heera

kohinoor ki kaaainch prati
kohinoor ki ek aur prati
heeron ki aakrutiyaan

heera ek paaradarshi ratn hai. yeh raasaayanik roop se kaarban ka shuddhatam roop hai. heera mein pratyek kaarban parmaanu chaar anya kaarban paramaanuon ke saath sah-sanyoji bandh dvaara juda rahata hai. kaarban paramaanuon ke baahari kaksh mein upasthit sabhi chaaron ilektraan sah-sanyoji bandh mein bhaag le lete hain tatha ek bhi ilektraan sanvatantr naheen hota hai. isliye heera ooshma tatha vidyut ka kuchaalan hota hai. heera mein sabhi kaarban parmaanu bahut hi shaktishaali sah-sanyoji bandh dvaara jude hote hain, isliye yeh bahut kathor hota hai. heera praakratik padaartho mein sabse kathor padaa‍aarth hai iski kathorata ke kaaran iska prayog kai udyogo tatha aabhooshanon mein kiya jaata hai. heere keval safed hi naheen hote ashuddhiyon ke kaaran iska shed neela, laal, santara, peela, hara va kaala hota hai. hara heera sabse durlabh hai. heere ko yadi ovan mein 763 degree celcius par garam kiya jaaye, to yeh jalakar kaarban daai-aaksaaid bana leta hai tatha bilkool hi raakh naheen bachati hai.[1] isse yeh pramaanit hota hai ki heera kaarban ka shuddh roop hai. heera raasaayanik taur par bahut nishkriya hota hai ev sabhi gholakon mein aghulanasheel hota hai. iska aapekshik ghanatv 3.51 hota hai. bahut adhik chamak hone ke kaaran heera ko javaaharaat ke roop mein upayog kiya jaata hai. heera ushmeeya kirnon ke prati bahut adhik samvedansheel hota hai, isliye atishuddh tharmaameetar banaane mein iska upayog kiya jaata hai. kaale heere ka upayog kaaainch kaatne, doosare heere ke kaatne, heere par paalish karne tatha chattaanon mein chhed karne ke liye kiya jaata hai.

durlabh heere

heera Khan se nikaala jaata hai aur baad mein paulish kar ke chamakaaya jaata hai. 18veen shataabdi mein dakshin Africa aur Brazil mein heeron ki khaanon ka pata chalne se pehle tak duniya bhar mein Bhaarat ki golakunda Khan se nikle heeron ki dhaak thi.[2] lekin yahaaain se nikle adhikaansh bhaarateeya heere ya to laapata hain ya videshi sangrahaalayon ki shobha badha rahe hain. inmein se ek heera Britain ki mahaaraani ke taaj mein jada kohinoor bhi hai. sabse adhik vajan wala heera great mugal golakunda ki Khan se 1650 mein jab nikla to iska vajan 787 kairet tha. jo kohinoor se kareeb chhah guna adhik tha[3] aaj yeh heera aaj kahaaain hai kisi ko pata naheen. aisa hi ek bahumoolya heera Ahmedabad daayamand tha jo baabar ne 1526 mein Panipat ki ladaai ke baad gvaaliyr ke raaja Vikramjeet ko haraakar haasil kiya tha. is durlabh heere ko aakhiri baar 1990 mein London ke krisle oksan house ki neelaami mein dekha gaya tha. the rijeint naamak 1702 ke aaspaas golakunda ki Khan se nikla heera 410 kairet tha. jo baad mein nepoliyn ke paas pahuaincha. yeh heera ab 140 kairet ka ho chuka hai aur peris ke levore myoojiym mein rakha gaya hai. isi prakaar broliti of India ka. 90.8 kairet ke broliti jise kohinoor se bhi puraana bataaya jaata hai, 12veen shataabdi mein France ki mahaaraani ne khareeda. aaj yeh kahaaain hai koi naheen jaanta. ek aur gumanaam heera 200 kairet ka oralov tha jise 18veen shataabdi mein Mysore ke mandir ki ek moorti ki aankh se France ke vyaapaari ne churaaya tha. kuchh gumanaam bhaarateeya heere: great mugal (280 kairet), oralov (200 kairet), the rijeint (140 kairet), broliti of India (90.8 kairet), Ahmedabad daayamand (78.8 kairet), the blue hope (45.52 kairet), Agra daayamand (32.2 kairet), the Nepal (78.41)

heere ka kaarobaar karne waali antararaashtreeya company di biyrs ki sahayogi ikaai daayamand trading company (DTC) ke mutaabik duniya ke 90 feesadi heeron ke taraashane ka kaam Bhaarat mein hota hai, aise mein yahaaain heera udyog ke falane-foolane ki apaar sanbhaavanaaeain maujood hain.[4]

sandarbh

baahari kadiyaaain