haaidrojan

- ← {{{namehin}}} → helium
-

H

Li
Element 37: Rubidium (Rb), Alkali metal
Element 50: Tin (Sn), Other metal
Element 80: Mercury (Hg), Transition metal
Element 92: Uranium (U), Actinoid
Element 94: Plutonium (Pu), Actinoid
{{{namehin}}} की {{{crystal structure hin}}} क्रिस्टल संरचना होती है।
[[file:Electron shell {{{numbereng}}} haaidrojan.svg|60px|haaidrojan]]
1H
darshan
colorless gas
Hydrogen discharge tube.jpg
Purple glow in its plasma state
Hydrogen Spectra.jpg
Spectral lines of hydrogen
saamaanya
naam, chinh, sankhya {{{namehin}}}, H, 1
tattv varg diatomic nonmetal
samooh, aavart, block 1, 1, s
maanak parmaanu bhaar 1.008(1) graa•aamol−1
ilektraun kaunfigreshan 1s1
ilektraun prati shel 1 ([[:file:Electron shell {{{numbereng}}} haaidrojan.svg|aarekh]])
bhautik gun
rang colorless
avastha gas
ghanatv (0 °aC, 101.325 kPa)
0.08988 g/L
taral ghanatv galanaank par 0.07 (0.0763 solid)[1] g•aacm−3
galanaank 13.99 K, -259.16 °C, -434.49 °F
kvathanaank 20.271 K, -252.879 °C, -423.182 °F
trigun bindu 13.8033 K (-259°C), 7.041 kPa
sankat bindu 32.938 K, 1.2858 MPa
vilay ooshma (H2) 0.117 ki.joola•aamol−1
vaashpeekaran ooshma (H2) 0.904 ki.joola•aamol−1
vishisht ooshma kshamata (25 °ase.) (H2) 28.836 joo•aamol−1•akelvin−1
vaashp dabaav
P/paaskal 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
T/kai. par 15 20
paramaanvik gun
okseekaran sthitiyaan 1, -1
(amphoteric oxide)
ilektronegetiviti 2.20 (paailing paimaana)
aayaneekaran oorjaaen 1st: 1312.0 ki.joola•aamol−1
sanyoji trijya 31±a5 pm
en:Van der Waals radius 120 pm
vividh
chunbakeeya kram diamagnetic[2]
taapeeya chaalakata (300 K) 0.1805 W•aam−1•aK−1
dhvani ki gati (gas, 27 °aC) 1310 mi./sekind
si.A.S panji.sankhya 1333-74-0
sarvaadhik sthir samasthaanik
mukhya lekh: [[{{{namehin}}} ke samasthaanik]]
samasthaanik praakrutik prachurata ardhaayu kaal kshaya mod kshaya oorja
(MeV)
kshaya utpaad
1H 99.985% 1H 0 nyootraun ke sang sthir hai.
2H 0.015% 2H 1 nyootraun ke sang sthir hai.
3H trace 12.32 y β− 0.01861 3He
haaidrojan paani ka ek mahatvapoorn ang hai
shuddh haaidrojan se bhari gas dischaarj tube

haaidrojan (udajan Udajana) (Hydrogen) ek raasaayanik tatv hai. yeh aavart saarani ka sabse pehla tatv hai jo sabse halki bhi hai. brahmaand mein (pruthvi par naheen) yeh sabse prachur maatra mein paaya jaat hai. taaron tatha soorya ka adhikaansh dravyamaan haaidrojan se bana hai. iske ek parmaanu mein ek protraun, ek ilektraun hota hai. is prakaar yeh sabse saral parmaanu bhi hai.

prakruti mein yeh dviaanvik gas ke roop mein paaya jaata hai jo vaayumandal ke baahya parat ka mukhya sanghatak hai. haal mein isko vaahanon ke indhan ke roop mein istemaan kar sakane ke liye shodh kaarya ho rahe hain.

haaidrojan ek gaiseeya padaarth hai jismein koi gandh, svaad aur rang naheen hota. yeh sabse halka tatv hai (ghanatv 0.09 gram prati liter). iski paramaanusankhya 1, sanket (H) aur paramaanubhaar 1.008 hai. yeh aavartasaarani mein pratham sthaan par hai. saadhaaranataya isse do parmaanu milkar ek anu (H2) banta hai. haaidrojan bahut nimn taap par drav aur thos banta hai. drav haaidrojan - 253° se. par ubalata aur thos haaidrojan - 258 sein. par pighlata hai.

anukram

upasthiti

asanyukt haaidrojan badi alp maatra mein vaayu mein paaya jaata hai. oopari vaayu mein iski maatra apekshaya adhik rahati hai. soorya ke parimandal mein iski prachurata hai. pruthvi par sanyukt dasha mein yeh jal, ped paudhe, jaantav ootak, kaashth, anaaj, tel vasa, petraaliym, pratyek jaivik padaarth mein rahata hai. amlon ka yeh aavashyak ghatak hai. kshaaron aur kaarbanik yaugikon mein bhi yeh rahata hai.

nirmaan

prayogashaala mein jaste par tanu gandhak aml ki kriya se yeh praapt hota hai. yuddh ke kaamon ke liye kai saral vidhiyon se yeh praapt ho sakta hai. 'silikol' vidhi mein silikn ya fero silikn par sodiym haaidraaksaaid ki kriya se ; 'haaidrolith' (jaleeya ashm) vidhi mein kailasiym haaidraaid par jal ki kriya se ; 'haaidrik' vidhi mein eluminiym par sodiym haaidraaksaaid ki kriya se praapt hota hai. garm spanji lohe par bhaap ki kriya se ek samay badi maatra mein haaidrojan taiyaar hota tha.

aaj haaidrojan praapt karne ki sabse sasti vidhi 'jal gas' hai. jal gas mein haaidrojan aur kaarban monoksaaid vishesh roop se rahate hain. jal gas ko thandaakar drav mein parint karte hain. drav ka fir prabhaajak aasavan karte hain. isse kaarban manauksaaid (kvathanaank 191° sein.) aur naaitrojan (kvathanaank 195 sein.) pehle nikal jaate hain aur haaidrojan (kvathanaank 250° se.) shesh rah jaata hai.

jal ke vaidyut aghatan se bhi paryaapt shuddh haaidrojan praapt ho sakta hai. ek kilovaat ghanta se lagbhag 7 ghan foot haaidrojan praapt ho sakta hai. kuchh vidyut‌ apaghatani nirmaan mein jaise namak se daahak soda ke nirmaan mein, upotpaad ke roop mein badi maatra mein haaidrojan praapt hota hai.

gun

haaidrojan vaayu ya okseejan mein jalata hai. jalne ka taap ooaincha hota hai. jvaala rangaheen hoti hai. jalakar yeh jal (H2O) aur atyalp maatra mein haaidrojan perauksaaid (H2O2) banaata hai. haaidrojanaaur okseejan ke mishran mein aag lagaane ya vidyut‌ sfuling se bade kadaake ke saath visfot hota hai aur jal ki booaindein banti hain.

haaidrojan achha apachaayak hai. lohe ke morchon ko lohe mein aur taaainbe ke aaksaaid ko taaainbe mein parint kar deta hai. yeh anya tatvon ke saath sanyukt ho yogik banta hai. kloreen ke saath kloraaid, (HCl), naaitrojan ke saath amoniya (NH3) gandhak ke saath haaidrojan salfaaid (H2S), faasfras ke saath faasfon (PH3) ye sabhi dviangi yaugik hain. inhein haaidraaid ya udajaareya kehte hai.

haaidrojan ek vichitr gunavaala tatv hai. yeh hai to adhaatu par anek yaugikon mein dhaatuon sa vyavahaar karta hai. iske parmaanu mein keval ek protaun aur ek ilektraun hote hain. saamaanya haaidrojan mein 0.002 pratishat ek doosra haaidrojan hota hai jisko bhaari haaidrojan ki sanjnyaa di gayi hai. yeh saamaanya parmaanu haaidrojan se duguna bhaari hota hai. ise 'dyooteeriym' (D) kehte hain aur iska utpatti hota hai jab haaidrojan (udajan) ko ek adhik nyootraun milte hai aur aise dyooteriym ko udajan ka ek samasthaanik kehte hai. okseejan ke saath milkar yeh bhaari jal (D2O) banaata hai. haaidrojan ke ek anya samasthaanik ka bhi pat laga hai. ise trishiym (Tritium) kehte hain aur iska utpatti hota hai jab dyooteeriym ko ek adhik nyootraun milte hai. saamaanya haaidrojan se yeh tiguna bhaari hota hai.

paramaanuveeya haaidrojan

haaidrojan ke anu ko jab atyadhik ooshma mein rakhate hain tab ve paramaanuveeya haaidrojan mein viyojit ho jaate hain. aise haaidrojan ka jeevanakaal dabaav par nirbhar karta aur bada alp hota hai. aisa paaramaanveeya haaidrojanarasaayanat: bada sakriya hota hai aur saamaanya taap par bhi anek tatvon ke saath sanyukt ho yaugik banaata hai.

upayog

haaidrojan ke anek upayog hain. hebar vidhi mein naaitrojan ke saath sanyukt ho yeh amoniya banta hai jo urvarak ke roop mein vyavahaar mein aata hai. tel ke saath sanyukt hokar haaidrojan vanaspati tel (thos ya ardhathos vasa) banaata hai. khaadya ke roop mein prayukt hone ke liye vanaspati tel bahut badi maatra (mass scale) mein banti hai. apachaayak ke roop mein yeh anek dhaatuon ke nirmaan mein kaam aata hai. iski sahaayata se koyale se sanshlisht petrolium bhi banaaya jaata hai. anek idhannon mein haaidrojan jalakar ooshma utpann karta hai. okseehaaidrojan jvaala ka taap bahut ooaincha hota hai. vah jvaala dhaatuon ke kaatne, jodne aur pighlaane mein kaam aati hai. vidyut‌ chaap (electric arc) mein haaidrojan ke anu ke todne se paramaanveeya haaidrojan jvaala praapt hoti hai jiska taap 3370° sein. tak ho sakta hai.

halka hone ke kaaran gubbaara aur vaayupoton mein haaidrojan prayukt hota hai tatha iska sthaan ab heeliym le raha hai.

abhikriyaaon ki soochi

H2+Cl2 -> 2HCl
2H2+O2 -> 2H2O

sanshleshan

praakrutik gas ko garm tatha kuchh anya prakriyaaon dvaara gujaarane par haaidrojn aur kaarban monooksaaid ka mishran milta hai
CH4+H2O -> CO + 3H2

chitradeergha

yeh bhi dekhein

References

baahari kadiyaaain