gurutvaakarshan

gurutvaakarshan ke kaaran hi grah, soorya ke chaaron or chakkar laga paate hain aur yahi unhein roke rakhati hai.

gurutvaakarshan (graiviteshan) ek padaarth dvaara ek doosare ki or aakrusht hone ki pravruti hai. gurutvaakarshan ke baare mein pehli baar koi ganiteeya sootr dene ki koshish aaijak nyootan dvaara ki gayi jo aashcharyajanak roop se sahi tha. unhonne gurutvaakarshan siddhaant ka pratipaadan kiya. nyootan ke siddhaant ko baad mein alabart aainstaain dvaara saapekshata siddhaant se badla gaya. isse poorv varaah mihir ne kaha tha ki kisi prakaar ki shakti hi vastuon ko pruthivi par chipkaae rakhati hai.

anukram

itihaas

bhaashkaraachaarya aur gurutvaakarshan

gurutvaakarshan: "pitaaji, yeh pruthvi, jis par ham nivaas karte hain, kis par tiki hui hai?" leelaavati ne shataabdiyon poorv yeh prashn apne pita bhaaskaraachaarya se poochha tha. iske uttar mein bhaaskaraachaarya ne kaha, "baale leelaavati !, kuchh log jo yeh kehte hain ki yeh pruthvi sheshanaag, kachhuaa ya haathi ya anya kisi vastu par aadhaarit hai to ve galat kehte hain. yadi yeh maan bhi liya jaae ki yeh kisi vastu par tiki hui hai to bhi prashn bana rahata hai ki vah vastu kis par tiki hui hai aur is prakaar kaaran ka kaaran aur fir usaka kaaran... yeh kram chalta raha, to nyaaya shaastr mein ise anavastha dosh kehte hain.

leelaavati ne kaha fir bhi yeh prashn bana rahata hai pitaaji ki pruthvi kis cheej par tiki hai?

tab bhaaskaraachaarya ne kaha, kyon ham yeh naheen maan sakte ki pruthvi kisi bhi vastu par aadhaarit naheen hai...... yadi ham yeh kahein ki pruthvi apne hi bal se tiki hai aur ise gurutvaakarshan shakti kah dein to kya dosh hai?

is par leelaavati ne poochha yeh kaise sambhav hai. tab bhaaskaraachaarya siddhaant ki baat kehte hain ki vastuon ki shakti badi vichitr hai.

maruchlo bhoorachala svabhaavato yato
vichitraavatavastu shaktya:. --- siddhaantashiromani, golaadhyaaya - bhuvanakosh

aage kehte hain-

aakrushtishktishch mahi taya yat khasthan
gurusvaabhimukhan svashaktatya.
aakrushyate tatpatateev bhaati
samesamantaat kv patatviyan khe. --- siddhaantashiromani golaadhyaaya - bhuvanakosh

arthaat pruthvi mein aakarshan shakti hai. pruthvi apni aakarshan shakti se bhaari padaarthon ko apni or kheenchati hai aur aakarshan ke kaaran vah jameen par girte hain. par jab aakaash mein samaan taakat chaaron or se lage, to koi kaise gire? arthaat aakaash mein grah niraavalamb rahate hain kyonki vividh grahon ki gurutv shaktiyaaain santulan banaae rakhati hain.

aajkal ham kehte hain ki nyootan ne hi sarvapratham gurutvaakarshan ki khoj ki, parantu uske 550 varsh poorv bhaaskaraachaarya ne pruthvi ki gurutvaakarshan shakti ko vistaar mein samjha diya tha.

gaileeliyo

koi bhi vastu oopar se girne par seedhi pruthvi ki or aati hai. aisa prateet hota hai, maano koi alakshya aur agyaat shakti use pruthvi ki or kheench rahi hai. Italy ke vaigyaanik, gailileeyo gailileeaai ne sarvapratham is tathya par prakaash daala tha ki koi bhi pind jab oopar se girta hai tab vah ek niyat tvaran (constant acceleration) se pruthvi ki or aata hai. tvaran ka yeh maan sabhi vastuon ke liye ek sa rahata hai. apne is nishkarsh ki pushti usane prayogon aur ganiteeya vivechanon dvaara ki hai.

keplar ki graheeya gati ke niyam

keplar ki graheeya gati ke niyam dekhiye
Orbit5.gif

jarman khagolavid keplar ne grahon ki gati ka adhyayan karke teen niyam diye.

keplar ka pratham niyam: (kakshaaon ka niyam) -sabhi grah soorya ke chaaron or deerghavruttaakaar kakshaaon me chakkar lagte hain tatha soorya un kakshaaon ke focus par hota hai.

dviteeya niyam - kisi bhi grah ko soorya se milaane waali rekha samaan samay me samaan kshetrafal paar karti hai. arthaat pratyek grah ki kshetreeya chaal (eriyl velaasiti)niyat rahati hai. arthaat jab grah soorya se door hota hai to usaki chaal kam ho jaati hai.

truteeya niyam : (parikraman kaal ka niyam)- pratyek grah ka soorya ka parikraman kaal ka varg usaki deergh vruttaakaar kaksha ki ardh-deergh aksh ki truteeya ghaat ke samaanupaati hota hai.

nyootan ka saarvatrik gurutvaakarshan ka niyam

yadi pruthvi ke dravyamaan ke tulya dravyamaan waali koi vastu iski taraf gire to us sthiti mein pruthvi ka tvaran bhi naganya naheen balki maapane yogya hoga.

iske baad sar aaijk nyootan ne apni maulik khojon ke aadhaar par bataaya ki keval pruthvi hi naheen, apitu vishv ka pratyek kan pratyek doosare kan ko apni or aakarshit karta rahata hai. do kanon ke beech kaarya karanevaala aakarshan bal un kanon ki sanhatiyon ke gunanafal ka (pratyaksh) samaanupaati tatha unke beech ki doori ke varg ka vyutkramaanupaati hota hai. kanon ke beech kaarya karanevaale paarasparik aakarshan ko gurutvaakarshan (Gravitation) tatha usase utpann bal ko gurutvaakarshan bal (Force of Gravitation) kaha jaata hai. nyootan dvaara pratipaadit uparyukt niyam ko nyootan ka gurutvaakarshan niyam (Law of Gravitation) kehte hain. kabhi-kabhi is niyam ko gurutvaakarshan ka pratilom varg niyam (Inverse Square Law) bhi kaha jaata hai.

uparyukt niyam ko sootr roop mein is prakaar vyakt kiya ja sakta hai : maan liya m1 aur sanhati vaale m2 do pind paraspar d doori par sthit hain. unke beech kaarya karanevaale bal f ka sambandh hoga :

F=G m1 m2/d‍2 --- (1)

yahaaain G ek samaanupaati niytaank hai jiska maan sabhi padaarthon ke liye ek jaisa rahata hai. ise gurutv niytaank (Gravitational Constant) kehte hain. is niytaank ki vima (dimension) hai aur aankik maan prayukt ikaai par nirbhar karta hai. sootr (1) dvaara kisi pind par pruthvi ke kaaran laganevaale aakarshan bal ki ganana ki ja sakti hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain