hathayog

hathayog chittavruttiyon ke pravaah ko sansaar ki or jaane se rokakar antarmukhi karne ki ek praacheen bhaarateeya saadhana paddhati hai, jismein prasupt kundalini ko jaagrat kar naadi maarg se oopar uthaane ka prayaas kiya jaata hai aur vibhinn chakron mein sthir karte hue use sheershasth sahastraar chakr tak le jaaya jaata hai. hathayog pradeepika iska pramukh granth hai.

hathayog, yog ke kai prakaaron mein se ek hai. yog ke anya prakaar ye hain- mantrayog, layayog, raajayog. hathayog ke aavirbhaav ke baad praacheen 'ashtaang yog' ko 'raajayog' ki sanjnyaa de di gayi.

hathayog saadhana ki mukhya dhaara shaiv rahi hai. yeh siddhon aur baad mein naathon dvaara apnaaya gaya. matsyendr naath tatha gorakh naath uske pramukh aachaarya maane gaye hain. gorakhanaath ke anuyaayi pramukh roop se hathayog ki saadhana karte the. unhein naath yogi bhi kaha jaata hai. shaiv dhaara ke atirikt bauddhon ne bhi hathayog ki paddhati apanaayi thi.

anukram

parichay

hathayog ke baare mein logon ki dhaarana hai ki hath shabd ke hath + ach pratyaya ke saath 'prachandata' ya 'bal' arth mein prayukt hota hai. hathen ya hathaat kriya-visheshan ke roop mein prayukt karne par iska arth balapoorvak ya prachandata poorvak, achaanak ya duraagrahapoorvak arth mein liya jaata hai. 'hath vidya' streeling arth mein 'balapoorvak manan karne' ke vigyaan ke arth mein grahan kiya jaata hai. is prakaar saamaanyat: log hathayog ko ek aise yog ke roop mein jaante hain jismein hath poorvak kuchh shaareerik evam maanasik kriyaaen ki jaateen hain. isi kaaran saamaanya shareer shodhan ki prakriyaaon se hatkar ki jaane waali shareer shodhan ki shat kriyaaon (neti, dhauti, kunjal vasti, nauli, traatak, kapaalabhaati) ko hathayog maan liya jaata hai. jabki aisa naheen hai. shatakarm to keval shareer shodhan ke saadhan hai vaastav mein hathayog to shareer evam man ke santulan dvaara raajayog praapt karne ka poorv sopaan ke roop mein vistrut yog vigyaan ki chaar shaakhaaon mein se ek shaakha hai.

saadhana ke kshetr mein hathayog shabd ka yeh arth beej varn h aur th ko milaakar banaaya hua shabd ke arth mein prayukt kiya jaata hai. jismein h ya han tatha th ya than (jnya) ke aneko arth kiye jaate hain. udaaharaanaarth h se pingala naadi dahini naasika (soorya svar) tatha th se ida naadi baunyi naasika (chandrasvar). ida rinaatmak (-) urja shakti evam piganla dhanaatmak (+) urja shakti ka santulan evam ityaadi ityaadi. in donon naasikaaon ke yog ya samaanata se chalne vaale svar ya madhyasvar ya sushumna naadi mein chal rahe praan ke arth mein liya jaata hai. is prakaar h aur th ka yog praanon ke aayaam se arth rakhata hai. is prakaar ki praanaayaam prakriya hi h aur th ka yog arthaat hathayog hai, jo ki sampoorn shareer ki jadta ko saprayaas door karta hai praan ki adhikta naadi chakron ko sabal evam chaitanya yukt banaati hai or vyakti vibhinn shaareerik, bauddhik evam aatmik shaktiyon ka vikaas karta hai.

sthool roop se hath yog athva praanaayaam kriya teen bhaagon mein poori ki jaati hai -

  • (1) rechak - arthaat shvaas ko saprayaas baahar chhodna.
  • (2) poorak - arthaat shvaas ko saprayaas andar kheenchna.
  • (3) kumbhak - arthaat shvaas ko saprayaas roke rakhana. kumbhak do prakaar se sambhav hai -
  • (k) barhi:kumbhak - arthaat shvaas ko baahar nikaalkar baahar hi roke rakhana.
  • (kh) ant:kumbhak - arthaat shvaas ko andar kheenchakar shvaas ko andar hi roke rakhana.

is prakaar saprayaas praanon ko apne niyantran se gati dena hathayog hai. yeh hathayog raajayog ki siddhi ke liye aadhaarabhoomi banaata hai. bina hathayog ki saadhana ke raajayog (samaadhi) ki praapti bada kathin kaarya hai. at: hathayog ki saadhana siddh hone par raajayog ki or aage badhne mein sahajata hoti hai.

hathayog ka siddhaant

upanishd chaar prakaar ke yogon ka varnan, chaar prakaar ke saadhana-sampradaayon ke anuroop karte hai, ye hai-

(1) raajayog, (2) layayog, (3) hathayog, evam (4) mantra yog.

maharshi patanjali ka yog darshan raajayog ke arntagat aata hai. is mat mein chitt vrutti ke nirodh ko hi yog maana gaya hai. upaasana-maarg bhi raajayog ka hi roopaantar hai, jise ishvar praanidhaan sootr mein 'ishvar pranidhaan' pad se bataaya gaya hai. vartamaan samay mein prachalit shaakt, shaiv, vaishnav aadi sampradaaya ishvar pranidhaan naam ke yog se gruheet hote hain. isi paatanjal yog sootr ke bhaashyakarta shri vedavyaas ji ne ise nimnalikhit prakaar se spasht karne ki koshish ki hai-

pranidhaanaad bhakti visheshaad aavarjit ishvarastamanu grunhaati, abhidhyaan maatren tad abhidhyaanaadapi yogin aasan samaadhi laabh: falanch bhavati. (yo.soo. 2/23)

bhoj ne bhojavrutti mein iski vyaakhya nimnalikhit prakaar se ki hai-

pranidhaanan bhakti vishesh: vishisht mupaasanam

arthaat kaleshaadi (avidya, asmita, raag dvaish, abhinivesh) se rahit ishvar tatv ko anek naamon se shaastron mein kaha gaya hain isliye usako koi ek sanjnyaa naheen di ja sakti. isliye vyaas bhaashya mein kaha gaya hai:-

tasya sanjnyaaadi visheshattati pattiraagamat: paryanveshya (yo.soo. vya.bha. 2/25)

isliye Shiv, vishnu, mahaashakti aadi naam tatha inke naamon se puraanaadi grathon ki rachana karke tattadbhaavana bhaavati-bhaktti yog ki pravrutti maharshi vyaas dvaara ki gayi hain. jeev ishvar ka hi ansh hai tatha ansh mein kaleshaadi ke rahane par yog ki sthiti naheen ban sakti hai. is hetu kleshaadi ko hataana aavashyak ho jaata hai. karmo ke anuroop vyakti shareer grahan kar bhaavana bhaashit hota hai. ye bhaavanaaeain saatvik, raajasik evam taamasik prakaar ki hoti hai. in alag-alag svaroopon ki bhaavanaaon ke saamanjasya hetu yogon ke prakaar bhi pruthak-pruthak ho jaate hain.

maanasik bhaavana hi kriyaaon ke karm, akarm tatha vikrm banaane mein mool hetu hai. karm ka svaroop ek dikhaai dene par bhi maanasik bhaavana mein antar hone ke kaaran unke svaroop tatha parinaamon mein bhi antar aa jaata hai. maitraayashyupanishd (4/11) mein is tathya ko nimnaankit prakaar se kaha gaya hai -

man ev manushyaanaan kaaranan bandhamokshayo:.
bandhaaya vishyaasaktan muktyai rnivishyan smrutam.

arthaat manushya ka man hi bandhan evam moksh dono ka hi kaaran banta hai. vishyon mein aasakt hone se bandhan ho jaata hai tatha vishyon mein aasakt na hone par moksh ho jaata hai. shreemadbhaagavat geeta mein bhi paanchave adhyaaya ke gyaarahavein tatha athaarahavein adhyaaya ke pandrahavein sootr mein ukt tathya ko nimnalikhit prakaar se spasht kiya gaya hai-

kaayen manasa buddhaya kevalairindriyairapi.
yogin: karm kurvanti sagan tyaktvaatmashuddhaye.

arthaat karmayogi (mamatvabuddhi rahit) keval indriya, man, buddhi aur shareer dvaara bhi aasakti ko tyaagakar ant:karan ki shuddhi ke liye karm karte hain.

shareeravaaङa‌aamanobhiryatkarm praarabhate nar:.
nyaayyan va vipreetan va panyachaite tasya hetav:.

manushya man, vaani aur shareer se shaastraanukool athva vipreet jo kuchh bhi karm karta hai unke ye paanchon kaaran (adhishthaan, kartta, karan, vividh cheshtaaeain evam daiv) hain. is prakaar karmo ka utpann karna evam sanchaalak man ke niyantran ki saadhana praan hai aur praanon ko niyantrit kar man par niyantran praapt karke ka jo kaushal hai vah hathayog hai. hathayog ''shaareerik aur maanasik shuddhi tatha santulan praapt karne ka saadhan hai''. yog vigyaan se sandarbhit aagam, nigam, upanishdon evam anya granthon ke anusaar hath shabd do mantron han aur than ke sanyog se bana hai. iska aashay manushya shareer mein sthit praanavaahi naadiyaun ida evam pingala ke sambandh se liya jaata hai. ida evam pingala ke pravaah mein man barhigti wala hi rahata hai. at: man ko ant:mukhi (svaaniytran) karne hetu praan ko sam arthaat na to ida aur na hi pingala mein pravaahit hone dena hai, balki in donon ke madhya sthit naadi jise sushumna kehte hain praanon ka pravaah hone par man shaant evam svaaniyantran mein ho jaata hai.

uparoktt sandarbh mein hathayog ka taatparya aise yog se hai jiske dvaara in do shaktiyon (ida + pingala) ke beech santulan ki sthaapana ho sake. ida naadi hamaare shareer ki ek pramukh praanik vaahika hai. yeh praan ke nishkriya pahaloo ka prateek hai jo man:shakti ya chittashakti ke roop mein abhivyakt aur anubhoot hoti hai. pingala ka sambandh aur shakti, tejasvi shakti ya sakriyta se hai jo shaareerik aayaam mein praanashakti ke roop mein abhivyakt aur anubhoot hoti hai. is prakaar hathayog ka sambandh shareer ke praanik pravaah se hai. praanon ko niyantran ki saadhana paddhati se hai. is kaaran hathayog ko vedon mein 'praanayog' bhi kaha gaya hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain