gurukul

aise vidyaalaya jahaaain vidyaarthi apne parivaar se door guroo ke parivaar ka hissa bankar shiksha praapt karta hai.[1] Bhaarat ke praacheen itihaas mein aise vidyaalayon ka bahut mahatva tha. prasiddh aachaaryon ke gurukul ke padhe hue chhaatron ka sab jagah bahut sammaan hota tha. Ram ne rishi vashishth ke yahaaain rah kar shiksha praapt ki thi. isi prakaar paandavon ne rishi dron ke yahaaain rah kar shiksha praapt ki thi.

praacheen Bhaarat mein teen prakaar ki shiksha sansthaaeain theen-

  • (1) gurukul- jahaaain vidyaarthi aashram mein guru ke saath rahakar vidyaadhyayan karte the,
  • (2) parishad- jahaaain visheshagyon dvaara shiksha di jaati thi,
  • (3) tapasthali- jahaaain bade-bade sammelan hote the aur sabhaaon tatha pravachanon se gyaan arjan hota tha. naimishaaranya aisa hi ek sthaan tha.


gurukul aashramon mein kaalaantar mein hajaaron vidyaarthi rahane lage. aise aashramon ke pradhaan 'kulapati' kahalaate the. raamaayan kaal mein vashishth ka bruhad aashram tha jahaaain raaja dileep tapashcharya karne gaye the, jahaaain vishvaamitr ko brahmatv praapt hua tha. is prakaar ka ek aur prasiddh aashram prayaag mein Bhardwaj muni ka tha.[2]

anukram

parichay

'gurukul' ka shaabdik arth hai 'guru ka parivaar' athva 'guru ka vansh'. parantu yeh sadiyon se bhaaratavarsh me shikshaasanstha ke arth mein vyavahrut hota raha hai. gurukulon ke itihaas mein Bhaarat ki shikshaavyavastha aur jnyaaanavijnyaaan ki raksha ka itihaas samaahit hai. bhaarateeya sanskruti ke vikaas mein chaar purushaarthon, chaar varno aur chaar aashramon ki maanyataaeain to apne uddeshyon ki siddhi ke liye anyonyaashrit thi hi, gurukul bhi unki safalta mein bahut bade saadhak the. yagya aur sanskaaron dvaara braahman, kshatriya aur vaishya baalak 6, 8 athva 11 varsh ki avasthaaon mein gurukulon mein le jaae jaate the (yajnyaopaveet, upanayan athva upaveet) aur guru ke paas baithakar brahmachaari ke rup mein shiksha praapt karte the. guru unke maanas aur bauddhik sanskaaron ko poorn karta hua unhein sabhi shaastron evam upayogi vidyaaon ki shiksha deta tath ant mein deeksha dekar unhein vivaah kar gruhasthaashram ke vividh kartavyon ka paalan karne ke liye vaapas bhejata. yeh Dixit aur samaavartit snaatak hi poorn naagrik hota aur samaaj ke vibhinn uttaradaayitvon ka vahan karta hua trivrg ki praapti ka upaaya karta. spasht hai, bhaarateeya sabhyata aur sanskruti ke vikaas mein gurukulon ka mahatvapoorn yog tha.

gurukul praaya: braahman gruhasthon dvaara gaaainvon athva nagaron ke bheetar tatha baahar donon hi sthaanon mein chalaae jaate the. gruhasth vidvaan aur kabhi kabhi vaanaprasthi bhi door door se shikshaarthiyon ko aakrusht karte aur apne parivaar mein aur apne saath rakhakar anek varshon tak (aadarsh aur vidhaan pachchees varshon tak ka tha) unhein shiksha dete. puraskaar svarup brahmachaari baalak ya to apni sevaaeain guroo aur uske parivaar ko arpit karta ya sampann hone ki avastha mein arthashulk hi de deta. parantu aise aarthik puraskaar aur anya vastuon vaale upahaar deeksha ke baad hi dakshinaasvaroop diye jaate aur guru vidyaadaan praarambh karne ke poorv na to aagantuk vidyaarthiyon se kuchh maaaingata aur na unke bina kisi vidyaarthi ko apne dwaar se lautaata hi tha. dhani aur gareeb sabhi yogya vidyaarthiyon ke liye gurukulon ke dwaar khule rahate the. unke bheetar ka jeevan saada, shraddhaapoorn, bhaktiprak aur tyaagamaya hota tha. shishya guru ka antevaasi hokar (paas rahakar) uske vyaktitv aur aacharan se seekhata. guru aur shishya ke aapasi vyavahaaron ki ek sanhita hoti aur usaka poornat: paalan kiya jaata. gurukulon mein tab tak jaane hue sabhi prakaar ke shaastr aur vigyaan padhaae jaate aur shiksha poorn ho jaane par guru shishya ki pareeksha leta, deeksha deta aur samaavartan sanskaar sampann kar use apne parivaar ko bhejata. shishyagan chalte samay apni shakti ke anusaar guru ko dakshina dete, kintu gareeb vidyaarthi usase mukt bhi kar diye jaate the.

bhaaratavarsh mein gurukulon ki vyavastha bahut dinon tak jaari rahi. raajya apna yeh kartavya samajhta tha ki guruon aur gurukulon ke bharan poshan ki saari vyavastha karein. varatantu ke shishya kauts ne atyant gareeb hote hue bhi unase kuchh dakshina lene ka jab aagrah kiya to guru ne kruddh hokar ek asambhav raashi chaudah karod svarn mudraaeain-maaaing Dean. kauts ne raaja raghu se vah dhanaraashi paana apna adhikaar samjha aur yagya mein sab kuchh daan de denevaale us akinchan raaja ne us braahman baalak ki maaaing poori karne ke liye kuber par aakraman karne ki thaani. raghuvansh ki is katha mein atimaanaveeya put chaahe bhale hon, shikshaasanbandhi raajakartavyon ka yeh poornaroopen dyotak hai. paali saahitya mein aisi anek charchaaeain milti hain, jinse gyaat hota hai ki prasenajit jaise raajaaon ne un vedanishnaat braahmanon ko anek gaaainv daan mein diye the, jo vaidik shiksha ke vitran ke liye gurukul chalaate. yeh parampara praaya: adhikaansh shaasakon ne aage jaari rakhi aur dakshin Bhaarat ke braahmanon ko daan mein diye gaye graamon mein chalne vaale gurukulon aur unamein padhaai jaanevaali vidyaaon ke anek abhilekhon mein varnan milte hain. gurukulon ke hi viksit roop takshashila, naalanda, vikramashila aur valabhi ke vishvavidyaalaya the. jaatakon, hvevanesaang ke yaatraavivran tatha anya anek sandarbhon se gyaat hota hai ki un vishvavidyaalayon mein door door se vidyaarthi vahaaain ke vishvavikhyaat adhyaapakon se padhne aate the. Varanasi atyant praacheen kaal se shiksha ka mukhya kendra thi aur abhi haal tak usamein saikadon gurukul, paathashaalaaeain rahi hain aur unke bharan poshan ke liye annakshetr chalte rahe. yahi avastha Bengal aur Nasik tatha dakshin Bhaarat ke anek nagaron mein rahi. 19veen shataabdi mein praarambh honevaale bhaarateeya raashtreeya aur saanskrutik punarjaagaran ke yug mein praacheen gurukulon ki parampara par anek gurukul sthaapit kiye gaye aur raashtrabhaavana ke prasaar mein unka mahatvapoorn yog raha. yadyapi aadhunik avasthaaon mein praacheen gurukulon ki vyavastha ko yathaavat pun: pratishthit to naheen kiya ja sakta, tathaapi unke aadarshon ko yathaavashyak parivartan ke saath avashya apnaaya ja sakta hai.

praacheen bhaarateeya gurukulon mein kulapati hua karte the. kaalidaas ne vasishth tatha kanv rishi ko (raghuvansh, pratham, 95 tatha abhi. sha., pratham ank) kulapati ki sanjnyaa di hai. guptakaal mein sansthaapit tatha harshavardhan ke samay mein apni charamonnati ko praapt honevaale naalanda mahaavihaar naamak vishvavidyaalaya ke kuchh prasiddh tatha vidvaan kulapatiyon ke naam hvensaang ke yaatraavivran se gyaat hota hain. bauddh bhikshu dharmapaal tatha sheelabhadr unamein pramukh the.

praacheen bhaarateeya kaal mein adhyayan adhyaapan ke pradhaan kendra gurukul hua karte the, jahaaain door door se brahmachaari vidyaarthi, athva satyaanveshi parivraajak apni apni shikshaaon ko poorn karne jaate the. ve gurukul chhote athva bade sabhi prakaar ke hote the. parantu un sabhi gurukulon ko na to aadhunik shabdaavali mein vishvavidyaalaya hi kaha ja sakta hai aur na un sabke pradhaan guruon ko kulapati hi kaha jaata tha. smrutivchanon ke anusaar

'muneenaan dashasaahasran yoऽnnadaanaadi poshaanaat. adhyaayapati viprarshirsau kulapati: smrut:.'

spasht hai, jo braahman rishi das hajaar muni vidyaarthiyon ko annaadi dvaara poshan karta hua unhein vidya padhaata tha, use hi kulapati kehte the. oopar uddhrut 'smrut:' shabd ke prayog se yeh saaf dikhaai deta hai ki kulapati ke is vishishtaarthagrahan ki parampara badi puraani thi. kulapati ka saadhaaran arth kisi kul ka svaami hota tha. vah kul ya to ek chhota aur avibhkt parivaar ho sakta tha athva ek bada aur kai chhote chhote parivaaron ka samaan udgam vanshakul bhi. antevaasi vidyaarthi kulapati ke mahaan vidyaaparivaar ka sadasya hota tha aur uske maanasik aur bauddhik vikaas ka uttaradaayitv kulapati par hota tha; vah chhaatron ke shaareerik svaasthya aur sukh ki bhi chinta karta tha. aajkal is shabd ka prayog vishvavidyaalaya ke 'vaaisachaansalar' ke liye kiya jaata hai.

sandarbh

  1. prasaad, kaalika (2000). bruhat hindi kosh. Varanasi Bhaarat: jnyaaanamandal limited. pa॰ 147.
  2. "mahaamana ka svapn". abhyudaya.com.

pustak-"gurukul - ek najar mein "lekhak- 'esa0 pee0 aarya 'sansthaapak - 'aarya brothers keyar'

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain