gunaadhya

gunaadhya paishaachi mein baddakaha (sanskrut : bruhatkatha) naamak anupalabdh aakhyaayika granth ke praneta. kshemeindrakrut bruhatkathaamanjari (11veen shati) ke anusaar ve pratishthaan nivaasi keertisen ke putr the. dakshinaapath mein vidyaarjan karke vikhyaat pandit hue. prabhaavit hokar saatavaahanaraaj ne unhein apna mantri banaaya. pravaad hai ki mahaaraaj sanskrut vyaakaran ke achhe jnyaaata naheen the jisse jalakreeda ke samay ve vidushi raaniyon ke madhya upahaas ke paatr bane. du:khi hokar unhonne alp kaal mein hi vyaakaran me nishnaat‌ hone ke nimitt gunaadhya pandit ko prerit kiya jise unhonne asambhav bataaya. kintu 'kaatatr' ke rachayita doosare sabhaapandit sharvavarma ne ise chhah maas mein hi sambhav bataaya. gunaadhya ne is chunauti aur pratidvandvita ka uttar apni roshayukt pratijnyaa dvaara kiya. lekin sharvavarma ne usi avadhi mein mahaaraaj ko vyaakaran ka achha gyaan kara hi diya. falat: pratijnyaa ke anusaar gunaadhya ko nagaravaas chhod vanavaas aur sanskrut, paali tatha praakrut chhodkar paishaachi ka aashray lena pada. vidvaanon ka ek varg gunaadhya ko Kashmiri maanata hai jisse paishaachi se unka sambandh svaabhaavik ho jaata hai. isi bhaasha mein unhonne saat lakh ki apni 'baddakaha' rachi jo kaanabhooti ke anusaar chamade par likhi vidyaadhareindro ki katha bataai jaati hai. granth ko lekar ve saatavaahan naresh ki sabha mein pun: gaye jahaaain unhein vaanchhit satkaar naheen mila. pratikriyaasvaroop, van lautakar ve us kruti ko paathapoorvak agni mein havan karne lage. kaha jaata hai, maadhurya ke kaaran pashu-pakshi gan tak niraahaar rah kathaashravan mein leen rahane lagein jisse ve maansarahit ho gaye. idhar vanajeevon ke maansaabhaav ka kaaran jaanane ke liye saatavaahan dvaara poochh-taachh kiye jaane par lubdhakon ne jo uttar diya uske anusaar ve gunaadhya ko manaane athva 'baddakaha' ko bachaane ke uddeshya se van ki or gaye. vahaaain ve anurodhapoorvak granth ka keval saptamaansh jalne se bachaane mein safal ho sake jo kshemeindrakrut bruhatkatha shlokasangrah (7500 shlok) aur somadevakrut kathaasaritsaagar (2400 shlok) naamak sanskrut roopaantaron mein upalabdh hai.

gunaadhya ka samay vivaadaaspad hai. sanskrut tatha apabhransh granthon mein jo ullekh praapt hote hai ve 7veen shataabdi se praacheen naheen hai. keeth ne kanbodiya se praapt 875 E. ke ek abhilekh ke aadhaar par unke astitv ki kalpana 600 E. se poorv ki hai. prachalit pravaadon mein gunaadhya ka sambandh saatavaahan se joda gaya hai. saatavaahananareshon ka samay 200 E. poo. se 300 E. tak maana jaata hai jinke samay mein praakrut saahitya ki pratinidhi rachanaaeain huin. iske atirikt vidvaanon ka mat hai ki kaadanbari, dashakumaaracharit‌, udayan aur panchatantr ki kathaaon ka mool bruhatkatha hi hai. inmein panchatantr ka pahalavi bhaasha mein hua anuvaad paaainchaveen shataabdi ka bataaya jaata hai. at: gunaadhya ka kaal nissandeh truteeya chaturth shataabdi mein kabhi maana ja sakta hai.

gunaadhya krut baddakaha yadyapi anupalabdh hai tathaapi jaise saptashatiyon ki parampara ka aadisrot haalakrut 'gaahaasattasai' bataai jaati hai vaise hi bhaarateeya aakhyaayika saahitya ka ateet baddakaha se sanyukt hai. baan ne use haraleela ke samaan vismayakaarak, trivikram ne atyadhik logon ka manoranjan karanevaala aur dhanapaal ne upajeevya granth maankar use saagar ke samaan vishaal bataaya hai jiski boond se sanskrut ke paravarti aakhyaayikaakaar aur kavi apni rachanaaeain prastut karte aae hain. is drushti se gunaadya paravarti aakhyaayika lekhakon ke shikshak siddh hote hai. puraanon, vedon aadi mein praapt kathaaon ki shisht saahityadhaara, jo bhaarateeya itihaas ke saanskrutik ateet se judi hai, usi ke theek samaanaantar lokaprachalit kathaaon ki dhaara bhi aadikaal se sambandhit hai. gunaadya ne sarvapratham is dviteeya dhaara ka sangrah janabhaasha mein kiya. at: pauraanik katha-sankalanon ki bhaaainti lokakathaaon ke is sangrah ka bhi asaadhaaran mahatva hai. iseeliye govardhanaachaarya ne baddakaha ko vyaas aur vaalmeeki ki krutiyon ke pashchaat‌ teesari mahaan‌ kruti maankar gunaadhya ko vyaas ka avataar kaha hai. lokakathaaon ke mahaan‌ sangraahak gunaadhya ka asaamaanya mahatva isse svat: siddh hai.

sandarbh granth

  • S. N. daasagupt aur S. ke. de : A history ov sanskrut literature; khand 1, Calcutta, 1962,
  • A. beredal keeth: ek history ov sanskrut literature;
  • si. kunhanaraaja : sarvein ov sanskrut literature, bhaarateeya vidyaabhavan 1960;
  • bhagavatasharan upaadhyaaya: praacheen Bhaarat ka itihaas, Patna;
  • neelakanth shaastri : history ov India, khand 1, dviteeya sanskaran, 1953.