haasya ras tatha usaka saahitya

jaise jihva ke aasvaad ke chhah ras prasiddh hain usi prakaar hrudaya ke aasvaad ke nau ras prasiddh hain. jihva ke aasvaad ko laukik aanand ki koti mein rakha gaya hai kyonki usaka seedha sambandh laukik vastuon se hai. hrudaya ke aasvaad ko alaukik aanand ki koti mein maana jaata hai kyonki usaka seedha sambandh vastuon se naheen kintu bhaavaanubhootiyon se hai. bhaavaanubhooti aur bhaavaanubhooti ke aasvaad mein antar hai.

anukram

paribhaasha

bhaarateeya kaavyaachaaryon ne rason ki sankhya praaya: nau hi maani hai kyonki unke mat se nau bhaav hi aise hain jo manushya ki mool pravruttiyon se ghanishthataya sambandhit hokar sthaayitv ki poori kshamata rakhate hain aur ve hi viksit hokar vastut: ras sanjnyaa ki praapti ke adhikaari kahe ja sakte hain. yeh maanyata vivaadaaspad bhi rahi hai, parantu haasya ki rasaroopata ko sabhi se nirvivaad roop se sveekaar kiya hai. manovijnyaaan ke visheshagyon ne bhi haas ko mool pravrutti ke roop mein samuchit sthaan diya hai aur iske vishleshan mein paryaapt manan chintan kiya hai. is manan chintan ko paurvaatya kaavyaachaaryon ki apeksha paashchaatya kaavyaachaaryon ne vistaarapoorvak abhivyakti di hai, parantu fir bhi yeh naheen kaha ja sakta ki unhonne is tatv ka poori vyaapakata ke saath adhyayan kar liya hai aur ya haasyaras ya haas ki kaavyagat abhivyanjana ki hi koi aisi paribhaasha de di hai jo sabhi sabhi prakaar ke udaaharanon ko apne mein samet sake. bhaarateeya aachaaryon ne ek prakaar ke sootraroop mein hi iska prakhyaapan kiya hai kintu unki sankshipt uktiyon mein paashchaatya sameekshakon ke praaya: sabhi nishkarshon aur tatvon ka saralataapoorvak antarbhaav dekha ja sakta hai.

haasyaras ke liye bharat muni ka naatyashaastr kehta hai-

 vipreetaalaङakaarairvikrutaachaaraabhidhaan vesaishch
vikrutairarthavisheshaihansateeti ras: smruto haasya:..

bhaavaprakaash mein likha hai-

 preetirvishesh: chittasya vikaaso haas uchyate.

saahityadarpanakaar ka kathan hai-

 varnadi vaikrutaachcheto vikaaro haasya ishyate


 vikrutaakaaravaagveshacheshtaade: kuhakaad bhavet..

dasharoopakakaar ki ukti hai-

 vikrutaakrutivaagveraatmanasyaparasya va
haas: syaat pariposhoऽsya haasya striprakruti: smrut:..


taatparya yeh hai ki haas ek preetiprak bhaav hai aur chittavikaas ka ek roop hai. usaka udrek vikrut aakaar, vikrut vesh, vikrut aachaar, vikrut abhidhaan, vikrut alankaar, vikrut arthavishesh, vikrut vaani, vikrut cheshta aadi dvaara hota hai - in vikrutiyon se yukt haasyapaatrata chaahe abhineta ki ho, chaahe vakta ki ho, chaahe anya kisi ki ho. vikruti ka taatparya hai pratyaashit se vipreet athva vilkshan koi aisa vaichitrya, koi aisa betukaapan, jo hamein preetikr jaan pade, kleshakar na jaan pade. in lakshanon mein paashchaatya sameekshakon ke praaya: sabhi lakshan samaavisht ho jaate hain, jahaaain tak unka sambandh haasya vishyon se hai. aisa haas jab viksit hokar hamein kavikaushal dvaara saadhaaraneekrut roop mein, athva aachaarya pan. raamachandr shukl ki shabdaavali ke anusaar, mukt dasha mein praapt hota hai, vah haasyaras kahalaata hai.

haas ke bhaav ka udrek desh-kaal-paatr-saapeksh rahata hai. ghar par koi khuli deh baitha ho to darshak ko hainsi na aavegi parantu utsav mein bhi vah isi tarah pahuainch jaae to usaka aacharan pratyaashit se vipreet ya vikrut maana jaane ke kaaran hainsi jaga dega; usaka vyavahaar haas ki janani ho jaaega. yuva vyakti shrungaar kare to fabane ki baat hai kintu jarjar buddhe ka shrungaar haas ka kaaran hoga; kursi se girnevaale pahalavaan par ham nishchit hi hainsane lageinge parantu chhat se girnevaale bachche par hamaari karunaapoorn sahaanubhooti hi umadegi. yeh pehle hi kaha gaya hai ki haas ka aadhaar preeti par hota hai na ki dvesh par, ataev yadi kisi ki prakruti, pravrutti, svabhaav, aachaar aadi ki vikruti par kataaksh bhi karna ho to vah katukti ke roop mein naheen kintu priyokti ke roop mein hogi, usaki tah mein jalan athva neecha dikhaane ki bhaavana na hokar vishuddh sanshuddhi ki bhaavana hogi. sanshuddhi ki bhaavanaavaali yeh priyokti bhi upadesh ki shabdaavali mein naheen kintu ranjanata ki shabdaavali mein hogi.

haasya ke bhed evam haasya-vidhaaeain

haasya ke bhedon par bhi aachaaryon ne vichaar kiya hai. unhonne haasya ke do bhed kiye hain. ek hai aatmasth aur doosra hai parasth. haasyapaatr ki drushti se aatmasth haasya hai svat: us paatr ka hainsana aur parasth haasya hai doosaron ko hainsaana. saamaajikon ya sahrudaya shrotaaon, athva naatyadarshakon ki drushti se aatmasth haasya hai anyon ki hainsi ke bina svat: unamein udbhut haasya aur parasth haasya hai doosaron ko hainsata hua dekhkar unamein utpann haasya. drushtikonon ka yeh antar samajh lene par in donon shabdon ke arthon ka vichaar saralataapoorvak samaapt kiya ja sakta hai. fir, aachaaryon ne haasya ke chhah bhed kiye hain - smit, hasit, vihsit, upahasit, avahasit aur atihsit; jinhein bhaavabhed naheen kintu hasanakriya ke hi bhed maanana padega. sankshep mein, aaainkhon ki muskaraahat smit hai. batteesi deekh padna hasit hai, ho hi ki si dhvani nikal padna vihsit hai. ang hil uthana avahasit hai. pet pakadnevaali hainsi avahasit hai aur poore thahaakevaali jhakajhorakaarini pasaleetod hainsi atihsit hai. saahityadarpanakaar ne smit aur hasit ko shreshthon ke yogya kaha hai. vihsit aur upahasit ko madhyam vargeeya logon ke yogya aur apahasit tatha atihsit ko neech logon ke yogya kaha hai. rangamanch mein darshakon ke liye bhi hainsane ki ek maryaada honi chaahiye, us drushti se uttam, madhyam, adham ki yeh baat bhale hi maan li ja sakti hai. naheen to jhakajhor denevaali hainsi keval neechon ki vastu samajh lene se uchch vargeeya lok svaasthya ke ek mahatvapoorn tatv se vanchit rah jaaainge. dau॰ Ramkumar varma ne uttam, madhyam, adham ke prabhaav ki ishti se haasya ke teen bhed maane hain aur inhein aatmasth, parasth se gunit karke hasan kriya ke baarah bhed likhe hain. smit, hasit aadi hasanakriyaabhedon ko haasya ka anubhaav hi kaha ja sakta hai. in anubhaavon ka varnan maatr kar dena alag baat hai aur apni rachana dvaara saamaajikon mein ye anubhaav utpann kara dena alag baat hai. haasyaras ki safal rachana vah hai jo haasyaras ke anubhaav anaayaas utpann kara de.


videshi vidvaanon ke vichaar se haasya ke paaainch pramukh bhed hain jinke naam hain - hyoomar (shuddh haasya), vit (vaagvaidagdhya), saitaayar (vyang), aairani (vakrokti) aur faars (prasahan). hyoomar aur faars haasya ke vishay se sambandhit hain jabki bit, saitaayar aur aairani ka sambandh ukti ke kaushal se hai jinmein pichhle do ka uddeshya keval santushti hi na hokar sanshuddhi bhi raha karta hai. pairodi (rachanaaparihaas athva virchanaanukaran) bhi haasya ki ek vidha hai jiska uktikaushal se sambandh hai kintu jiska pradhaan uddeshya hai santushti. aairani ka arth parihaas chintya hai. upahaas mein, hamaare vichaar se, aairani (vakrokti) ka bhi antarbhaav maan liya jaana chaahiye anyatha vah haasya ki koti se baahar ki vastu ho jaaegi. vit athva vaagvaidaadhya ko ek vishisht alankaar kaha ja sakta hai.

haasya ki utpatti evam saadhan

bhaarateeya saahityapanditon ne jis prakaar shrungaar ke saath nyaaya kiya hai usaka dashamaansh bhi haasya ke saath naheen kiya, yadyapi bharat muni ne iski utpatti shrungaar se maani hai arthaat ise rati ya preeti ka parimaan maana hai aur ise shrungaar ke baad hi navarason mein mahatva ka darja diya hai. aanand ke saath iska seedha sambandh hai aur na keval ranjanata ki drushti se kintu upayogita ki drushti se bhi iski apni vishishtata hai. yeh tan man ke tanaav door karta hai, svabhaav ki karkashata mitaata hai, aatmanireekshan aur aatmaparishkaar ke saath hi meethe dhang par samaajasudhaar ka maarg prashast karta hai, vyakti aur samaaj ki thakaan door kar unamein taajagi bharta hua janasvaasthya aur lokasvaasthya ka upakaarak banta hai. yeh nishchit hai ki sanskrut saahitya tatha hindi saahitya mein is haasyaras ke mahatva ke anupaat se iske uttam udaaharanon ki kami hi hai. fir bhi aitihaasik sinhaavalokan se yeh bhi spasht ho jaata hai ki saahitya mein haasyaras ka pravaah vaidik kaal se lekar aaj tak nirantar chala aa raha hai, yadyapi vartamaan kaal ke poorv usein vividhta itni naheen jitni aaj dikhaai pad rahi hai.

haasyaras ki dhaara ke vaividhya (athva bhedon) ko vishay aur vyanjana (arthaat arth aur vaak) ki drushti se dekha ja sakta hai. vishay ko ham aakruti, prakruti, paristhiti, vesh, vaani, vyavahaar aur vastu mein vibhkt kar sakte hain. aakruti ka betukaapan hai motaapa, kuroopata, bhaddaapan, angabhang, beja najaakat, tond, koobad, naariyon ka atyant kaalaapan, aadi. inmein se anek vishyon par haasyaras ki rachanaaeain ho chuki hain. dhyaan dene yogya baat hai ki ek samay ka haasyaaspad vishay sabhi samayon ka haasyaaspad vishay ho jaae, aisa naheen hua karta. aaj angabhang, nirmuchhata aadi haasya ke vishay naheen maane jaate ataev ab inapar rachanaaeain karna haasya ki suruchi ka parichaayak na maana jaaega. prakruti ya svabhaav ka betukaapan hai ujaddapan, bevakoofi, paakhand, jheinp, khushaamad, amaryaadit faishanaparasti, kanjoosi, dikhaava panditmanyata, atihaasyapaatrata, anadhikaarapoorn ahanmanyata, aadi. aakruti ke betukepan ki apeksha prakruti ke betukepan ko apna lakshya banaakar rachanaaeain karna adhik prashast hai. rachanaakaaron ne kanjoosi aadi ki vruttiyon par achhe vyang kiye hain, parantu abhi is disha mein anek vishay achhoote hi chhoot gaye hain. paristhiti ka betukaapan hai gangaamadaari joda (udaahanaarth "kauva ke gale sohaari", hoor ke pahal mein langoor", "pataloon ke neeche dhoti", "gadahe son baachaalata aru dhobi son maun", aadi) samay ki chook (avsar chooki gvaalini, gaavai saari raat) samaaj ki asamanjasata mein vyakti ki vivshata aadi. iska atyant sundar udaaharan hai raamacharitmaanas ka kevat prasang jismein Ram ka marm samajh jaane ki deeng haaainkanevaale moorkh kintu panditmanya kevat ko Ram koi uttar naheen de paate aur ek prakaar se chupachaap aatmasamarpan kar dete hain. yeh paristhiti ka vyang tha. vesh ka betukaapan, haaspaatr naton aur vidooshakon ka priya vishay hi raha hai aur prahasanon, raamaleelaaon, raasaleelaaon, "gammat", tamaashon aadi mein aasaani se diya ja sakta hai. dharmadhvajiyon (bagulaabhakton ka) vesh, andhaanukaran karanevaale faishanaparaston ka vesh, "mardaani aurat" ka vesh, aise betuke vesh hain jo rachana ke vishay ho sakte hain. vesh ke betukepan ki rachana bhi aakruti ke betukepan ki rachana ke samaan praaya: chhichhle darje ki hogi. vaani ka betukaapan hai hakalaana, baat baat par "jo hai so" ke sadrush takiyaakalaam lagaana, shabdaskhalan karna ("jal bharo" ki jagal "bhal jaro" kah dena), amaanavi dhvaniyaaain (mimiyaana, reinkana, svaravaishamaya athva fate bains ki si aavaaj, baithe gale ki fusafusaahat aadi), shekhi ke pralaap, gapabaaji (jo abhivyanjana ki vidha ke roop ki na ho), panditaaoo bhaasha, gainvaaroo bhaasha, anek bhaasha ke shabdon ki khichdi, aadi. vyavahaar ka betukaapan hai asamanjas ghatanaaeain, foohad harakatein, atiranjana, chaaritrik vikruti, saamaajik uchhrankhalataaeain, kuchh ka kuchh samajh baithna, kah baithna ya kar baithna, kathaputaleepan (yantravat vyavahaar jisein vichaar ya vivek ka prabhaav shoonyavat rahata hai) ityaadi. haasyaras ki abhivyanjana ke liye, chaahe vah parihaas ki drushti se (santushti ki drushti se) ho chaahe upahaas ki drushti se (sanshuddhi ki drushti se), vyavahaar ka betukaapan hi prachur saamagri pradaan kar sakta hai. vastu ki drushti se manushya hi kyon, Dave daanav (vishnu, shankar, Ram, Krishna, raavan, kunbhakarn aadi) pashu pakshi (kutte, gadhe, ooaint, ulloo, kauva aadi), khatamal machhar, jhaadoo, tokani, plate raashaning aadi anek vishyon par safalataarpook kalamein chalaai gayi hain. parantu in vastuon aur visheshat: isht devon evam prashaasanik vyangon ke saath majaak jahaaain tak preetibhaav ko lekar hoga, vaheen tak haasyaras ki koti ka adhikaari kaha jaaega. kheejhabhari anya rachanaaeain raudr, veebhats ya anya rason ki koti mein pahuainch ja sakti hain.

abhivyanjana mein pratyaashit ka vaipareetya anek prakaar se dekha aur dikhaaya ja sakta hai. ise betukaapan, vikruti, asamanjasata aadi shabdon se theek theek naheen samajhaaya ja sakta. yeh vah vaakkaushal hai jiske liye rachanaakaar mein bhi paryaapt pratibha apekshit hoti hai aur us rachana ke drashta, shrota ya paathak mein bhi. jis saamaajik (drashta, shrota ya paathak) mein haasya ki ichha aur aasha na hogi, svabhaav mein vinodapriyta aur haasyonmukhata na hogi tatha buddhi ke shabdasanketon aur vaakyagat angon ko samajhne ki kshamata na hogi, samajhna chaahiye ki uske liye haasyaras ki rachanaaeain hai hi naheen. isi prakaar jis kalaakaar (kavi, lekhak ya abhineta) mein parishkaarapriyta, pratyutpannamatitv aur shabd taulane ki kala naheen hai vah haasyaras ka safal lekhak naheen ho sakta. safal lekhak apratyaashit shabdaadanbar ke sahaare, shabd ki apratyaashit vyutpatti ke sahaare (jaise-ko ghaate ye vrushabhaanuja ve haladhar ke beer-bihaari); apratyaashit vilkshan upamaaon aadi alankaaron ke sahaare (jaise-na saaheb te soodhe batalaaeain, giri thaari aisi jhannaayein, kabaun chhaukan jaisi khaukhyaayein, pataaka aisi dagi dagi jaaeain-ramai kaaka, man gaadi gaadi rahai preeti kliyr binu lain, jab lagi tirchhe hot nahin singal dooo nain-sukavi); vilkshan tarkoktiyon ke sahaare (jaise haathi ke padachihron ke liye laalabujhakkadi tark paaainv mein chakki baaaindh ke hirna kuda hoya); vaagvaidagdhya (vit) ki anek vidhaaon ke sahaare yatha, (1) arth ke fer badal ke sahaare (jaise-"bhikshuk go kitko girij? sutau maaaingan ko bali dvaare gayo ri" saagar shel sutaan ke beech yon aapas mein parihaas bhayo ri; (2) pratyutar mein nahale ki jagah dahala lagaane ki kala ke sahaare (jaise-gaavat baaaindar baithyo nikunj mein taal samet, tain aaainkhin pekhe; gaaainv mein jaae kai main hoo bachhaani ko bailahin bed padhaavat dekhe - kaavyakaanan); saitaayar ke sahaare (jaise-raamacharitmaanas ke shivbaraat prasang mein vishnu ki ukti ""ki bar anuhaari baraat na bhaai, hainsi karaiihu par pur jaai)"", krushnaayan mein uddhav ki ukti ki bhavan jaraihain madhupuri, shyaam bajaihain benu? bhavaaneeprasaad mishr ji ka geetafarosh aadi), kataaksh (aairaani) ke sahaare (jaise, kari fulel ko aachaman meetho kahat saraahin, re gandhi matiandh too atar dikhaavat kaahi - bihaari; muft ka chandan ghas mere nandan - lokokti; munasi kasaai ki kalam talavaar hai - bhadova sangrah,; virooparachanaanukaran (pairodi) ke sahaare (jaise, neta aisa chaahiye jaisa roop subhaaya, chanda saara gahi rahai deya raseed udaaya - chonch, beeti vibhaavari jaag ri; chhappar par baithe kaavein kaavein karte hain kitne kaag ri-bedhab); viroop vachanaanukaran ke sahaare (jise bhi virooparachanaanukaran ke samaan pairodi ki ek vidha hi samajhna chaahiye - jaise pan. neharu ki bhaashan paripaati ki nakal, kisi ahindeebhaashi ki praanteeya athva jaateeya visheshataaon se yukt bhaasha ki nakal, kisi ke takiyaakalaamon ki nakal); tatha isi prakaar ki anekaanek abhivyanjana shailiyon se haasyaras ka udrek karaaya karte hain.

prabhaav ki drushti se hamaari samajh mein haasyaras ya to visheshat: parihaas ki koti ka hota hai ya upahaas ki koti ka. in donon shabdon ko humne paramparaagat arth mein seemaabaddh naheen kiya hai. jo santushti pradhaan kaavya hai use ham parihaas ki koti ka maanate hain aur jo sanshuddhi pradhaan hai use upahaas ki koti ka. anek rachanaaon mein donon ka mishran bhi hua karta hai. parihaas aur upahaas donon ke liye saamaajikon ki suruchi ka dhyaan rakhana aavashyak hai. maansal shrungaaraparak haas, aajkal ke shisht samaaj ko ruchikr naheen ho sakta. devata vishyak vyang sahadharmiyon ko hi hainsaane ke liye hua karta hai. upahaas ke liye suruchi ka dhyaan atyant aavashyak hai. maja ismein hi hai ki haasyapaatr (chaahe vah vyakti ho ya samaaj) apni trutiyaaain samajh le parantu sanket denevaale ka anugruheet bhi ho jaae aur use upadeshta ke roop mein na dekhe. bina vyang ke haas ko parihaas samajhiye, chaahe vah varnanaatmak ho chaahe vaartaalaap ki koti ka aur apne par athva anya par, visheshat: anya par, vyang karke jo prabhaav dikhaaya jaata hai vah upahaas hai hi. bit, hyoomar, pairodi aadi ke sahaare utpann vah haas jo vishuddh santushti ki koti ka hai, parihaas hi kaha jaaega. anubhaav ki drushti se haasyaras ko mruduhaas ki koti ka samajhna chaahiye ya attaas ki koti ka. hasit, apahasit aadi anya kotiyon ka inheen donon mein antarbhaav maan lena chaahiye. mruduhaas ke do bhi kiye ja sakte hain, ek hai gupt haas jiska aanand man hi man liya jaata hai aur doosra hai sfut haas jiska muskaraahat aadi ke roop mein anya jan bhi darshan kar sakte hain. attahaas ke bhi do bhed kiye ja sakte hain-ek hai maryaadit haas jo hainsanevaale ki paristhiti se niyantrit rahata hai aur doosra hai amaryaadit haas jismein paristhiti saapekshata ka bhaan naheen rahata. haasya ke bhedon ka yeh vivechan sambhavat: adhik vaigyaanik hoga.

kuchh udaaharan

naatakon mein prahasan ki vidha aur vidooshak ki upasthiti ne haasya ka srujan kiya hai kintu vah bahumukhi naheen hone paaya. subhaashit ke kai shlok avashya achhe ban pade hain jinmein vishay aur ukti donon drushtiyon se haasya ki achhi avataarana ki gayi hai. kuchh udaaharan de dena apraasangik na hoga.

devataaon ke sambandh ka majaak dekhiye. prashn tha ki shankar ji ne jahar kyon piya? kavi ka uttar hai ki apni gruhasthi ki dasha se oobakar.

 attun vaanchhati vaahanan ganapate raakhun kshudhaart: fani
tan ch kraunchapate: shikhi ch girija sinhoऽpinaagaanarn.
Gauri jahrusutaamasooyasi kalaanaarth kapaalaanano
nivinvashn: s payau kutumbakalahaadeeshoऽpihaalaahalam..

shankar ji ka saaainp ganesh ji ke choohe ki taraf jhapat raha hai kintu svat: usapar kaartikeya ji ka mor daaainv lagaae hue hai. udhar girija ka Singh ganesh ji ke gajamastak par lalachaai nigaahein rakh raha hai or svat: girija ji bhi ganga se sautiyaadaah rakhati hui bhabhak rahi hain. samarth hokar bhi bechaare shankar ji is bedhangi gruhasthi se kaise paar paate, isliye oobakar jahar pi liya.

tridev khatiya par naheen sote. jaan padta hai khatamalon se ve bhi bhayabheet ho chuke hain.

 vidhistu kamale shete hari: shate mahodadhau
haro himaalaye shete manye matkun shankaya..

daamaad apni sasuraal ko kitni saar vastu maana karta hai parantu fir bhi kis akadbaaji se apni pooja karavaate rahane ki apeksha rakha karta hai ya nimn shlokon mein dekhiye. donon hi shlok paryaapt kaavyagunayukt hain. jitna vishleshan keejiye utana hi maja aata jaaega:

 asaare khalu sansaare, saaran shvasur mandiran
har: himaalaye shete, hari: shete payonidhau..


 sada vakr: sada kroor:, sada poojaamapekshate
kanyaaraashisthito nityan, jaamaata dashamo grah:..

paraann priya ho ki praan, ispar kavi ka nishkarsh suniye-

 paraannan praapya durbuddhe! ma praaneshu dayaan kuru
paraannan durlabhan loke praan: janmani janmani..

raaja bhoj ne ghoshana ki thi ki jo naya shlok rachakar laaega use ek lakh mudraaeain puraskaar mein mileingi parantu puraskaar kisi ko milne hi naheen paata tha kyonki use medhaavi darabaari pandit naya shlok sunate hi duhara dete aur is prakaar use puraana ghoshit kar dete the. kinvadanti ke anusaar kaalidaas ne nimn shlok sunaakar boli band kar di thi. shlok mein kavi ne daava kiya hai ki raaja ninnaanabe karod ratn dekar pita ko rinamukt karein aur ispar panditon ka saakshya le lein. yadi panditgan kahein ki yeh daava unhein vidit naheen hai to fir is nae shlok ki rachana ke liye ek lakh diye hi jaaeain. ismein "kaisa chhakaaya" ka bhaav badi sundarata se sannihit hai :

 svastishri bhojaraaj! tribhuvanavijyi dhaarmik ste pitaaऽbhoot
pitra te me gruheeta navanavati yuta ratnakotirmadeeya.
taanstvan me dehi sheeghran sakal budhajanaijrnyaaayate satyametat
no va jaananti kechinnavakrut miticheddehi lakshan tato me..

hindi ke veeragaathaakaal, bhaktikaal aur reetikaal praaya: padyon ke hi kaal rahe hain. is lambe kaal mein haasya ki rachanaaeain yada kada hoti hi rahi hain parantu ve praaya: futakar dhang ki hi rachanaaeain rahi hain. tulaseedaas ji ke raamacharimaanas ka naaradamoh prasang shivvivaah prasang, parashuraam prasang aadi aur sooradaas ji ke soorasaagar ka maakhanachori prasang, uddhav-gopi-samvaad prasang aadi alabatta haasya ke achhe udaaharan prastut karte hain. tulaseedaas ji ka nimn chhand, jismein jaraajarjar tapasviyon ki shrungaaralaalasa par majedaar chutaki li gayi hai, apni chhata mein apoorv hai-

 vindhya ke vaasi udaasi tapovratadhaari maha binu naari dukhaare
Gautam teeya tari tulasi so katha suni bhe munivrund sukhaare.
hvai hain sila sab chandramukhi, parase pad manjul kanj tihaare
keenheen bhali raghunaayak joo jo krupa kari kaanan ko pagu dhaare..

beerabal ke chutakule, laal bujhakkad ke latake, ghaagh aur bhaddari ki sooktiyaaain, girdhar kaviraaya aur gang ke chhand, beni kaviraaj ke bhadauve tatha aur bhi kai rachanaaeain is kaal ki prasiddh hain. bhaaratajeevan press ne is kaal ki futakar haasya rachanaaon ka kuchh sankalan apne "bhadova sangrah" mein prakaashit kiya tha. is kaal mein, visheshat: daan ke prasang ko lekar, kuchh maarmik rachanaaeain hui hain jinki rochakata aaj bhi kam naheen kahi ja sakti. udaaharan dekhiye -

 cheete na chaatate moose na sooainghate, baans mein maachhi na aavat nere,
aani dhare jab se ghar me tabase rahai haija parosin ghere,
maatihu mein kachhu svaad milai, inhain khaat so dhoodht harr bahere,
chaunki paro pitulok mein baap, so aapke dekhi saraadh ke pere..

ek soom ne sankat mein tulaadaan karna kabool kar liya tha. uske liye apna vajan ghataane ki usaki tarakeebein dekhiye -

 baarah maas laun pathya kiyo, shat maas laun langhan ko kiyo kaitho
taapai kahooain bahoo det khavaaya, to kai kari dvaarat soch mein paitho
maadhau bhanai nit mail chhudaavat, khaal khainchai imi jaat hai aintho
moochh mudaaya kai, mood ghotaaya kai, fasd kholaaya, tula chadhi baitho..

hindi saahitya mein haasya

vartamaan kaal mein haasya ke vishyon aur unki abhivyakti karne ki shailiyon ka bahut vistaar hua hai. is yug mein padya ke saath hi gadya ki bhi anek vidhaaon ka vikaas hua hai. pramukh hain naatak tatha ekaanki, upanyaas tatha kahaaniyaaain, evam nibandh. in sabhi vidhaaon mein haasyaras ke anukool prachur maatra mein saahitya likha gaya aur likha ja raha hai. pratibhaashaali lekhakon ne padya ke saath hi gadya ki vividh vidhaaon mein bhi apni haasyarasavardhini rachanaaeain prastut ki hain. is yug ke praarambhik dinon ke sarvaadhik yashasvi saahityakaar hain bhaarateindu babu harishchandr. inke naatakon mein vishuddh haasyaras kam, vaagvaidagdhya kuchh adhik aur upahaas paryaapt maatra mein paaya jaata hai. "vaidiki hinsa hinsa na bhavati", "andher nagari" aadi unki krutiyaaain hain. unka "chooran ka lataka" prasiddh hai. unke hi yug ke laala shreenivaas das, shri prataapanaaraayan mishr, shri raadhaakrushnadaas, shri premadhan, shri baalakrushn bhatt aadi ne bhi haasya ki rachanaaeain ki hain. shri prataapanaaraayan mishr ne "kalikautuk roopak" naamak sundar prahasan likha hai. "budhaapa" naamak unki kavita shuddh haasya ki uttam kruti hai.

us samay angreji raajya apne gaurav par tha jiski pratyaksh aalochna khatre se khaali naheen thi. ataev saahityakaaron ne, visheshat: vyang aur upahaas ka maarg hi pakad tha aur syaapa, hajo, vakrokti, vyangokti aadi ke maadhyam se sudhaaravaadi saamaajik chetna jagaane ka prayatn kiya tha.

bhaarateindukaal ke baad mahaaveeraprasaad Dwivedi kaal aaya jisne haasya ke vishyon aur unki abhivyanjana pranaaliyon ka kud aur adhik parishkaar evam vistaar kiya. naatakon mein keval haasya ka uddeshya lekar mukhya katha ke saath jo ek antarkatha ya upakatha (visheshat: paarasi theatrical companiyon ke prabhaav se) chala karti thi vah dvivedeekaal mein praaya: samaapt ho gayi aur haasya ke udrek ke liye vishay anivaarya na rah gaya. kaavya mein "saragau narak thekaana naahin" sadrush rachanaaeain sarasvati aadi patrikaaon mein saamane I. us yug ke baavoo baalamukund gupt aur pan. jagannaathaprasaad chaturvedi haasyaras ke achhe lekhak the. pratham ne "bhaasha ki anasthirta" naamak apni lekhamaala "aatmaaraam" naam se likhi aur doosare sajjan ne "nirankushata-nidrshan" naamak lekhamaala "manasaaraam" naam se. donon ne in maalaaon mein Dwivedi ji se takkar li hai aur unki is nokajhonk ki charcha saahityikon ke beech bahut dinon tak rahi. shri baalamukund gupt ji ka shivshanbhu ka chittha, shri chandradhar sharma guleri ka kachhuva dharm, shri mishrabandhu aur badareenaath bhatt ji ke anek naatak, shri harishankar sharma ke nibandh, naatak aadi, shri ji. pi. shreevaastav aur ugr ji ke anek prahasan aur anek kahaaniyaaain, apne apne samay mein janasaadhaaran mein khoob samaadrut hui. ji. pi. shreevaastav mein ulatafer, lambi daadhi aadi likhkar haasyaras ke kshetr mein dhoom macha di thi, yadyapi unka haasya uthala uthala sa hi raha hai. niraala ji ne sundar vyangaatmak rachanaaeain likhi hain aur unke kulli bhaath, chaturi chamaar, sukul ki beebi, billesur bakariha, kukooramutta aadi paryaapt prasiddh hai. pan. vishvanbharanaath sharma kaushik nishchaya hi vijyaanand dube ki chitthiyaaain aadi likhkar is kshetr mein bhi paryaapt prasiddhipraapt hain. shivpoojan sahaaya aur hajaareeprasaad Dwivedi ne "haasyaras ke saahitya ki achhi shreevruddhi ki hai. annapoornaanand varma ko ham haasyaras ka hi vishesh lekhak kah sakte hain. unke "mahaakavi chachcha", "meri hajaamat," "magan rahu chola", mangal mod", "man mayoor" sabhi suruchipoorn hain.

vartamaan kaal mein upeindranaath ashk ne "parda uthaao, parada giraao" aadi kai nai soojhavaale ekaanki likhe hain. dau॰ Ramkumar varma ka ekaanki sangrah "rimjhim" is kshetr mein meal ka patthar maana gaya hai. unhonne smit haasya ke achhe namoone diye hain. devaraaj dinesh, udayashankar bhatt, bhagavateecharan varma, prabhaakar maachave, jayanaath nalin, bedhab banaarasi, kaantaanaath chonch," bhaiya ji banaarasi, gopaalaprasaad vyaas, kaaka haatharasi, aadi anek sajjanon ne anek vidhaaon mein rachanaaeain ki hain aur haasyaras ke saahitya ko khoob samruddh kiya hai. inmein se anek lekhakon ki anek krutiyon ne achhi prashansa pai hai. bhagavateecharan varma ka "apne khilaune" haasyaras ke upanyaason mein vishisht sthaan rakhata hai. yashapaal ka "chakkar club" vyang ke liye prasiddh hai. krushnachandr ne "ek gadhe ki aatmakatha" aadi likhkar vyang lekhakon mein yashasvita praapt ki hai. gangaadhar shukl ka "subah hoti hai shaam hoti hai" apni niraali vidha rakhata hai.

Rahul saankrutyaayan, seth govind das, shreenaaraayan chaturvedi, amrutalaal naagar, dau॰ barasaanelaal ji, vaasudev Goswami, bedhadk ji, vipr ji, bhaaratabhooshan Agrawal aadi ke naam ginaae ja sakte hain jinhonne kisi na kisi roop mein saahitya ke is upaadeya ang ki samruddhi ki hai.

anya bhaashaaon ki kai vishisht krutiyon ke anuvaad bhi hindi mein ho chuke hain. Kelkar ke "subhaashit aani vinod" naamak gaveshanaapoorn maraathi granth ke anuvaad ke atirikt moliye ke naatakon ka, "gulivrs traivels" ka, "daan kvikjot" ka, sarashaar ke "fisaanae aajaad" ka, raveendranaath Tagore ke naatyakautuk ka, parashuraam, ajeemabeg chagtaai aadi ki kahaaniyon ka, anuvaad hindi mein upalabdh hai.


inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain