hatti

1290 isa poorv mein apne shakti ke uchchatam bindu ke samay hiti saamraajya (laal rang mein)

hatti ya hitti praacheen khattiyon (hittaait) ki jaati aur bhaasha hai. bhaasha ke roop mein khatti hind-Europeeya parivaar ki hai parantu usaki lipi praacheen sumeri-baabuli-asoori hai aur usaka saahitya akkaadi (asoori-baabuli) athva usase bhi poorvavarti sumeri se prabhaavit hai.

parichay

Turkey (Asiaee) saamraajya ke ek bade bhaag ke svaami khatti the, jinka apna saamraajya tha. vah saamraajya madhyapoorv ke saamraajyon mein (E. poo. 17veen-12veen sadiyon mein) teesara sthaan rakhata tha. usase bade saamraajya apne apne raajya mein keval misriyon aur asooreebaabuliyon ke hi rahe the. khattiyon ka loha, unke utkarshakaal mein, baabuliyon aur misriyon donon mein maana. filisteen, laghueshiya, Syria aur dajala faraat ke dvaabe par deerghakaal tak unka dabadaba bana raha. unka pehla saamraajyakaal 17veen se 15veen sadi E. poo. tak raha aur doosra 14veen se 12veen sadi E. poo. tak. misri fraaoon raamasej se unka deerghakaal tak yuddh hota raha tha aur ant mein donon mein sandhi hui. unke bheje shishtamandal ka svaagat karte samay raamasej ne toras parvat ke paar himpaat ke parivesh mein basanevaale khattiyon par bada aashcharya prakat kiya tha.

jarman puraavid hya go vinklar ne praacheen khatti rajdhani bogaajkoi (praacheen ka aadhunik pratinidhi) se khodakar bees hajaar intein aur pattikaaeain nikaal Dean. inapar keelaaksharon mein praacheenatar anyon ka aur swayam khattiyon ka saahitya khuda tha. Bhaarat ke liye in inton ka bada mahatva tha kyonki vaheen mili 14veen sadi E. poo. ki ek pattika par rigved ke Indra, varun, mitr, naasatyon ke naam paadapaath mein khude mile the. yeh pattika khatti mitnni do raashtron ke yuddhaantar ka sandhiptr thi jispar puneet saakshya ke liye in devataaon ke naam diye gaye the. is abhilekh mein aaryon ke sankraman gyaan par prabhoot prakaash pada hai.

E. poo. ki truteeya sahasraabdi mein kabhi khattiyon ka laghueshiya ke poorvi bhaag mein pravesh hua aur unhonne sthaaneeya anaarya sanskruti ki anek baatein seekhakar apna leen. khattiyon ka is prakaar anek bhaashaaon aur saahityon se sampark tha aur unhonne unase apna jnyaaanabhandaar bhara. bogajkoi se mili ek pattika par baraabar kaalam banaakar unamein sumeri, akkaadi, khatti aadi bhaashaaon ke shabdaparyaaya diye hue hain. sansaar ke praacheenatam bahubhaashi shabdakoshon mein iski bhi ganana hai. anek baar to baabuli aadi saahityon ke lipipaath khatteesamaanaantar anoodit saahitya se shuddh kiye gaye hain. prasiddh sumereebaabuli kaavya gilgameshe ke anek ansh, jo mool pattikaaon ke toot jaane se nasht ho gaye the, khatti pattikaaon ke Milan se hi poore kiye gaye hain.

khatti aitihaasik saahitya ka adhikaansh raajavrutton se bhara hai. lekhak vruttagadya ki saahityik shaili mein vrutt likhte the aur unke neeche apna hastaakshar kar dete the. in vrutton mein anek prakaar ka aitihya hai - asuri-baabuli-misri raajaaon aur samraaton ke saath sulahanaame aur ahadanaame, raajaghoshanaaeain aur raajakeeya daanapatr, nagaron ke paarasparik vivaadon mein madhyasthata aur sulah, vidrohi saamanton ke viruddh saamraajya ke aparaadh parignan, sabhi kuchh in khatti abhilekhon mein bhara pada hai. inmein vishesh mahatva ke ve aganit patra hain jo khatti samraaton ne anya samakaaleen nareshon ko likhe the ya unase paae the. in patron ko saadhaaranat: amarana ke teele (tel-L-emarana) ke patra kehte hain. praacheen kaal ki yeh patranidhi sarvatha adviteeya aur anupam hai. in patron mein ek bade mahatva ka hai. use khattiyon ke raaja shuppiluliumaash ke paas misr ki raani ne bheja tha. usamein raani ne likha tha ki khatti naresh krupaya apne ek putr ko usaka putr banane ke liye bhej dein. kuchh kaal baad is nimitt raaja ka ek putr misr bheja gaya. parantu misriyon ne use sheegra pakadkar maar daala.

