hainrikh himmlar


Heinrich Himmler
हैन्रिख़ हिम्म्लर

Reichsfüahrer-SS
kaaryakaal
6 January 1929 – 29 April 1945
neta Adolf Hitler
poorv adhikaari Erhard Heiden
uttaraadhikaari Karl Hanke

Director of the Reich Main Security Office (acting)
kaaryakaal
4 June 1942 – 30 January 1943
poorv adhikaari Reinhard Heydrich
uttaraadhikaari Ernst Kaltenbrunner

Reich Minister of the Interior
kaaryakaal
24 August 1943 – 29 April 1945
kulapati Adolf Hitler
poorv adhikaari Wilhelm Frick
uttaraadhikaari Wilhelm Stuckart

janm 7 October 1900
Munich, Bavaria, Germany
mrutyu 23 May 1945(1945-05-23) (umr 44)
Lüaneburg, Lower Saxony, Germany
raajanaitik party National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP)
jeevan sangi Margarete Bode
santaan Gudrun, Helge, Nanette Dorotha
dharm Roman Catholic (early)
hastaakshar हैन्रिख़ हिम्म्लर के हस्ताक्षर
Military service
nishtha saaaincha:desh aaainkade German Empire German Empire
shaakha/seva Heer
seva kaal 1917–1918
pad Fahnenjunker
ikaai 11th Bavarian Infantry Regiment
yuddh World War I

hainrikh luitapold himmlar (jarman: Heinrich Himmler; pronounced [ˈaahaɪaanʁaaɪaaç ˈaaluˑaaɪaatˌaapɔaalt ˈaahɪaamlɐ] ( sunein) ; 7 October 1900 - 23 May 1945) S S ke raaikhafyooharar, ek sainya commander aur naaji party ke ek aguva sadasya the. jarman police ke pramukh aur baad mein aatanrik mantri, himlar gestaapo sahit sabhi aatanrik va baahya police tatha suraksha balon ke kaam dekha karte. raaikhafyooharar aur baad mein pratisthaapan (gruh) sena ke commander aur poore raaikh prashaasan ke pradhaan poornaadhikaari mantri (Generalbevollmäachtigter füaar die Verwaltung) ke roop mein kaam karte hue himlar naaji Germany mein doosare sabse shaktishaali vyakti ban gaye.

yaatana shiviron, sanhaar shiviron aur aainsatjagruppein (Einsatzgruppen) (aksharash:: krutik dal ya taask fors, aksar vadh dal ke roop mein prayukt), ke adhyaksh himlar ne chh: million yahoodiyon, 200,000 se 500,000 ke beech roma,[1][2] anek yuddhabandiyon aur kadaachit aur bhi teen se chaar million polon, kamyuniston, ya samalaingik, shaareerik va maanasik roop se viklaang, jehovaah ke saaksheetatha kanfesing church ke sadasyon sahit aise logon ko jinhein naaji jeene ke kaabil naheen samajhte the ya bas ve unke "raaste mein" aa gaye logon ki hatya ka sanyojan kiya. yuddh ki samaapti ke jra pehle, unhonne pashchimi mitr raashtron ke saamane Germany aur apne aatmasamarpan ka prastaav rakha tha, basharte ki unhein mukadame se bakhsh diya jaaya. british sena dvaara giraftaar kiye jaane ke baad poochh-taachh karne se pehle hi unhonne aatmahatya kar li.

anukram

praarambhik jeevan

1907 mein himlar

henarik himlar ka janm Munich mein ek roman Catholic[3] baveriyaan madhya-vargeeya parivaar mein hua tha. unke pita Joseph gebhaard himlar ek maadhyamik school ke adhyaapak aur pratishthit vittalabekar jimnaijiym ke principle the.[4] unki maan anna Maria himlar (pratham naam hedar), ek dharmanishth roman Catholic theen. unka ek bada bhaai tha, gebhaard ludavig himlar, jo 29 July 1898 ko paida hua tha; aur ek chhota bhaai arnast haraman himlar, jiska janm 23 December 1905 ko hua tha.[5]

henarik ka naam unke dharmapita baveriya ke shaahi parivaarake prince henarik of baveriya ke naam par pada tha, jinhein gebhaard himlar padhaaya karte the.[6] 1910 mein, himlar laindashat ke jimnaijiym mein bharti hue, jahaan unhonne utkrusht saahitya ka adhyayan kiya. himlar ke praachaarya pita ne unhein doosare vidyaarthiyon par jaasoosi karne aur unhein dandit karne ka jimma saunpa. yahaan tak ki unke pita unhein janmajaat aparaadhi kaha karte the.[7] ethaletiks mein unhein bahut haath-paanv maarana padta tha, lekin ve school ki padhaai-likhaai mein achhe rahe. iske alaava, apne pita ke kehne par, himlar 10 saal ki umr se 24 ki umr tak ek daayari rakha karte. unhein shataranj, haarpseekord, ticket sangrah aur baagavaani ka shauk tha. apne yuvaavastha se lekar vayask hone ke poore daur mein himlar mahilaaon ke saath sambandhon mein kabhi bhi sahajabhaav naheen rakh paaye.[8]

himlar ki daayariyon (1914-1918) se pata chalta hai ki unhein yuddh sambandhi khabaron mein bahut jyaada dilchaspi thi. unhonne apne pita se vinti ki ki apne shaahi sanparkon ka upayog karke ve unhein ek adhikaari ummeedavaar ka pad dilva dein. uske maata-pita ne antat: baat maan li aur unhein 11veen baveriyn rejimeint se prashikshan (1918 mein maadhyamik vidyaalaya se snaatak star ke lagbhag) lene ki anumati de di. choonki ve ek ethaletik naheen the, isliye unhein apne sainya prashikshan ke dauraan kaafi sangharsh karna pada. Germany ki haar ke saath 1918 mein yuddh samaapt hua aur is prakaar ek peshevar sena adhikaari banane ki himlar ki aakaankshaaon ka bhi ant ho gaya.

1919 se 1922 tak himlar ne Munich teknisk hokshul (Technische Hochschule) se krushi vigyaan ki padhaai ki, uske baad kuchh dinon tak ek faarm mein prashikshan lene ke baad ve beemaar pad gaye.[9]

apni daayari mein unhonne ek dharmanishth roman Catholic hone ka daava kiya hai aur likha hai ki ve roman church ko kabhi bhi chhod naheen sakte. haalaanki, ve ek biraadari ke ek sadasya the aur baad mein thule society mein bhi shaamil hue aur yeh mahasoos karte rahe ki unke ye donon sambandh church ke siddhaanton ke saath mel naheen khaate. jeevani lekhakon ne himlar ke dharmashaastr ko eriyosofi (Ariosophy) ke roop mein paribhaashit kiya hai, unka apna aarya nasleeya shreshthata aur jarmanik meso-pagaanijm ka dhaarmik mataagrah bataaya, jo uttari Europe ke lokageeton tatha praacheen tyutonik (jarman) janajaatiyon ki pauraanik kathaaon ki unki apni vyaakhya se aanshik roop se viksit hua. is dauraan unamein ek baar fir sainik banane ka junoon savaar hua. unhonne likha tha ki agar jald hi Germany yuddh mein naheen utarata hai, to ve yuddh ki guhaar lagaane ke liye kisi doosare desh chale jaaenge.

1923 mein, himlar ne arnast roham ke maatahat mein edolf hitlar ke beer hall vidroh mein bhaag liya. 1926 mein ek toofaan se bachane ke samay ek hotel ki lobby mein unki mulaakaat apni bhaavi patni se hui. maaragret seegroth (ni boden) unase saat saal varishth, talaakashuda aur protesteint theen. 3 July 1928 ko donnon ne shaadi kar li. is dauraan himlar vifalta ke saath murgeepaalan ka kaam kar rahe the.[10] 8 August 1929 ko unka ikalaute bachche gurdrun ka janm hua. himlar apni beti se bahut hi pyaar karte aur use puppi (Püappi) kehkar bulaateangreji: "dolly". maargaret ne baad mein ek beta god le liya, jiske prati himlar ne koi dilchaspi naheen dikhaai. henarik aur maargaret himlar 1940 mein bina talaak liye hi alag ho gaye. us samay himlar ki ek sachiv hedvig potahast ke saath mitrata ho gayi. jisne 1941 mein apni naukri chhod di aur unki shreemati ban gayi. usase ve do bachchon ke pita bane - ek putr helage (janm 1942) aur ek putri nanette dorothiya (janm 1944).

himlar ko krushi aur "back tu the land" aandolan mein bhi bahut dilchaspi thi. unka aur unki patni ka ek krushi jeevan bitaane ka romantic aadarsh tha. ve artaamaanen samaaj mein shaamil hue, jo ek prakaar ka aadarshavaadi back-tu-the-land yuva samooh tha, lekin yeh naslavaadi vichaar se bhi prabhaavit tha. ve is aandolan ke ek neta ban gaye. is aandolan ke maadhyam se ve rudolf hob se mile,[11] jinhonne baad mein oskvitj(Auschwitz) ki adhyakshata ki; saath hi unki bheint richrd vaalthar darr se bhi hui, jinhonne baad mein esaes ke rusha (RuSHA) (nasl va punarvaas kaaryaalaya) mein kaam kiya.[12]

esaes mein badhotari

chitr:HimmlerOberfhr.jpg
esaes ke vardi mein himlar. (kaali taai aur topi) obarfuhraar ke raink ke saath.

praarambhik esaes: 1925-1934

1925 mein himlar esaes mein shaamil hue, baveriya mein unka pehla padasthaapan esaes-gaufyuharar (jila neta) ke roop mein hua. 1927 mein, ve up-raaikhafyuharar-esaes bane, unhein esaes-oberafyuharar ka raink mila aur esaes commander erhaard heden ke isteefe ke baad himlar ko 1929 mein raaikhafyuharar-esaes niyukt kiya gaya. us samay, esaes ke 280 sadasya the aur bahut bade sturmaabteilung (esae) (Sturmabteilung) (SA) ka mahaj ek kuleen battalion bhar tha. agale saal, himlar ne sangathan mein ek bada vistaar shuroo kiya aur 1930 mein, unhein pronnati dekar esaes-gruppeinfyuharar bana diya gaya (us samay raaikhafyuharar esaes ke raashtreeya commander ka bas ek khitaab bhar tha).

1933 tak, esaes ke 52,000 sadasya ho gaye. sangathan ne sakht sadasyata laagoo karte hue yeh sunishchit kiya ki sabhi sadasya hitlar ke aaryan herrenvolk ("aarya pradhaan nasl") ke hon. himlar aur unke sahayogi reinahaard hedrik ne esaes ko esae ke niyantran se baahar karne ka prayaas shuroo kiya. July 1932 mein esae ki bhoori kameej ki jagah kaali esaes vardi banane lagi aur 1934 tak sabhi ke saamaanya upayog ke liye paryaapt vardi taiyaar ho gayi.[13] 1933 mein, himlar ko padonnati dekar esaes-oberagruppeinfyuharar (Obergruppenfüahrer) bana diya gaya. isse ve varishth esae commander ke samakaksh ho gaye, jo ab esaes se nafrat karne laga tha aur iski shakti se irshya karta tha.

himlar, haraman goring aur general varnar vaun blombarg is baat par sahamat the ki esae aur uske neta arnast roham jarman sena aur naaji ke samaksh ek khatra ban rahe hain. roham samaajavaadi aur lokavaadi vichaaron ke the aur unka maanana tha ki asli kraanti abhi tak shuroo naheen hui hai. unhonne mahasoos kiya ki esae ko desh ka ekamaatr astradhaari sainya dal hona chaahiye. is kaaran kuchh naaji, sainya aur raajaneetik netaaon ko laga ki roham esae ke istemaal se takhtaapalat karna chaahate hain.

himlar aur goring ke ukasaane par, roham ke khaatme ke liye hitlar sahamat ho gaye. unhonne yeh kaam reinahaard hedrik, kurt daluege aur vaarnar best ko saunpa, jinhonne roham sahit (thiyodor aaike dvaara kiya gaya) anya varishth adhikaariyon ke khaatme ke aadesh diye; saath hi hitlar ke kuchh niji shatruon ko bhi khtm karne ka aadesh diya gaya (jaise ki gregor straasar aur kurt von shleikar), ye kaam 30 June 1934 ko kiye gaye, jo naait of the laung naaif ke naam se jaana jaata hai. agale din, esaes ek svatantr sangathan ban gaya, jo sirf hitlar ke prati javaabadeh tha aur himlar ka raaikhafyuharar-esaes ka khitaab esaes ka aupachaarik sarvochch pad ban gaya.

satta ka drudheekaran

chitr:Vlcsnap-5522132.png
baaen se daaen: himlar, reinahaard hedreech, obarsalbarg mein kaarl volf aur an aaideintifaaid asistant. 1939 May

20 April 1934 ko, goring ne himlar aur hedrik ke saath ek saajhedaari banaayi. goring ne gestaapo (Geheime Staatspolizei), prashiya ki jaasoosi sanstha, ke praadhikaar ka sthaanaantaran kar usaka jimma himlar ko saunp diya, jinhein prashiya ke baahar jarman police ka pramukh bhi bana diya gaya. 22 April 1934 ko, himlar ne hedrik ko gestaapo ka pramukh niyukt kiya. hedrik esadi ke bhi pramukh bane rahe.[14]

17 June 1936 ko, hitlar dvaara "raaikh ke police niyantran ke ekeekaran" karne ke nirnaya ki ghoshana ke baad himlar ko jarman police ka pramukh bana diya gaya.[15] paramparaagat roop se, Germany mein kaanoon pravartan ek raajyastareeya aur sthaaneeya maamala tha. is bhoomika mein, himlar naamamaatr ke liye aantarik mantri vilhem frik ke adheenasth hue. haalaanki, aajnyaapti se police ka prabhaavi dhang se esaes mein vilay ho gaya, isse yeh frik ke niyantran se lagbhag svatantr ho gaya.

Germany ki sabhi vardeedhaari kaanoon pravartan agencyon ke ek nae ordanungsapoliji (Ordnungspolizei) (orpo: "vyavastha police") mein ek hone se himlar ki taakat badhi, is nayi sanstha ka mukhyaalaya esaes ki ek mukhyaalaya shaakha ban gaya. apne khitaab ke baavajood, himlar ko vardeedhaari police ka sirf aanshik niyantran hi praapt hua. aatanrik mantraalaya dvaara pehle prayog ki jaane waali kuchh vaastavik shaktiyaan unhein di gayeen. 1943 mein, jab himlar ko aantarik mantri niyukt kiya gaya, tab jaakar mantri satta ka hastaantaran poora hua.

1936 ki niyukti ke saath, himlar ko Germany ke gair-raajaneetik jaasoos balon, kriminlapoliji (krupo: aparaadh police) ka mantri praadhikaar saunpa gaya tha, jiska vilay unhonne gestaapo ke saath shricherheitsapoliji (Sicherheitspolizei) (sipo: suraksha police) mein kar diya aur is tarah unhonne Germany ke poore jaasoosi bal par parichaalan niyantran praapt kar liya.[16] yeh vilay kabhi bhi raaikh ke bheetar poora naheen hua, krupo mukhya roop se apne naagrik prashaasan ke niyantran mein hi raha aur baad mein party upakaran bana (kyonki party ko naagrik prashaasan mein mila diya gaya). haalaanki, adhikrut ilaake vaastavik raaikh mein shaamil naheen kiye gaye the, lekin esaes ke command line ke andar sipo ka ekeekaran jyaadaatar prabhaavi saabit hua. September 1939 ko, dviteeya yuddh ke aarambh ke baad, himlar ne raaikhassikraheitshauptamt (Reichssicherheitshauptamt) (aaraesaechae: raaikh ka mukhya suraksha kaaryaalaya) ka gathan kiya, jahaan sipo (gestaapo aur krupo) tatha shricherheitsdiyenst (Sicherheitsdienst) (esadi: suraksha sevaaen) hedrik ki kamaan ke vibhaag ban gaye.[17]

himlar poore yaatana shivir ki pranaali ka nireekshan kiya karte. dviteeya vishv yuddh ke ek baar shuroo ho jaane ke baad, aupachaarik roop se yaatana shivir ke roop mein vargeekrut naheen kiye jaane vaale nae najarabandi shiviron ki sthaapana ki gayi thi, in par himlar aur esaes ka niyantran naheen tha. 1943 mein, stelingraad tabaahi ke parinaamasvaroop shaasan ki lokapriya maukhik aalochna ki aalochna ke prakop ke baad party ne in aalochanaaon ko rok paane mein gestaapo ki vifalta par niraasha jaahir ki, politische staaffeln (raajaneetik daste) ke roop mein apne raajaneetik police ang ki sthaapana ki, is tarah is kshetr mein gestaapo ke ekaadhikaar ko tod diya gaya.

in varshon ke dauraan esaes ne apni sainya shaakha esaes-verfugungsatruppe (esaes-viti) ko viksit kiya, jo baad mein vaaffen-esaes mein viksit hua. naam ke liye himlar ke maatahat hone ke baavajood vaaffen-esaes ko poori tarah se ek sainya dhaanche mein dhaala gaya aur veharmacht (Wehrmacht) ke samaanaantar yuddh prayaas mein shaamil hone laayak viksit kiya gaya. kai samakaaleen tippaneekaar vaaffen-esaes ko ek sammaanajanak sainya sangathan ke roop mein maanyata dene se inkaar karte rahe. iski ikaaiyaan naagrikon aur nihatthe kaidiyon ki hatya ki kukhyaat ghatnaaon mein shaamil theen. yeh bhi anek mein se ek kaaran tha ki antarraashtreeya sainya tribunal ne esaes ko ek aparaadhi sangathan ghoshit kiya.

himlar aur vidhvans

himlar (saamane, kaidi ke bagal mein) 1936 mein daakhaaoo ekaagrata shivir ka daura.

naait of the naaivs ke baad, esaes-toteinkopfvarabande (SS-Totenkopfverbäande) ne Germany ke yaatana shiviron ki sthaapana ki aur prashaasit kiya, 1941 ke baad, Poland mein sanhaar shivir bhi banaaye. apni khufiya shaakha suraksha seva (Sicherheitsdienst, ya esadi) ke maadhyam se esaes ne yahoodiyon, jipsiyon, kamyuniston aur doosare saanskrutik, nasleeya, raajaneetik ya dhaarmik vyaktiyon ko jinhein naaji ya to antarameinsch (up-maanav) ya shaasan virodhi maanate, yaatana shiviron mein daalna shuroo kiya. 22 March 1933 ko himlar ne dachaaoo mein aise pehle shivir ka aarambh kiya. ve vidhvans ke mukhya roopaakaar the, laakhon-lakh logon ki hatya ka auchitya saabit karne ke liye ve rahasyavaad ke tatvon aur naslavaadi naaji siddhaant ke prati ek kattar vishvaas ka istemaal kiya karte. polaindavaasiyon ke liye bhi himlar ki aisi hi yojana thi; buddhijeeviyon ko maar daalna tha aur unka vishvaas tha ki anya polaindavaasi mahaj traffic signal samajhne laayak hi padhe-likhe hain. himlar ke mulaakaat pustika se pata chalta hai ki 18 December 1941 ko himlar ki bheint hitlar ke saath hui thi. us din ke indaraaj mein yeh savaal khada kiya gaya tha "roos ke yahoodiyon ke saath kya kiya jaaya?" aur uske baad prashn ka uttar tha "als paarteesaanen osjurotan" (unhein pakshapaati maankar unka safaaya kiya jaaya").[18]

hitlar ke bajaay himlar yaatana shiviron ka nireekshan kiya karte. in nireekshanon ke parinaamasvarup, naajiyon ne hatya ka ek naya aur bhi adhik sameecheen upaaya khoj nikaala, jisse gas chaimbaron ka istemaal shuroo hua.

himlar Germany mein nordik aaryon ka ek shaasak nasl chaahate the. ek murgeepaalak kisaan ke roop mein unhonne apne anubhav se pashu prajanan ke mool tatv ko seekha tha, jise ve maanav jaati par prasthaapit karna chaahate the. unka maanana tha ki ve utkrusht santaanotpatti vidya se chayanaatmak prajanan ke jariye jarman aabaadi ko badal sakte hain, jo yuddh ke anek dashak baad poori tarah se "nordik" ban jaaenge.[19]

pojn ka bhaashan

4 October 1943 ko, himlar ne pojanaan (pojn) shahar mein esaes ki ek gupt baithak mein spasht roop se yahoodi janta ke khaatme ka ullekh kiya. bhaashan ke ek audio rikaurding[20] ke lipyantaran ka ek ansh nimnalikhit hai:

I also want to refer here very frankly to a very difficult matter. We can now very openly talk about this among ourselves, and yet we will never discuss this publicly. Just as we did not hesitate on 30 June 1934, to perform our duty as ordered and put comrades who had failed up against the wall and execute them, we also never spoke about it, nor will we ever speak about it. Let us thank God that we had within us enough self-evident fortitude never to discuss it among us, and we never talked about it. Every one of us was horrified, and yet every one clearly understood that we would do it next time, when the order is given and when it becomes necessary.

I am now referring to the evacuation of the Jews, to the extermination of the Jewish People. This is something that is easily said: 'The Jewish People will be exterminated', says every Party member, 'this is very obvious, it is in our program — elimination of the Jews, extermination, a small matter.' And then they turn up, the upstanding 80 million Germans, and each one has his decent Jew. They say the others are all swine, but this particular one is a splendid Jew. But none has observed it, endured it. Most of you here know what it means when 100 corpses lie next to each other, when there are 500 or when there are 1,000. To have endured this and at the same time to have remained a decent person — with exceptions due to human weaknesses — has made us tough, and is a glorious chapter that has not and will not be spoken of. Because we know how difficult it would be for us if we still had Jews as secret saboteurs, agitators and rabble rousers in every city, what with the bombings, with the burden and with the hardships of the war. If the Jews were still part of the German nation, we would most likely arrive now at the state we were at in 1916 and '17 . . . .

Heinrich Himmler, 4 October 1943


dviteeya vishvayuddh

himlar (jhanda ke peechhe) hitlar ke saath (keval peechhe, jhande ke baaen) Poland ke 1939 September

1939 mein himlar ne operation himlar ki yojana banaayi, vivaadaaspad roop se Europe mein yeh dviteeya vishvayuddh ka pehla operation tha.

1941 mein soviyt sangh par aakraman ke pehle (operation barabaarossa) (Barbarossa) himlar ne apne esaes ko "judeo-bolshevavaad" (Judeo-Bolshevism) ki taakaton ke khilaaf sanhaar yuddh ke liye taiyaar kiya tha. naaji Germany aur madhya yug ki tulana karke himlar haradam khush hua karte the, ve aakraman ki tulana dharmayuddh se kiya karte. ve poore Europe se swayamsevak jama kiya karte the, khaaskar aise nordik logon ko jo nasleeya roop se jarmanon ke niktatam maane jaate, jaise ki deins, norveyaai, sveedis aur dach. aakraman ke baad, yookreniyaai, laatviyaai, lithuniyaai aur estoniyaai svayansevakon ki bhi bahaali hui, "naastik bolshevik giroh" se puraane Europe ke paramparaagat moolyon ki raksha ke liye ek akhil Europeeya dharmayuddh ki ghoshana karke gair-jarman svayansevakon ko aakarshit kiya jaane laga. hajaaron svechha se bharti hue aur usase bhi kaheen jyaada log jabariya bharti kiye gaye.

baaltik raajyon ke mool nivaasi laal fauj ke khilaaf kaam karne ke liye taiyaar the, kyonki soviyt sangh dvaara kabja kiye jaane ke baad utpeedn se unamein nafarat paida ho gayi thi. in logon ko jabaran vaaffen-esaes mein bharti kiya gaya tha, inhein soviyt sena ke khilaaf laga diya gaya, tab ye khushi ke saath is kaam mein jut gaye.[21] pashchimi aur nordik Europe mein vaaffen-esaes ko bharti ke liye bahut kam log mile, lekin kai vaaffen-esaes sena ikaai ki sthaapana ki gayi, jaise ki Leon degrele ke netrutv ka valloniyn sainya dal, jinhein yuddh ke baad naaji kshetr ke fir se praapt buragundi ka chaansalar banaane ki himlar ki yojana thi.

1942 mein, himlar ke daahine haath reinahaard hedrik ki praag ke kareeb ek hamle ke baad check vishesh sena ke haathon maare gaye, check sena ko british khufiya vibhaag tatha chekoslovaak vidrohiyon se sahaayata mil rahi thi. himlar ne turant pratishodh liya, lidise gaanv ki mahilaaon aur bachchon sahit poori aabaadi ki htya kar di.

aantarik mantri

1943 mein, himlar ko us frik ki jagah raaikh ka aantarik mantri niyukt kiya gaya, jiske saath ve ek dashak se bhi adhik samay se sangharsharat the. udaaharan ke liye, sirf himlar ke saamane gidgidaane ke uddeshya se yaatana shiviron mein logon ko bhejane ke liye "rakshaatmak hiraasat" ke vyaapak istemaal ko seemit karne ki frik ne koshish ki thi. yaatana shiviron ko frik bhinnamataavalambiyon ko dandit karne ke ek upakaran ke roop mein dekha karte, jabki himlar ki rai mein in shiviron ke jariye logon ko aatankit karke naaji shaasan ko sveekaar karaana tha.

himlar ki niyukti ne prabhaavi roop se aantarik mantraalaya ka esaes ke saath vilay kar diya. himlar ne apne nae kaaryaalaya ka istemaal lok seva se party upakaran ke sanyojan ko ulatane mein kiya aur jila-kshetreeya star ke party netaaon (gauleiters) ke adhikaaron ko chunauti deni shuroo ki.

hitlar ke niji sachiv aur party chaansalar Martin boramain dvaara unki is mahatvaakaanksha ko jhatka laga. khud hitlar se bhi ise kuchh naaraajagi jhelni padi, jinke naaji prashaasan ki soch ki ek neenv paaramparik lok seva ke prati lambe samay se ghruna rahi. reserve army (ersatajheer, neeche dekhein) ka pramukh banane ke baad himlar ne haalaat aur bhi badatar kar diye, unhonne policekarmiyon ka tabaadala vaaffen-esaes mein karke sena aur police donon ke adhikaaron ka istemaal karne ka prayaas kiya.

apne satta ke aadhaar ko himlar chunauti dete rahe, lekin boramain ne unhein teji se aage badhne ka mauka naheen diya, haalaanki virodh shuroo hone ke pehle tak shuruaat mein ve chup rahe the. fir, boramain ne yojana ka virodh karna shuroo kiya, himlar ki badanaami hone lagi, khaaskar party mein, jiske gauleetars arthaat sthaaneeya netaaon ne boramain ko apne rakshak ke roop mein dekhna shuroo kiya.

20 July ki saajish

yeh nirdhaarit hua tha ki jarman sena ke khufiya vibhaag (abvehar) ke bade adhikaari aur khud uske pramukh Admiral vilhilm kanaaris hitlar ki htya ki 20 July 1944 ki saajish mein shaamil the. is kaaran hitlar ne abvehar ko bhang karne ka nirnaya liya aur himlar ki suraksha seva (Sicherheitsdienst, ya esadi) ko teesare raaikh ka ekamaatr khufiya seva bana diya. isse himlar ki vyaktigat shakti mein vruddhi hui.

commander-in-cheef of reserve (ya riplesameint) army (ersatajheer) ke general fredarik fromm ko ek saajish mein fansaaya gaya. sena ke prati hitlar ke sandeh aur fromm ki barkhaastagi se himlar ke fromm ka uttaraadhikaari banane ka raasta khul gaya, vaaffen-esaes ke vistaar ke liye unhonne is pad ka durupyog kiya, jisse jarman sashastr sena (veharamacht) ki pehle se teji se khraab hoti haalat aur bhi badatar hone lagi.

himlar ke durbhaagya se, jald hi jaanch se saajish mein esaes ke adhikaariyon ke shaamil hone ka pata chala, ismein kuchh varishth adhikaari bhi the, jo esaes ke khilaaf boramain ke sangharsh mein unke ishaare par chala karte the, kyonki bahut kam party kaaryakarta adhikaariyon ko fansaaya gaya tha. isse bhi adhik mahatvapoorn baat yeh hai ki esaes ke kuchh varishth adhikaari khud himlar ke viruddh shadyantr karne lage, kyonki unka maanana tha ki boramain ke khilaaf satta sangharsh mein unki jeet naheen ho sakti. in dalabadaluon mein hedrik ke uttaraadhikaari raaikhasicherheitsahauptaamt (Reichssicherheitshauptamt) ke pramukh arnast kalteinbrunner aur gestaapo ke pramukh gruppeinfyuharar (Gruppenfüahrer) henarikh myular bhi the.

commander-in-cheef

1944 ke aakhir mein, himlar navagathit army group upper raain (heerasagruppe obarrahen) ke commander-in-cheef ban gaye. raain ke pashchimi tat par alsaas kshetr mein aage badhti hui ameriki 7veen army aur fraansisi 1li army se ladne ke liye is army group ka gathan kiya gaya tha. ameriki 7veen army general alekjeindar paich aur fraansisi 1li army general jeen di laattre di taassigni ke command mein thi.

1 January 1945 ko, himlar ke army group ne amerikiyon aur fraanseesiyon ko peechhe dhakelane ke liye operation North vind (antaranehamen nordavind) shuroo kiya. January ke ant mein, kuchh seemit shuruaati safalta ke baad himlar ko poorab ki or sthaanaantarit kar diya gaya. 24 January tak, rakshaatmak hone ke kaaran army group upper raain ko nishkriya kar diya gaya. aadhikaarik taur par operation North vind 25 January ko samaapt ho gaya.

doosari or, jarman sena (vehrmacht heer) laal fauj ke vistula-oder aakraamakata ko rok paane mein vifal rahi, tab hitlar ne himlar ko ek anya navagathit sainya group ka kamaan saunpa, is army group vistula (heerasagruppe veichsel) ko barlin ki or badhti soviyt sena ko rokana tha. army group upper raain ki vifalta aur sena ki tukadiyon ko netrutv dene mein unki anubhav ki poori kami tatha akshamata ke baavajood hitlar ne himlar ko army group vistula ki kaaman saunp di. yeh niyukti Martin boramain ke ukasaane par hui ho sakti hai, taaki pratidvandvi ko badnaam kiya ja sake, ya fir sainya adhikaariyon ki "vifalta" par hitlar ke badhte gusse ki vajah se hui ho sakti hai.

army group vistula ke commander-in-cheef ki haisiyat se himlar ne schneidemuhal (Schneidemüahl) mein apna command kendra banaaya. ve apni vishesh train (sonderjug), sonderjug steeyaramaark, ko apne mukhyaalaya ke roop mein istemaal karte. train mein sirf ek telephone line hone aur koi signal vilgan naheen hone ke baavajood himlar ne aisa kiya. apni drudhta dikhaane ke liye utsuk, himlar ne sainya adhikaariyon ke tvarit-hamle ke aagrah ko chupachaap maan liya. operation jald hi daladal mein fans gaya aur himlar ne ek niyamit army commander ko barkhaast kar diya aur naaji heinj lammerding ko niyukt kiya. unke mukhyaalaya ko bhi faalkanabarg peechhe hatne par majaboor hona pada. 30 January ko, himlar ne kroor aadesh jaari kiya: tod and strefe far flichtvergessenheit (Tod und Strafe füaar Pflichtvergessenheit) - "jo apne daayitvon ko bhool jaate hain unke liye mrutyu aur dand," apni sena ko protsaahit karne ke liye. bigdti sthiti ke kaaran himlar par hitlar ka dabaav badhta gaya; ve sammelanon mein anishchayaatmak aur bechain rahane lage. hitlar par general heinj guderiyn ke jabardast dabaav ke kaaran general vaalthar veink ke nirdesh mein himlar ki sena ne madhya-February mein paumeriyn aakraamakata shuroo ki. March ke aarambh tak, himlar ka mukhyaalaya oder nadi ke pashchim le jaaya gaya, haalaanki unki sena ka naam ab bhi vistula ke naam par hi raha. hitlar ke saath sammelanon mein, peechhe hatne vaalon ke saath kadaai mein vruddhi karne ki hitlar ki neeti ka hi samarthan karte rahe.

13 March ko, himlar ne apne command ko chhod diya, ve beemaari ka daava karne lage aur hohenalichen ke ek aspataal mein bharti ho gaye. guderiyn ne vahaan unase bheint ki aur army group vistula ke commander-in-cheef se unka isteefa lekar usi raat hitlar ko saunp diya. 20 March ko, himlar ke sthaan par gotthaard henariki ko general banaaya gaya.

shaanti samjhauta

chitr:Himmler45.jpg
1945 mein henarik himlar.

1944-45 ki sardiyon mein, himlar ke vaaffen-esaes ki sadasya sankhya 910,000 thi, saath hi allgemen-esaes (kam se kam kaagaj par) ke kareeb do million sadasya the. haalaanki, 1945 ki shuruaat mein jarman jeet par se himlar ka vishvaas uth gaya, khaaskar apne maalishiya feliks karstan aur vaaltar shelenbarg ke saath baatcheet se.[22] unhonne mahasoos kiya ki agar naaji shaasan ko bachaana hai to iske liye Britain aur sanyukt raajya America ke saath shaanti vaarta jaruri hai. unka yeh bhi maanana tha ki soviyt sangh ke khilaaf vyaktigat roop se rajdhani ki raksha karne ke liye barlin mein rahakar hitlar ne khud ko bebas bana liya hai.

isliye unhonne dainish seema ke paas lyubek mein sveeden ke kaaunt folk barnaadot se sampark kiya. unhonne apne aapko Germany ke taatkaalik neta ke roop mein pesh kiya aur barnaadot se kaha ki hitlar do dinon ke andar lagbhag nishchit taur par mar jaanevaale hain. unhonne barnaadot kaha ki ve general dvaait aaijanahaavar se kahein ki Germany pashchim ke saamane aatmasamarpan karna chaahata hai. himlar ko ummeed thi ki baaki bache veharmacht (Wehrmacht) ke saath milkar british aur ameriki soviyt sangh se ladaai kareinge. barnaadot ke anurodh par, himlar ne apna prastaav likhkar diya.

28 April ki shaam ko, BBC ne ek raayatar news report ka prasaaran karte hue pashchimi mitr raashtron ke saath himlar ke vaarta ke prayaas ke baare mein khabar di. jab hitlar ko is samaachaar ke baare mein bataaya gaya to vah gusse se aagababoola ho gaye. kuchh din pehle, haraman goring ne raaikh ka netrutv sambhaalne ke liye hitlar se anumati chaahi thi - boramain ke bhadkaane par hitlar ne unke is aagrah ki vyaakhya is tarah ki jaise ki unhein kursi se utar jaane ya fir takhtaapalat ki dhamaki di ja rahi hai. haalaanki, himlar ne anumati ke liye anurodh karne ki bhi paravaah naheen ki. is khabar se hitlar ko joron ka jhatka isliye bhi laga kyonki ve Joseph goebals ke baad himlar ko apna doosra sabse bada vafaadaar maanate the; daraasal, hitlar aksar hi himlar ko "der tru henarikh" (der treue henarik) (vafaadaar henarik) kaha karte the. shaant ho jaane ke baad hitlar ne apne saath bankar mein tab bhi maujood logon se kaha ki unki jaankaari mein himlar ka yeh krutya vishvaasaghaat ka sabse kharaab udaaharan hai.

himlar ke vishvaasaghaat ke alaava is khabar se ki soviyt sena chaansalari se maatr 300 meter (koi ek block) ki doori par hai, ne hitlar ko apni aakhiri ichha aur vaseeyatanaama likhne ke liye baadhya kar diya. aatmahatya karne se pehle ke din poora kar liye vaseeyatanaame mein unhonne himlar aur goring ko gaddaar ghoshit kiya. unhonne ne himlar ko unke sabhi party aur sarkaari padon se hata diya: unhein raaikhafyooharar-esaes, jarman police ke pramukh, jarman neshanahud ke aayukt, raaikh ke aantarik mantri, volksastram ke Supreme commander aur hom army ke Supreme commander padon se hata diya gaya. ant mein, unhonne himlar ko naaji party se nishkaasit karte hue unki giraftaari ka aadesh diya.

kaaunt barnaadot ke saath himlar ki vaarta vifal rahi. iske baad unhonne grand Admiral kaarl donitj ki sharan li, ve tab pion ke paas pashchimi morche par uttari hisse ke sabhi jarman sena ka netrutv kar rahe the. donitj ne himlar ko vaapas kar diya, yeh kehte hue ki nayi jarman sarkaar mein unke liye koi jagah naheen hai. haalaanki, baatcheet se baaki bache yaatana shiviron se koi 15,000 skaindeviyaai kaidiyon ki rihaai sambhav ho paayi.

iske baad himlar ne ek dalabadaloo ki tarah amerikiyon se sampark saadha, aaijanahaavar ke mukhyaalaya se sampark karke unhonne poori Germany ke mitr raashtron ke samaksh samarpan karne ka daava karte hue apne ko bakhsh diye jaane ki shart rakhi. unhonne aaijanahaavar se kaha ki unhein yuddhoparaant Germany sarkaar ka "police mantri" bana diya jaaya. ve Supreme hedakvaartars elaayad fors (SHAEF) ke commander ke saath kis tarah pehli baithak kareinge aur unhein naaji salaam kareinge ya unase haath milaayeinge, is par unhonne kathit taur par vichaar karna shuroo kar diya tha. aailaanhaavar ne himlar se kisi prakaar ke samjhaute se inkaar kar diya aur saath hi unhein ek bada yuddh aparaadhi ghoshit kar diya gaya.

giraftaari aur maut

1945 ke dauraan jahar dvaara apne aatmahatya ke baad himlar ko hiraasat mein rakha gaya
London mein inpeeriyl yuddh sangrahaalaya mein himlar ke maut ke pradarshan par mukhauta

apne poorv sahayogiyon dvaara avaankshit aur mitr raashtron dvaara ki ja rahi talaash ke kaaran himlar anek dinon tak dainish seema ke paas flenabarg ke aaspaas bhatakate rahe. giraftaari se bachane ke liye, unhonne khufiya sainya police ke saarjeint-major ka vesh dhaaran kiya, apna naam henarikh hitjingar rakha, apni moonchh kaat li aur apni baayeen aankh par ek patti laga li,[23] is ummeed mein ki ve baveriya vaapas ja paayeinge. unhonne apne liye jaali dastaavejon ka poora ek set bana rakha tha, lekin kiseeke paas ke kaagajaat itne kram se hone ko asaamaanya samjha gaya aur bremen sthit british army unit ko shak hua. 22 May ko major Sydney eksel ne giraftaar kiya aur hiraasat mein unhein jald hi pehchaan liya gaya. anya jarman netaaon ke saath himlar par bhi ek yuddh aparaadhi ki haisiyat se nyooremabarg mein mukadama chalaaya jaana tha, lekin 23 May[24] ko poochh-taachh shuroo hone se pehle hi potaashiym saayanaayad kaipsool khaakar unhonne lunebarg mein aatmahatya kar li. unke antim shabd the ich bin henarikh himlar! ("main henarik himlar hoon"). ek aur vaktavya yeh hai ki ek british Doctor jab khoj kar raha tha, tab apne daanton mein chhipaakar rakhi saayanaayad goli ko himlar ne chaba liya tha, is par Doctor ne cheekh kar kaha tha, "isne apna kaam kar liya!" himlar ko bachaane ke kai prayaas vifal rahe.[25] sheegra hi baad mein, lunebarg heeth mein ek achihnit kabr mein himlar ka shav dafna diya gaya. himlar ki kabr ka sateek sthaan agyaat hai.

jaalsaaji, jhooth aur shadyantr ki parikalpana

May 2008 ko, ek british police jaanch ne "29 jaalasaajiyon ki pehchaan ki jo 2000 ke baad 12 faailon mein gum thi"[26], jinka istemaal haal mein himlar ke shadyantron aur anumaanon ko saabit karne mein kiya gaya.

financial times ki report aage kehti hai "dviteeya vishvayuddh par teen pustak likhne vaale ek itihaasakaar dvaara jaalasaajiyon ko sroton ke roop mein ullekh kiya gaya hai."[26]

lekhak Martin elan ka vyaapak roop se sanasaneekhej aarop lagaane ka itihaas hai, jo anya ullekhaneeya naajiyon par likhte samay managadhnt saamagri par nirbhar rahe hain. "jab hitlar ko dyuk of vindasar ke diye patra ke baare mein unhein chunauti di gayi to Allen ne javaab mein kaha ki yeh unke svargeeya pita ko albart speeyar dvaara diya gaya tha, jo baad mein lekhak ki ataari mein mila.[27]

aitihaasik vichaar

itihaasakaar himlar ko sanchaalit karanevaale manovijnyaaan, iraadon aur prabhaavon ke baare mein vibhaajit hain . kuchh ka maanana hai ki un par hitlar haavi the, ve poori tarah se unke prabhaav mein the aur hitlar ke vichaaron ko unke taarkik ant tak le jaane ke ek upakaran the. doosaron ki rai mein himlar apne tain ek ugr yahoodi-virodhi the aur narasanhaar chalaane ke maamale mein apne neta se kaheen adhik utsuk the. jabki anya logon ka maanana hai ki himlar sataalobhi the, jo apni shakti aur prabhaav badhaane mein jute rahe.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

Robert S vistarik ke anusaar, himlar ki nirnaayak navarachana yeh thi ki unhonne nasleeya jaise prashn ka roopaantar "yahoodi-virodh par aadhaarit ek nakaaraatmak vichaar" se "esaes ke nirmaan ke liye ek sangathanaatmak kaarya mein" kar diya... yeh himlar ka hi kamaal tha ki kisi paap bodh aur jimmedaari ke bina hi ve esaes ke dimaag mein sarvanaashi "aadarshavaad" bharne mein kaamayaab rahe, jisne narasanhaar aur kiseeke prati kathorata ko ek shahaadataki tarah yuktisangat banaaya.[28]

yuddhakaaleen kaartoonist Victor veisj ne himlar ko ek vishaal oktopas ke roop mein darshaaya, jo peedit raashtron ko apni aathon bhujaaon mein jakada hua hai.[29]

