasthaamein anashanapoorvak antyaaraadhan kriya aarambh ki. vikram savant 1229me mahaapanditoki pratham pakdtike panditne dehik leela samaapt ki. samaadhisthal shatrujjanya mahaateerth pahaad sthit hai. prabhaavakacharitke anusaar raaja kumaarapaalako aachaaryaka viyog asahya raha aur chh: maas pashchaat svarg sidhaar gaya.

hemachandr adviteeya vidvaan the. saahityake sampoorn itihaasamein kisi dusare granthakaaraki itni adhik aur vividh vishyonki rachanaaen upalabdh naheen hai. vyaakaran shaastrake itihaasamein hemachandraka naam suvarnaaksharonse likha jaata hai. sanskrut shabdaanushaasanake antim rachayita hai. inke saath uttarabhaaratamein sanskrutake utkrusht maulik granthoka rachanaakaal samaapt ho jaata hai.

gujaraati kavita hai, 'hem pradeep pragataavi sarasvateeno saarthakya keedhun nij naamanun siddharaaje'. arthaat siddharaajane sarasvateeka hem pradeep jalaakar (suvarn deepak athva hemachandr) apna 'siddh'naam saarthak kar diya. hemachandraka kehna tha svatantr aatmaake aashrit gyaan hi pratyaksh hai

hemachandrake kaavya-granth

aachaarya hemachandrane anek vishyonpar vividh prakaarake kaavya rache hai. ashvaghoshake samaan hemachandr soddeshya kaavya rachanaamein vishvaas rakhate the. inka kaavya 'kaavyamaanandaaya' na hokar 'kaavyam dharmaprachaaraya' hai. ashvaghosh aur kaalidaasake sahaj evam saral shaili jaisi shaili naheen thi kintu unki kavitaaomein hradaya aur mastishkaka apoorv mishran tha. aachaarya hemachandrake kaavyamein sanskrut bruhattrayeeke paandityapoorn chamatkrut shaili hai, bhatthike anusaar vyaakaranaka vivechan, ashvaghoshake anusaar dharmaprachaar evam kalahanake anusaar itihaas hai. aachaarya hemachandraka pandit kaviyonmein moordhanya sthaan hai. 'trishshdhishlaakaapurush charit' ek puraan kaavya hai. sanskrutastotr saahityamein 'veetaraagastotr' ka mahatvapoorn sthaan hai. vyaakaran, itihaas aur kaavyaka teenonka vaahak dvavaashraya kaavya apoorv hai. is dharmaachaaryako saahitya-samraat kahanemein atyukti naheen hai.

vyaakaran granth

paanineene sanskrut vyaakaranamein shaakataayan, shaunak, sfotaayan, aapishli ka ullekh kiya. paanini ke 'ashtaadhyaayi' mein shodhan kaatyaayan aur bhaashyakar patanyajali kiya. punarudvaar bhojadevake 'sarasvati kanthaabharan' mein hua.

hemachandraki vyaakaran rachanaaen

aachaarya hemachandrane samast vyaakaran vaandmayaka anusheelan kar 'shabdaanushaasan' evam anya vyaakaran granthoki rachana ki. poorvavato aachaaryonke granthoka samyak adhyayan kar sarvaandg paripoorn upayogi evam saral vyaakaranaki ‍arachana kar sanskrut aur praakrut donon hi bhaashaaonko poornataya anushaasit kiya hai.

hemachandrane 'sidvahem' naamak nootan panchaang vyaakaran taiyaar kiya. is vyaakaran granthaka shvetachhatr sushobheet do chaamarake saath chal samaaroh haathi par nikaala gaya. 300 lekhakonne 300 pratiyaaain 'shabdaanushaasan'ki likhkar bhinn-bhinn dharmaadhyakshonko bhet dene ke atirikt desh-videsh, Iran, seelon, Nepal bheji gayi. 20 pratiyaaain kaashmeerake sarasvati bhaandaaramein pahunchi. jnyaaanapanchami (kaartik sudi panchami) ke din pareeksha li jaati thi.

aachaarya hemachandr sanskrut ke antim mahavaiyaakaran the. apabhransh saahityaki praacheen samrudvi ke sambadhamein vidvaan un padhonke stotraki khojamein lag gaye. 18000 shlok pramaan bruhadavrutti par bhaashya katichid durgaapadakhya vyaakhya likhi gayi. is bhaashyaki hast likhit prati barlin mein hai.

alankaar granth

hemachandrake alankaar granth

kaavyaanushaasan ne unhein uchchakoti ke kaavyashaastrakaaron ki shreni mein pratishthit kiya. poorvaachaaryo se bahut kachh lekar paravarti vichaarakon ko chintan ke liye vipul saamagri pradaan ki. kaavyaanushaasan ka - sootr, vyaakhya aur sodaaharan vrutti aise teen pramukh bhaag hai. sootro ki vyaakhya karne waali vyaakhya 'alankaarachoodaamani' naam prachalit hai. aur spasht karne ke liye 'vivek' naamak vruti likhi gayi.

'kaavyaanushaasan' 8 adhyaayon mein vibhaajit 208 sootro mein kaavyashaastr ke saare vishyon ka pratipaadan kiya gaya hai. 'alankaarachoodaamani' mein 807 udaaharan prastut hai tatha 'vivek'mein 825 udaaharan prastut hai. 50 kaviyon ke tatha 81 grantho ke naamoka ullekh hai.

'kaavyaanushaasan' ka vivechan : sampoorn evaman sarvotkrushth paathyapustak

kaavyaanushaasan praay: sangrah granth hai. raajashekharake 'kaavyameemaansa', mammatake 'kaavyaprakaash', aanandavardhan ke 'dhvanyaalok', Abhinav guptake 'lochan' se paryaapt maatraamein saamagri grahan ki hai.

maulikta ke vishyamein hemachandraka apna svatantr mat hai. hemachandr matase koi bhi granthakaar nayi cheej naheen likhta. yadyapi mammataka 'kaavyaprakaash' ke saath hemachandraka 'kaavyaanushaasan' ka bahut saamya hai. paryaapt sthaanon par hemachandraachaaryane mammataka virodh kiya hai. hemachandraachaaryake anusaar aanand, yash ev kaantaatulya upadesh hi kaavyake prayojan ho sakte hai tatha arthalaabh, vyavahaar gyaan evam anisht nivrutti hemachandrake mataanusaar kaavyake prayojan naheen hai.

'kaavyaanushaasan se kaavyashaasr ke paathakon kon samajane mein sulabhata, sugamata hoti hai. mammataka 'kaavyaprakaash' vistrut hai, suvyavasthit hai, sugam naheen hai. aganit teekaaen hone par bhi mammataka 'kaavyaprakaash' durgam rah jaata hai. 'kaavyaanushaasan' mein is durgamata ko 'alankaarachudaamani' evam 'vivek' ke dvaara sugamata mein parint kiya gaya hai.

'kaavyaanushaasan' mein spasht likhte hai ki ve apna mat nirdhaaran abhinvagupt evam bharat ke aadhaar par kar rahe hain. sachmuch anya grantho-granthakaaro ke udvaran prastut karte hemachandr apna swayam ka svatantr mat, shaili, dashtikonase maulik hai. granth evam granthakaaron ke naam se sanskrut-saahitya, itihaas par prakaash padata hai. sabhi star ke paathak ke liye sarvotkrushth paathyapustak hai. vishesh jnyaaanavrudvi ka avsar diya hai. at: aachaarya hemachandr ke 'kaavyaanushaasan' ka adhyayan karne ke pashchaat fir dusara granth padhane ki jarurat naheen rahati.[tathya vaanchhit] sampoorn kaavya-shaastr par suvyavasthit tatha surachit prabandh hai.

