hakhaamani saamraajya

ajameedh saamraajya apne charam par - isaapoorv san 500 ke aaspaas


hakhaamani vansh ya ajameedh saamraajya(angreji tatha greek mein ekemenid, ajameedh saamraajya (isaapoorv 550 - isaapoorv 330) praacheen Iran (faaras) ka ek shaasak vansh tha. yeh praacheen Iran ke gyaat itihaas ka pehla shaasak vansh tha jisne aaj ke lagbhag sampoorn Iran par apni prabhusatta haasil ki thi aur iske alaava apne charamakaal mein to yeh pashmim mein yoonaan se lekar poorv mein sindhu nadi tak aur uttar mein kaispiyn saagar se lekar dakshin mein arab saagar tak fail gaya tha. itna bada saamraajya iske baad bas saasaani shaasak hi sthaapit kar paae the. is vansh ka patan sikndar ke aakraman se san 330 isaapoorv mein hua tha, jiske baad iske pradeshon par yoonaani (meseedon) prabhutv sthaapit ho gaya tha.

pashchim mein is saamraajya ko misr evam bebeelon par adhikaar, yoonaan ke saath yuddh tatha yahoodiyon ke mandir nirmaan mein sahayog ke liye yaad kiya jaata hai. kurosh tatha daarush ko itihaas mein mahaan ki sanjnyaa se bhi sambodhit kiya jaata hai. is vansh ko aadhunik faarasi bhaasha bolne vaale iraaniyon ki sanskruti ka aadhaar kaha jaata hai. islaam ke poorv praacheen Iran ke is saamraajya ko Irani apne gauravashaali ateet ki tarah dekhte hain, jo arabon dvaara Iran par shaasan aur prabhaav sthaapit karne se poorv tha. aaj bhi Irani apne naam is kaal ke shaasakon ke naam par rakhate hain jo muslim naam naheen maane jaate hain. jradosht ke prabhaav se paarasi dharm ke shaahi roop ka prateek bhi isi vansh ko maana jaata hai. teesari sadi mein sthaapit saasaani vansh ke shaasakon ne apna mool hakhaamani vansh ko hi bataaya tha.


anukram

mool

shreemadbhaagvat evam vishnu puraan ke anusaar brahma ji ki vanshaavali ke raaja ajameedh ki peedhi mein kuru raaja ke naam se sampoorn kurukshetr jaana jaata hai. kuru ek atyant prataapi raaja hue hain jo mahaabhaarat mein kauravon ke pitaamah the, unhi ke naam se kuru praacheen Bhaarat ke 16 mahaajanapadon mein se ek tha. iska kshetr aadhunik Haryana (kurukshetr) ke ird-gird tha. iski rajdhani sanbhavat: hastinaapur ya indraprasth thi. kuru ke raajya ka vistaar kahaaain tak raha hoga ye bhaaratiyon ke liye khoj ka vishay hai kintu vishv itihaas mein kuru praacheen vishv ke sarvaadhik vishaal saamraajya ko nae aayaam dene wala chakravarti raaja tha jisne Iran mein med saamraajya ko apne hi naana astyaagas se hastaantarit karte hue saamraajya ka naya naam ajameedh Achaemenid_empire saamraajya rakha tha. is saamraajya ki seemaayein Bhaarat se mishr, Libya aur greek tak faili hui thi. [1]

hakhaamani yaani hakhaamanash vansh ke shaasak saataveen sadi se anshaan naamak ek chhote se raajya ke shaasak the jo aadhunik dakshin-pashchimi Iran ke paars praant mein keindrit tha. jis samay hakhaamani ya ajameedh shaasakon ne satta samhaali (isaapoorv 648 mein), us samay meedi log Iran mein sabse jyaada shaktishaali the. anshaan yaani paars yaani faaras ke raajya (jo meediya ke dakshin mein the) uske sahayogi the. ye log aseeriya ke khilaaf yuddh karte the. isaapoorv san 559 mein jab kuru (faarasi mein kurosh, Cyrus) vanshaanugat roop se anshaan ka raaja bana to usane meed prabhutv sveekaar karne se mana kar diya aur meed saamraajya ke khilaaf vidroh kar diya. usane isaapoorv 549 mein med raaja astyaagas ki rajdhani hamaadaan (ekbataana) par adhikaar kar liya. usane apne ko paaras ka shaah ghoshit kar diya aur meed saamraajya ko apna sahayogi raajya bana diya. isse meediya aur faaras ke rishte poori tarah badal gaye aur faaras uske baad aane waali sadiyon ke liye Irani prabhusatta ka kendra ban gaya. kaha jaata hai ki kurosh media ke raaja astyaagas ka rishte mein naati lagta tha. hakhaamani vansh mein raajaaon ke beech pita-putr jaise rishte ka hamesha na mil paana itihaasakaaron mein matabhed paida karta hai (neeche daarush yaani daara ke baare mein bhi padhe.)

Cyrus (kurosh) ka saamraajya vistaar

is sattaapalat ke baad, iske vipreet jo ki us samay ke baaki pashchimi Iran ke raajaaon ke saath hota tha - kuru ne baaki chhote saamraajyon ki adheenata ya baaraabari bhi sveekaar naheen ki aur saamraajya vistaar mein jut gaya. usane pashchim ki disha mein Lydia par adhikaar kar liya. vahaaain par usane apne khajaane ke liye prasiddh kroesas ka dhan bhi loota. iske alaava Asia maainar ke ilaakon par aur bebeeloniya par bhi usane adhikaar kar liya. kurosh ne yahoodiyon ko dhaarmik svatantrata di. lekin kuru ki mrutyu uske jeevan itni garimaamayi naheen rahi. jab jeevan ke uttaraardh mein vo pashchinm se lautakar kaispiyn saagar ke poorv ki taraf vijay abhiyaan ke liye nikla to vahaaain mesaagete ki raani ne use yuddh mein hara diya aur maar diya gaya. lekin us samay tak kurosh ne ek vishaal saamraajya khada kar diya tha. madhyapoorv mein aur Turkey ke tat par yoonaani shaharon se lekar kaispiyn saagar tak ka vishaal saamraajya us samay tak vishv mein shaayad hi kisi ne khada kiya ho. vah vishv ka pehla samraat raha hoga jise mahaan ki upaadhi di gayi hogi - kurosh mahaan.

kurosh ke baad usaka putr kambojiya (kaimbaisis) shaah bana. usane misr mein apni vijay pataaka laharaayi aur vo apni kroorata ke liye vikhyaat tha. usaki mrutyu apratyaashit roop se hui. kaha jaata hai ki faarasi kshetr ke kendra mein kisi vidroh ki khabar ko sunakar usane aatm hatya kar li. pashchimi Iran me bisitun ke paas mile ek shilaalekh mein likha gaya hai ki gaumaata naam ke ek maagi ne vidroh kiya tha. usane apne ko kambojiya ka chhota bhaai bataakar faarasi janta par pade karon ke khilaaf logon ko bhadkaaya tha. ye baat sahi thi ki kurosh aur kambojiya ke samay Irani janta ne atyadhik ladaaiya ladi theen aur iska kharch janta par lagaae karon se aata tha. par iske kuchh hi dinon baat daara (ya daarayush, greek mein dairiys) ne gaumaata ko maar diya aur shaah ban baitha. usi ne baad mein bisitun mein un dinon ke ghatnaakram ka shilaalekh khudavaaya tha.

daara

daara ajameedh saamraajya shaasak vansh se kisi door ke rishte se juda hua tha. gaddi samhaalate hi daara ne apna saamraajya pashchim ki or vistrut karna aarambh kiya. par 490 isaapoorv mein marathon ke yuddh yavanon se mili paraajaya ke baad use vaapas Asia mainar tak simat kar rah jaana pada. daara ke shaasanakaal mein hi parsepolis (takht-A-Jamshed ke naam se bhi gyaat) ka nirmaan karavaaya (518-516 isaapoorv). ekbataana (hamaadaan) ko bhi grushm rajdhani ke roop mein viksit kiya gaya.


yoonaan se yuddh

uske baad uske putr khashaayarsh (kjerekses) ne yoonaan par vijay abhiyaan chalaaya. lagbhag bees lakh ki sena lekar usane yavan pradeshon par dhaava bol diya. usane uttar ki disha se hamla bola aur meseedoniya tatha thesele mein koi khaas sainya virodh naheen hua. vo aage badhta gaya par tharmopaile ke yuddh mein use ek chhoti si sena ne teen dinon tak rok diya. iske baad use kuchh jagahon par yavanon se maat bhi mili. maikaale ke yuddh mein haarne ke baad faarasi sena vaapas aa gayi.

iske baad bhi meseedon par faarasi prabhaav raha. uske kreeb sau saal baad, meseedoniya (makadooniya) ka raaja fileep vahaaain ke chhote chhote saamraajyon ko sangathit karne mein safal hua. par usaki hatya kar di gayi. us samay usaka beta sikndar kaachhi chhota tha. par sikndar ne vishv vijay ka sapana dekha tha. vo sabse pehle yoonaan par faarasi daman ka badla lena chaahata tha. isi mansha se usane anaatoliya (Turkey) ke tateeya pradeshon par aakraman aarambh kiya.

saamraajya ka patan

sikndar ki sena ko jeet milti gayi. ab sikndar seedhe Turkey mein pravisht hua. isaapoorv san 330 mein usane daara truteeya ko ek yuddh mein hara diya. par daara ka saamraajya us samay tak bahut bada ban chuka tha aur ek haar se sikndar ki jeet sunushchit naheen ki ja sakti. par sikndar ne daara ko teen alag alag yuddhon mein haraaya. daara ranabhoomi chhodkar bhaag gaya aur yavanon ne faarasi sena par niyantran kar liya. iske baad sikndar ne daara ko pakadne ki koshish ki par iska use seedha faayda naheen mila. kuchh dinon baad daara ka shav sikndar ko mila. daara ko uske hi aadamiyon ne maar diya tha. iske saath hi hakhaamani saamraajya ka patan ho gaya. sikndar ka saamraajya poore faarasi saamraajya ko nigl chuka tha.

mahima

ajameedh saamraajya, us samay tak ke vishv ka shaayad sabse bada saamraajya tha. iski mahaanata ka gunagaan yoonaani granthon mein bhi milta hai. san 1971 mein Iran ke shaah ne ajameedh saamraajya sthaapik hone ke 2500 varsh poore hone ke liye ek vishesh aayojan kiya tha. yeh parsepolis (takht-A-jamashaid) tatha pasaragaade ke aitihaasik sthal par aayojit kiya gaya tha jismein kai raashtraadhyakshon ko aamantrit kiya gaya tha aur karondon roopayon ka kharch aaya tha. us samay Iran ke kuchh hisson mein akaal pada tha aur Irani janta us samay itne paise dikhaavat par kharch karne ke virooddh ho gayi thi. yeh prakaran bhi Iran ki islaamik kraanti (1979) ke sabse pramukh kaaranon mein se ek tha.[1]

shaasakon ki soochi

  • kurosh pratham
  • kambojiya pratham
  • kurosh dviteeya ya kurosh mahaan (isaapoorv 550-530)
  • kambojiya dviteeya (isaapoorv 529-522)
  • baradeeya
  • daara pratham (isaapoorv 521-486)
  • kjeraksej pratham
  • aartakjereksej pratham
  • daara dviteeya
  • kjereksej dviteeya
  • aartakjereksej dviteeya
  • aartakjereksej truteeya
  • aartakjereksej chaturth
  • daara truteeya

sandarbh

  1. Axworthy, Michael. A History of Iran. New York: Basic Books. pp. 251. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 978-0-465-00888-9.