hakeem abul kaasim firdausi tusi

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hakeem abul-kaasim firdausi tusi
حaaکaaیaaم اaaبaaوaaاaaلaaقaaاaaسaaم فaaرaaدaaوaaسaaی تaaوaaسaaی

rom Italy mein sthaapit firdausi ki pratima
janm 940
toos, Iran
mrutyu 1020 (80 varsh)
toos, Iran
upajeevika kavi
jaateeyata faarasi
shailiyaaain faarasi kaavya, raashtreeya mahaakaavya

hakeem abul kaasim firdausi tusi (faarasi-حaaکaaیaaم اaaبaaوaaاaaلaaقaaاaaسaaم فaaرaaدaaوaaسaaی تaaوaaسaaی) faarasi kavi the. unhone shaahanaama ki rachana ki jo baad mein faaras (Iran) ki raashtreeya mahaakaavya ban gayi. ismein unhone saataveen sadi mein faaras par arabi fatah ke pehle ke Iran ke baare mein likha hai.

jeevan parichay

firdausi ka janm 920 E. mein khuraasaan ke toos naamak kasbe mein hua. asadi naamak kavi ne use shiksha di aur kavita ki or prerit kiya. usane Iran ke pauraanik raajaaon ke sambandh mein use ek granth diya jiske aadhaar par firdausi ne shaahanaame ki rachana ki. ismein 60,000 sher hain. vah 35 varsh tak is mahaan kaarya mein vyast raha aur 25 fravari 1010 E. ko ise poora kiya. is samay vah 85 varsh ka ho chuka tha. usane yeh kaavya sultaan Mehmood gjnavi ko samarpit kiya jisne 999 E. mein khuraasaan vijay kar liya tha. use keval 20 hajaar dirham pradaan kiye gaye. firdausi ke tan badan mein aag lag gayi. vah apne desh se hiraat ki or bhaaga kintu bhaagane se poorv ek kavita shaahanaame mein jod gaya, jismein sultaan Mehmood ki ghor ninda ki gayi hai.

shaahanaame mein firdausi ne Iran ke pauraanik baadashaahon ki, jinke kaaranaamon se vah atyadhik prabhaavit tha, badi ki prashansa ki hai. usaki kavita se praacheen Iran ke prati usaka prem evam arabon ke prati ghruna ka poora aabhaas milta hai. sabhavat: kattar musalmaanon ko santusht karne ke liye usane baad mein yusuf julaikha naamak masanavi likhi jise bavahid shaasak bahaauddaula tatha uske putr sultaanuddaula ko samarpit kiya. taduparaant vah apni maatrubhoomi toos laut aaya aur vaheen usaki mrutyu hui (1020-21 E.). usaki kbr Iran ke darshaneeya sthaanon mein hai. kaha jaata hai, jab usaka janaaja paas ke ek gaaainv ke faatak se nikal raha tha, ek kaaravaaain sultaan Mehmood ke bheje hue 60,000 deenaar lekar pahuaincha jinki kavi ko aasha thi. firdausi ki putri ne samast dhan, daan punya mein laga diya. shaahanaama ki badi hi sundar sachitr hastalipiyaaain sansaar ke bade bade sangrahaalayon mein surakshit hain. 1811 E. mein kalakatte mein 1878 E. mein peris se aur 1877-1885 E. ke beech laaiden se iske sanskaran prakaashit hue. taduparaant Bhaarat aur Iran se anek sanskaran prakaashit hue. sansaar ki anek bhaashaaon mein iske anuvaad chhap chuke hain.

kaha jaata hai ki Mehmood gajnavi ne firdausi ko yeh vachan diya tha ki vah 'shaahanaama' ke har shabd ke liye ek deenaar dega. varshon ki mehnat ke baad jab 'shaahanaama' taiyaar ho gaya aur firdausi use lekar Mehmood gajnabi ke darbaar mein gaya to samraat ne use pratyek shabd ke liye ek deenaar naheen balki ek dirham ka bhugataan kara diya. kaha jaata hai is par naaraaj hokar firdausi laut gaya aur usane ek dirham bhi naheen liya. yeh vaayada khilaafi kuchh aisi thi jaise kisi kavi ke prati shabd ek rupaye dene ka vachan dekar prati shabd ek paisa diya jaaye. firdausi ne gusse mein aakar Mehmood gajnabi ke khilaaf kuchh panktiyaan likhi. ve panktiyaan itni prabhaavashaali thi ki poore saamraajya mein fail gayeen. kuchh saal baad Mehmood gajnavi se uske vishvaasapaatr mantriyon ne nivedan kiya ki firdausi ko usi dar par bhugataan kar diya jaaye jo tay ki gayi thi. samraat ke kaaran poochhane par pradhaanamantri ne kaha ki ham log saamraajya ke jis kone mein jaate hain hamein ve panktiyaan sunane ko milti hain jo firdausi ne aapke viruddh likhi hain aur hamaara sirf sharm se jhuk jaata hai. use nirdhaarit dar par paisa de diya jaayega to hamein bada naitik bal milega.' samraat ne aadesh de diya. deenaaron se bhari gaadi jab firdausi ke ghar pahunchi to ghar ke andar se firdausi ka janaaja nikal raha tha. poori umr gareebi, tangi aur muflisi mein kaatne ke baad firdausi mar chuka tha. kehte hain ki firdausi ki ekamaatr santaan usaki ladki ne bhi yeh dhaan lene se inkaar kar diya tha. is tarah samraat kavi ka karjadaar raha aur aaj bhi hai. shaayad yahi vajah hai ki aaj firdausi ka shaahanaama jitna prasiddh hai utani hi ya usase jyaada prasiddh ve panktiyaan hai jo firdausi ne Mehmood gajnabi ki aalochna karte hue likhi theen.


firdausi ka 'shaahanaama' daraasal Iran ka itihaas hi naheen Irani asmita ki pehchaan hai. usamein praacheen Iran ki upalabdhiyon ka bakhaan hai. samraaton ka itihaas hai. praacheen faarasi granthon ko naya roop dekar unako shaamil kiya gaya hai. mithk aur itihaas ke sammishran se ek adbhut prabhaav utpann hua hai. prem, vidroh, veerata, dushtata, maanaveeyata, yuddh, saahas ke aise utkrusht udaaharan hain jinhonne 'shaahanaama' ko Irani saahitya ki amar kruti bana diya hai. Irani saahitya mein 'shaahanaama' jitni tarah se jitni baar chhapa hai utana aur koi pustak naheen chhapi hai. firdausi ne rustam aur soharaab jaise paatr nirmit kiye hain jo maanav-smruti ka hissa ban chuke hain.

jaisa ki iraaniyon ne apne bade kaviyon ke saath kiya hai, firdausi ke makbare ke chaaron or sundar baag hai. idhar-udhar unki pratimaaen lagi hain. sangamaramar par unki kavita ke vishesh prasangon ko ukera gaya hai.[1]

sandarbh

  1. [1] | accessdate=12 July, 2008

baahari kadiyaaain