California vishvavidyaalaya, barkali ke itihaasakaar volfagaing sauer ne mahasoos kiya ki "haalaanki ve panditaaoo, kattar aur sust kism ke the, fir bhi asli satta mein himlar hitlar ke baad doosare number par ja pahunche. asaamaanya dhoortata, dhadhakati hui mahatvaakaanksha aur hitlar ke prati jeehujooriya vafaadaari ka sanyojan mein unki shakti nihit thi."[30]

himlar ne apne niji maalishiya feliks karstan se kaha tha ki ve haradam apne saath bhagavad geeta ki ek prati rakha karte hain, taaki isse unhein antim samaadhaan ko laagoo karne mein paap ka bodh na ho; ve mahasoos kiya karte the ki apne kaaryon ke prati koi lagaav rakhe bina yoddha arjun ki tarah ve bhi sirf apna kartavya kiye ja rahe hain.[31] himlar ke vichaar sanbhavat: geeta ki apni vyaakhya se vyutpann jaikob vihelm hauer ke vichaaron se prabhaavit thi.[32]

norman Brooke ki pustak vaar cabinet daayareej ke ek uddharan mein,[33] vinstan charchil ne yuddh ke dauraan himlar ki vyaapak hissedaari ko dekhte hue unki hatya karne ki salaah di. brook ke anusaar, naaji netaaon ko praanadand diye jaane ki ek salaah ki pratikriya mein, "charchil ne poochha ki kya unhein himlar se baatein karni chaahiye aur baad mein unhein dhakka maar diya jaaya, ek baar shaanti shartein poori ho jaane ke baad. himlar ke saath jarman samarpan ki vaarta karne aur baad mein unki hatya kar daalne ki salaah ko gruh kaaryaalaya ka samarthan praapt hua. 'sujhaav himlar ke saath jarman aatmasamarpan ek saude ke liye katauti karne ke liye aur fir use hatya Office Home se mulaakaat ke saath samarthan karte hain. 'aisa karne ka poora hakdaar hai', baithak ki likhit vivrani mein [... charchil] ki tippani darj hai."[34]

haal ke ek kaarya ka mukhya mudda yeh hai ki jiske liye ve pratispardha karte rahe aur hitlar ka dhyaan kheenchne tatha sammaan paane ke liye himlar kis had tak gaye. yuddh ke antim dinon ki ghatnaaen, jab unhonne hitlar ko chhod diya aur mitr raashtron ke saath alag se vaarta shuroo ki, is sambandh mein spashtat: mahatvapoorn hain.

ve mitr raashtron dvaara kis tarah dekhe jaate hain, is baare mein lagta hai ki himlar ke viroopit vichaar the; ve is baat ki aasha lagaaye hue the ki ve ameriki aur british netaaon se mileinge aur unke saath ek "sajjan ki tarah" baatein kareinge. antim kshanon mein apne viruddh unke pratishodh ki bhaavana ko samaapt karne ki cheshta mein unhonne yahoodiyon aur mahatvapoorn kaidiyon ke dand sthagit rakhe. unhein giraftaar karne vaale british sainikon ke anusaar, himlar is baat par sahi maayane mein hairaan the ki unke saath kaidiyon jaisa vyavahaar kiya jaayega.

2008 mein, jarman samaachaar patrika der spigel dvaara himlar ko "sarvakaalik sabse bada narasanhaarak" karaar diya gaya, isse vidhvans ke vaastukaar ke roop mein unki bhoomika pratibinbit hoti hai.[35] jabki aadhunik Germany mein unki satat saarvajanik abhijnyaata pratibinbit ho rahi hai, lekin demosaaid (sarkaari narasanhaar) par saankhyikeeya shodh darshaate hain ki ye daave bahut hi adhik atiranjak hain, yahaan tak ki jab unki niji jimmevaari ko hitlar aur unke anya sahaayakon ke saath saamoohik roop se maana jaata hai.[36]

esaes kairiyr ka saar

  • esaes sankhya: 168
  • naaji party sankhya: 14303
  • praathamik sthiti: raaikhafyuharar-esaes and chef der dveshachein poliji (Reichsfüahrer-SS und Chef der Deutschen Polizei)
  • pichhle esaes-pad: esaes neta (1925), esaes-jila neta (1926), up-raaikhafyooharar (Reichsfüahrer) (1927)
  • vaaffen-esaes seva: abhaav mein raaikhafyooharar-esaes ka Supreme commander. parichaalan adhikaar ka kam prayog.
  • raajaneetik sthitiyaan: raaikhsaleitar der (Reichsleiter der) NSDAP

uchch padon ki tithiyaan

  • esaes fyooharar (Füahrer): 1925
  • esaes-oberafyooharar (Oberfüahrer): 1927
  • esaes-gruppeinfyooharar (Gruppenfüahrer): 1930
  • esaes-oberagruppeinfyooharar (Obergruppenfüahrer): 1933
  • raaikhsafyooharar (Reichsfüahrer)-esaes: June, 1934

1929 ke baad se hi himlar keval raaikhsafyooharar ke apne khitaab se khud ka ullekh kiya karte the; jo ki 1934 tak unka asli pad naheen tha.

puraskaar

esaes ke pramukh ke roop mein, himlar mein ऎsi adviteeya kshamata thi ki ve anek naaji sena, naagrik aur raajaneetik padakon se "khud ko puraskrut" karne ki sthiti mein the. haalaanki, himlar ke aadhikaarik puraskaar aur alankaran unhein mukhyat: seva padakon aur yogyata billon ke yogya banaate the, yeh jaahira taur par yojana ke tahat kiya gaya.[37] kai sheersh naaji netaaon (unamein hitlar bhi rahe) ki tarah himlar khud ke liye bhavya puraskaar aur alankaranon ki jarurat mahasoos naheen karte the, balki in upaadhiyon ko aandolan ke kanishth sadasyon ke liye bachaakar rakhate, jo aise puraskaaron ko ek prerana ke roop mein dekha karte the. is uddeshya ke liye, himlar ko aayaran kraus aur yahaan tak ki vaar merit kraus se bhi naheen navaaja gaya, jabki esaes tatha police pramukh ke roop mein unke kaamon ke liye unhein lagbhag nishchit taur par diya jaana tha.[38]

himlar ke adhikrut alankaar nimnalikhit hain:

  • blood order
  • golden naaji party billa
  • golden hitlar yuva billa
  • sanyukt pilot-nireekshan billa (sone mein heera jadit)
  • olympic khel vibhooshan (pratham shreni)
  • naaji party general gaoo billa
  • 1929 ka nurembarg party diwas billa
  • esaes laang service award (12 varsh ki seva)
  • NSDAP laang service award (15 varsh ki seva)
  • ansachlus (Anschluss) padak
  • sudetenalaind padak (w/praag kaisal baar)
  • memel padak
  • vest vaal padak (1944)
  • esaes onar ring
  • esaes onar svord
  • esae khel billa (kaansya mein)
  • onar shevran for the old guard

Germany ke mitron ki or se himlar ko bahut saare videshi puraskaar bhi mile, inmein sabse ullekhaneeya hain romaaniya aur Italy ki or se himlar ko diye gaye uchch ranking sammaan. himlar ko anek jarman raajya alankaranon se susajjit kiya gaya, inmein sabse mahatvapoorn hai baveriya se praapt sammaan, jahaan ve pehle police adhyaksh ke roop mein kaam kar chuke the. himlar kabhi-kabhaar hi in atirikt padakon ko dhaaran kiya karte the, sirf un aupachaarik sarkaari samaarohon ko chhodkar jahaan poori vardi mein in sabka hona jaruri hota.

anya seva

  • officer kaidet (11veen baaveriyn infeintari rejimeint): 1918
  • hom army pramukh: 1944
  • volkastram (Volksturm) ke Supreme commander: 1945

inhein bhi dekhein

  • naaji rahasyavaad
  • ahnenerbe - naaji maanavavijnyaaani, kuchh jinmein se Tibet ke liye chale gaye the. himlar dvaara ki gayi sthaapana.
  • naaji Germany ki shabdaavali
  • naaji party ke netaaon aur adhikaariyon ki soochi
  • esaes karmiyon ki soochi
  • esaes juleootar - esaes ke liye himlar yoolataaid upahaar
  • naaji Germany ke nasli neeti - himlar ke bhaageedaari
  • allaach cheeni mitti ke baratan -ek sanskruti yuropeeya ke sahi maayane mein, himlar ki aankho se usaka ek pasandeeda pariyojana jo ek audyogik sthaapana ke liye kala ke aadhaar utpaadan ke liye kaam karta hai
  • lebeinsabaurn - gora baalon neeli aankhon vaale bachcho ko badhaane ke liye himlar ki jimmedaari ke tahat pariyojana

sandarbh

nots

  1. uddhrut mein re.holokaust viktim esets litigeshan (Swiss bainks) vishesh master prastaav, 11 September 2000).
  2. "seenti aur roma", sanyukt raajya America vidhvans smaarak sangrahaalaya.
  3. britainika vishvakosh
  4. endarsch, A: der vaater eines mordaars (the father of mardarar). daayojaneej, 2006. ISBN 978-3-257-23608-8
  5. Heinz 1972
  6. breitamainn, prushth 9
  7. time patrika, 16 June 1947
  8. britmain, prushth 11
  9. Breitman 2004, prushth 12
  10. BBC aitihaasik aankade - henarik himlar
  11. hauses aur paskuli, prushth 203
  12. hohane, order of the death's head (2000 Ed), prushth 47-49
  13. Lumsden 2001, prushth 53
  14. Williams 2003, prushth 61
  15. Williams 2003, prushth 77
  16. Lumsden 2001, prushth 80, 83
  17. Lumsden 2001, prushth 83
  18. bauer, yehooda reethinking the holokaust yel university press, 2000, prushth 5
  19. pringal, Heather: the master plaan: himlar's vidvaan aur sarvanaash. hyperiyn, New York, 2006. ISBN 0-7868-6886-4
  20. paujnaan bhaashan
  21. toomas heeo, Peter kaasik (2006). "estoniyaai yoonits in the vaufen-esaes", in toomas heeo, meelis maripoo aur inadrek paavale. estoniya 1940-1945: reports of the istoniyn intaranaishanal commission for the investigeshan of crimes ageinst hyumaniti. telin. peepi. 927-968
  22. Crocker, Harry (13 November 2001). Triumph: A 2,000 Year History of the Catholic Church. Prima Lifestyles. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0761529241.
  23. henarik himlar - jauchkim si fest dvaara peti baurgeois aur grand inakvisitr
  24. http://www.fpp.co.uk/Himmler/Panton/Man0554.html
  25. "henarik himlar": Roger maanavel aur henarik fraenkel
  26. a aa [ UK police find Himmler/Churchill archive forgeries http://www.reuters.com/article/lifestyleMolt/idUSL0342892320080503?sp=true]
  27. aitihaasik jaalsaaji aur dhokhaadhadi
  28. Robert S. vistreech, naaji Germany mein kaun tha, routaledj 1997.
  29. henarik himlar: naaji Germany
  30. jeeaai - dviteeya vishv yuddh ke smaranotsav
  31. paidafild, Peter himlar new yaurk: 1990, henari holt, prushth 402; Roger maanavel, henarik fraenkel, himlar, putanaam, 1965, prushth 181; ted maurgan, N anasarten haur: the French, the jarmans, the jiyus, the klaus braaib traiyal aur the city of Leon, 1940-1945 aurbor house, 1990, prushth 372
  32. kaarla O. poeve, new rileejiyans end the naajis, routaledj, 2006, prushth 31
  33. samaachaar | duniya se cabinet sachivon ki do yuddh notabuk www.nationalarchives.gov.uk
  34. dovaard, jaimi. 1676129,00.html "hitlar pareekshan ke bina mar jaana chaahiye - charchil." the objrvar 1 January 2006.
  35. srot: der spiyegel, ank dinaank 3 November 2008: hitlar vaulastrekar - Aus dem Leben eines Massenmöarders
  36. rumel, aar.J. "demosaaid ke saankhyiki: "narasanhaar aur 1900 ke baad saamoohik hatya". chaaralotatesvile: raashtreeya suraksha kaanoon ke liye kendra, kaanoon ke ek school, varjeeniya ke vishvavidyaalaya, 1997. <http://www.mega.nu/ampp/rummel/note5.htm>
  37. henarik himlar ke esaes service record; sanyukt raajya America ke raashtreeya abhilekhaagaar, college park, maireelaind
  38. "henarik himlar: hitlar ke fotograafik kraunikl Martin reichfuhraar-esaes", Martin mainasan, schifr military history, 2001

granth soochi

  • Breitman, Richard (2004). Himmler and the Final Solution: The Architect of Genocide. Pimlico, Random House, London. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 1-84413-089-4.
  • haigar: arnast: the journal of intelligence history mein "fikshans, faikts aur fauragerij: the 'revaleshans' of Peter end Martin Allen abaaut the history of the sekend world vaur", ank 6 nan. 1 (greeshmakaaleen 2006 prakaashit [2007]), peepi 105-117.
  • Hale, Christopher (2003). Himmler's Crusade: The true story of the 1938 Nazi expedition into Tibet. Transworld Publishers, London. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-593-04952-7.
  • (jarman mein - henarik himlar lekhak ki graindaankal the)
  • Höahne, Heinz (2000). The Order of the Death's Head: The Story of Hitler's SS. Translated from German by Richard Barry. Penguin Classic. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0141390123.
  • Höahne, Heinz (1972). The Order of the Death's Head: The Story of Hitler's SS. London: Pan Books Ltd. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-330-02963-0.
  • Höass, Rudolf. Paskuly, Steven. Levi, Primo. Translated by Andrew Pollinger (1996). Death Dealer: The Memoirs of the SS Kommandant at Auschwitz. Da Capo Press. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0306806983.
  • Lumsden, Robin (2001). A Collector's Guide To: The Allgemeine — SS. Ian Allan Publishing, Inc.. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-7110-2905-9.
  • Padfield, Peter (2001). Himmler. Reichsfüahrer-SS. Cassel & Co, London. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-304-35839-8.
  • Pringle, Heather (2006). The Master Plan: Himmler's Scholars and the Holocaust. Hyperion, New York. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0786868864.
  • Reitlinger, Gerald (1956). The SS: Alibi of a Nation 1922-1945.
  • Russell, Stuart (2007). La fortezza di Heinrich Himmler — Il centro ideologico di Weltanschauung delle SS — Cronaca per immagini della scuola-SS Haus Wewelsburg 1934-1945 [Heinrich Himmlers Burg — Das Weltanschauliche Zentrum Der SS — Bildchronick der SS-Schule Haus Wewelsburg 1934-1945]. Roma: Editrice Thule Italia. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 9788890278105.
  • Thomas, Hugh W., M.D.. Strange Death of Heinrich Himmler: A Forensic Investigation.
  • Williams, Max (2003). Reinhard Heydrich: The Biography: Volumes 1. Ulric Publishing. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-9537577-5-7.

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