bogajakoi ke us bhaandaar se ek bada mahatvapoorn khatti aur misr ke beech antararaashtreeya sandhiptr upalabdh hua. jab khatti naresh muttaalish ki senaaon ne misri vijeta raamasej dviteeya ki senaaon ko 1288 E. poo. mein ek desh ke yuddh mein buri tarah paraajit kar diya tab muttaalish ke uttaraadhikaari khattushilish truteeya aur misraraaj ke beech sandhi hui. usamein tay paaya ki misr aur khatti saamraajya ke beech baraabar maitri aur paarasparik shaanti bani rahegi. E. poo. 1272 mein ya ahadanaama likh daala gaya. ahadanaama chaaaindi ki pattika par khuda hai aur usamein 18 pairaagraaf hain. khodakar vah raamasej ke paas bheja gaya tha. usaki mukhya shartein is prakaar theen - donon mein se koi doosare par aakraman na karega, donon paksh donon saamraajyon ke beech ki pehli sandhiyon ka fir se samarthan karte hain, donon shatru ke aakraman ke samay ek doosare ki sahaayata kareinge, vidrohi praja ke viruddh donon ka sahayog hoga aur raajaneetik bhagodon ka donon parivartan kar leinge. yeh sandhi itni mahatvapoorn samajhi gayi ki misron aur khatti raaniyon ne bhi sandhi ki khushi mein ek doosare ko badhaai ke patra bheje. pashchaat khatti naresh ki kanya misr bheji gayi jo raamasej dviteeya ki raani bani.

bogajakoi ki pattikaaon par praaya: 200 pairon ke khatti kaanoon ki dhaaraaeain khudi hain. saadhaaranat: khattiyon ki dandaneeti asoori, baabuli, yahoodi dandaneeti se kaheen mrudul thi. praanadand athva naak kaan kaatne ki saja shaayad hi kabhi di jaati thi. kuchh yaunaaparaadh sambandhi dand to itne naganya the ki khattiyon ki aachaarachetana par vidvaanon ko sandeh hone lagta hai. us vidhaan ka ek bada ansh raashtra ke aarthik jeevan se sambandh rakhata hai. usase pragat hai ki vastuon ke moolya, naap taul ke paimaane, batakhare aadi nishchit kar liye gaye the. krushi aur pashupaalan sambandhi pradhaan samasyaaon ka usamein aashcharyajanak mrudu hal khoja gaya hai. usamein kaanoon aur nyaaya ke prati prakatit aadar vastut: atyant saraahaneeya hai. anek abhilekhon mein mahaardh dhaatuon ke prayog, yuddhabandiyon ke prabandh, chikitsak, shaalihotr aadi par khatti mein prachur saahitya upalabdh hai. madhyapoorv mein sambhavat: pehle pahal ashv ka prayog shuru hua. us disha mein ashvavijnyaaan par pehla saahitya shaayad khattiyon ke aarya padosi mitnniyon ne prastut kiya. unase khattiyon ne seekha fir padosiyon tatha uttaravarti sabhyataaon ko ve use sikha gaye.

khattiyon ke saahityabhandaar mein sabse adhik bhaag dharm ka mila hai. khattiyon ke devataaon ki sankhya vipul thi aur praaya: chhah anyaadhaaron se ve liye gaye the. oopar sandhiptron par devasaakshya ka ullekh kiya ja chuka hai. inheen sandhiptron par devataaon ke naam khude hain jo sumera, baabuli, hurri, kassi, khatti aur bhaarateeya hain. in devataaon ke atirikt khatti aakaash, pruthvi, parvaton, nadiyon, koopon, vaayu aur meghon ki bhi aaraadhana karte the, jaisa unke is dhaarmik saahitya ke sandarbhon se pramaanit hai.

pauraanik aanuvruttik saahitya mein praadhaanya unka hai jo sumeri baabuli se le liye gaye hain. khattiyon mein baabuli aadhaar se anoodit "gilgamesh" mahaakaavya bada lokapriya hua us kaavya ke anek khand akkaadi, khatti aur hurri mein likhe bogajakoi ke us bhandaar mein mile the. hurri mein likhe "gilgamesh ke geet" to pandrah se adhik pattikaaon par praapt hue the. khattiyon se hi greekon ne gilgamesh ka puraan paaya. khattiyon ke us dhaarmik saahitya mein akkaadi saahitya ki hi bhaaainti sootr aur gaayan the. mandiron aadi mein honevaali yajnyaaadi kriyaaon ko nar aur naari donon hi prakaar ke purohit sampann karte the. donon ke naam anushthaanon mein likhe jaate the. anushthaan mantradosh, praayashchitt aadi ke sambandh ke the. apni sanskruti ke nirmaan mein jitna yog anya sanskrutiyon se sarvatha udaar bhaav se khattiyon ne liya utana sambhavat: kisi aur jaati ne naheen. koshanirmaan ka ek prayatn unhonne hi anek bhaashaaon ke paryaapt ek saath samaanaant stambhon mein likhkar kiya. vividh bhaashaaon ke samaanaantar paryaayon se hi bhaashaavijnyaaan ki neenv ki pahaleen int rakhi ja saki. vah int khattiyon ne prastut ki. khattiyon ke antakaal mein aarya greekon (ekiyaai doriyaai) ke aakraman grees par hue aur laghueshiya par bhi unka dabadaba dheere dheere badha jab unhonne traaya ka prasiddh aitihaasik nagar nasht kar diya.

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