koshagranth

sanskrut mein anek koshon ki rachana ke saath saath praakruta—aaapabhransha—aakosh bhi (desheenaamamaala) unhonne sanpaadit kiya. abhidhaanachintaamani (ya 'abhidhaanachintaamaninaamamaala' inka prasiddh paryaayavaachi kosh hai. chhah kaandon ke is kosh ka pratham kaand keval jain devon aur jainamateeya ya dhaarmik shabdon se sanbanddh hai. Dave, martya, bhoomi ya tiryak, naarak aur saamaanya—aashesh paaainch kaand hain. 'lingaanushaasan' pruthak granth hi hai. 'abhidhaanachintaamani' par unki svavirchit 'yashovijya' teeka hai—ajiske atirikt, vyutpattirtnaakar' (devasaagakarani) aur 'saaroddhaar' (vallabhagani) prasiddh teekaaeain hai. ismein naana chhandon mein 1542 shlok hai. doosra kosh 'anekaarthasangrah' (shlo0 san0 1829) hai jo chhah kaandon mein hai. ekaakshar, dvayakshar, tryakshar aadi ke kram se kaandayojan hai. ant mein parishishtat kaand avyayon se sanbanddh hai. pratyek kaand mein do prakaar ki shabdakramayojanaaeain hain—(1) prathamaaksharaanusaari aur (2) 'antimanksharaanusaari'. 'desheenaamamaala' praakrut ka (aur anshat: apabhransh ka bhi) shabdakosh hai jiska aadhaar 'paaiyalachhi' naamamaala hai'.

daarshanik evam dhaarmik granth

pramaanameemaansa

saamaanyat: jain aur hindu dharm mein koi vishesh antar naheen hai. jain dharm vaidik karm - kaand ke prateebandh evam us ke hinsa sambandhi vidhaanokon sveekaar naheen karta. aachaarya hemachandr ke darshan granth 'pramaanameemaansa' ka vishisht sthaan hai. hemachandr ke antim apoorn granth pramaanameemaansa ka prajnyaaachakshu pandit sukhalaalaji dvaara sanpaadaan hua. sootr shaili ka granth kanaad ya akshapaad ke samaan hai. durbhaagya se is samay tak 100 sootr hi upalabdh hai. sanbhavat: vrudvaavastha mein is granth ko poorn naheen kar sake athva shesh bhaag kaal kavalit hone ka kalank shishyon ko laga. hemachandr ke anusaar pramaan do hi hai. pratyaksh or paroksh. jo ek dusare se bilkul alag hai. svatantr aatma ke aashrit gyaan hi pratyaksh hai. aachaarya ke ye vichaar tatvachintan mein maulik hai. hemachandr ne tark shaastramein katha ka ek vaadaatmak rup hi sthir kiya. jis mein chhl aadi kisi bhi kapat-vyavahaar ka prayog varjya hai. hemachandr ke anusaar indriyjanm, matijnyaaan aur paramaarthik kevalajnyaaan mein satya ki maatra mein antar hai, yogyata athva gun mein naheen. pramaanameemaansa se sampoorn bhaarateeya darshan shaastr ke gaurav mein vrudvi hui.

yogashaastr

isaki shaili patanyajali ke yogasootr ke anusaar hi hai. kintu vishay aur varnan kram mein maulikta evam bhinnata hai. yogashaastr neeti vishyak upadeshaatmak kaavya ki koti mein aata hai. yogashaastr jain sanpradaaya ka dhaarmik evam daarshanik granth hai. vah adhyaatmopanishd hai. iske antargat madira dosh, maans dosh, navaneet bhakshan dosh, madhu dosh, udumbar dosh, raatri bhojan dosh ka varnan hai. antim 12 vein prakaash ke praarambh mein shrut samudra aur guru ke mukhase jo kuchh main ne jaana hai usaka varnan kar chuka hun, ab nirmal anubhav sidv tatvako prakaashit karta hun aisa nidesh kar ke vikshipt, yaataayaat, in chit-bheindo ke svarupaka kathan karte bahiraatma, antaraatma aur paramaatma ka svarup kaha gaya hai.

  • sadaachaar hi ishrvar pranidhaan niyam hai.
  • nirmal chit hi manushya ka dharm hai.
  • sanvedan hi moksh hai jiske saamane sukh kuchh naheen hai aisa prateet hota hai.

sanvedan ke liye paatachjal yogasootr tatha hemachandr yogashaastr mein paryaapt saamya hai. yog se shareer aur man shudv hota hai. yog ka arth chitravrutika nirodh. man ko sabal banaane ke liye shareer sabal banaana atyaavashyak hai. yogasootr aur yogashaastr mein atyant saatvik aahaar ki upaadeyata batalaakar abhakshya bhakshanaka nishedh kiya gaya hai. aachaarya hemachandr sab se pratham 'namo ari hantaanan' se raag -dveshaadi aantarik shatruon ka naash karne vaale ko namaskaar kaha hai. yogasootr tatha yogashaastr paas-paas hai. sansaar ke sabhi vaad, sanpradaaya, mat, ddashtiraag ke parinaam hai. ddashtiraag ke kaaran ashaanti aur du:kh hai. at: vishvashaanti ke liye, ddashtiraag uchhedan ke liye hemachandraka yogashaastr aaj bhi atyant upaadeya granth hai.

bhaarateeya saahityako hemachandraki den

sanskrut sahityaka aarambh sudoor vaidik kaal se hota hai. jain saahitya adhikaanshat: praakrut mein tha. 'chaturdhapoorv' aur 'ekaadash ang' granth sanskrut mein the. ye poorv granth lupt ho gaye. jain dharm shraman pradhaan hai. aacharan pramukh hai.

anya saahitya

sanskrut mein umaasvaati ka 'tatvaarthaadhigmasootr', siddhasen divaakar ka 'nyaayaavataar', nemichandr ka 'dravyasangrah', mallisen ki 'syaaddhaadamanjari', prabhaachandr ka 'prameya kamalamaatand', aadi prasiddh daarshanik granth hai.

umaasvaati se jain deh mein darshaanaatma ne pravesh kiya. kuchh gyaan ki chetna prasfutit hui jo aage kundakund, siddhasen, akalank, vidyaanand, haribhdr, yashovijya, aadi rup mein viksheet hoti gayi.

saahitya mein aachaarya hemachandr ke yogashaastr ka sthaan

hemachandr ne apne yogashaastr se sabhi ko gruhasth jeevan mein aatmasaadhana ki prerana di. purushaarth se door rahane vaale ko purushaarth ki prerana di. inka mool mantra svaavalanban hai. veer aur ddrudh chit purushonke liye unka dharm hai.

hemachandraachaarya ke grantho ne sanskrut evam dhaarmik saahitya mein bhakti ke saath shravan dharm tatha saadhana yukt aachaar dharm ka prachaar kiya. samaaj mein se nidraalasya ko bhagaakar jaagrati utpann ki. saatvik jeevan se deerghaayu paane ke upaaya bataaye. sadaachaar se aadarsh naagrik nirmaanakar samaaj ko suvyavasthit karanemein aacharya hemachandr ne apoorv yogadaan kiya.

aachaarya hemachandrane tarkashuddh, tarkasiddh evam bhaktiyukt saras vaani ke dvaara gyaan chetna ka vikaas kiya aur paramochch choti par pahuncha diya. puraani jadata ko jadamool se ukhaad feink diya. aatmavishvaas ka sanchaar kiya. aachaarya ke grantho ke kaaran jain dharm Gujarat mein ddrudhamool hua. Bhaarat mein sarvatr, visheshat: madhya pradesh mein jain dharm ke prachaar evam prasaar mein un ke granthone abhootapoorv yogadaan kiya. is ddrushti se jain dharm ke saahitya mein aachaarya hemachandr ke grantho ka sthaan amoolya hai.

hem prashasti

sada hradi vahem shri hemasoore: sarasvateem.

suvatya shabdaaratnaani taamraparna jitaayaya .

  • gyaan ke agaadh saagar kalikaal sarvajnya aachaarya hemachandr ko paar paana atyant dushkar hai. jijnyaaasu ko kaarya karne mein thodi si prerana milne par sab apne aapko krutaarth samajegein. (someshvar bhatt ki 'keerti kaumidi' mein)
  • hemachandr atyant kushaagr buddhi the. raajaakumaarapaalake saamane kisi matsareene kaha 'jain pratyaksh Dave sooryako naheen maanate', is par hemachandrane uttar diya. jain saadhu hi sooryanaaraayanako apne hrdayamein rakhate hai. suryaast hote hi jain saadhu annajal tyaag dete hai. aur aisa kaun karta hai?

ganitjnya ke roop mein hemachandr soori

aachaarya hemachandr ke naam se prasiddh hemachandr soori (1089-1172) bhaarateeya ganitjnya tatha jain vidvaan the. inhone hemachandr shreni ka likhit ullekh kiya tha jise baad mein fibonaachi shreni ke naam se jaana gaya.

hemachandr ki rachanaayein

  • abhidhaanachintaamani

yeh bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain