gulaag

soviyt sangh mein gulag shram-kaaraavaason ke sthaan
1932 mein shvet saagar se baaltik saagar ki nahar banaate hue ek gulaag ke kaidi

gulaag (roosi: ГaaУaaЛaaаaaг) soviyt sangh ki us sarkaari sanstha ka naam tha jo soviyt sangh mein shram-kaaraavaas chalaati thi. shram-kaaraavaas mein bandiyon se bhaari mehnat karavaai jaati thi aur aksar unhein hajaaron meal door saaiberiya jaise nirjan kshetron mein bheja jaata tha. shram-kaaraavaas vahi dand pranaali hai jise puraani bhaarateeya kaanooni bhaasha mein "kaid-A-baamushakkat" aur anaupachaarik bhaasha mein "patthar todne ki saja" kaha jaata tha. gulaag mein in door-daraaj ilaakon mein adde bane hue the jahaaain bandi kaam karte the. yeh kaidi chhote-mote choron se lekar soviyt sangh ki sarkaar ka virodh karne vaale raajanaitik bandi hua karte the aur gulaag pranaali ka prayog raajanaitik virodh kuchalane ke liye kai dashakon tak kiya gaya. kuchh logon ko to sarkaar ke khilaaf chutakula sunaane ya kaam se kabhi anupasthit hone ke kaaran se bhi gulaag bhej diya jaata tha.[1]

anumaan kiya gaya hai ki soviyt sangh ke daur mein in gulaagon mein kul lagbhag 1.4 karod logon ko bheja gaya. dviteeya vishvayuddh ke dauraan khaana kam padne se 5 lakh se adhik kaidiyon ne in gulaagon mein apna dam tod diya.[2] maana jaata hai ki 1929-1953 ke kaal mein gulaagon mein 16 lakh logon ki mrutyu hui.[3]

shabd ka itihaas

gulaag naam roosi ke "glaavanoe upraavalyeniye ispraavityelano-trudovih laagyeryeya i koloneeya" (Гaaлaaаaáaaвaaнaaоaaе уaaпaaрaaаaaвaaлaaеaáaaнaaиaaе иaaсaaпaaрaaаaaвaaиaáaaтaaеaaлaaьaaнaaо-тaaрaaуaaдaaоaaвaaыaáaaх лaaаaaгaaеaaрaaеaáaaй и кaaоaaлaaоaáaaнaaиaaй) ka ek prakaar ka aadivrni (aikronim) hai. dheere-dheere soviyt sangh ki poori shram-kaaraavaas pranaali ko "gulaag" kaha jaane laga, haalaanki yeh sansathaan 1960 mein band kar diya gaya aur anya praadhikranon ne is ki jagah le li. aliksaindar soljhneetsin (jeevanakaal: 1918-2008, 1970 mein saahitya ke liye Nobel puraskaar vijeta) naamak soviyt lekhak ko ek gulaag mein kaid rakha gaya tha aur inhonein iska varnan apni pustak "gulaag dveepasamooh" (roosi: Аaрaхaиaпaеaлaаaг ГaУaЛaАaГ, aarkhipelaag gulaag; angreji: The Gulag Archipelago; the gulaag aarkiplego) mein kiya jo Europe aur America mein 1973 mein chhapi. is mein unhonne gulaag kaaraavaas addon ki tulana samudra mein bikhre hua dveepon se ki thi jahaaain kaidiyon ko nirvaasit kiya jaata tha. angrejo ne Bhaarat mein jaise andamaan dweep bhejkar kaalaapaani ki saja dene ki shuruvaat ki thi, usi tarah lekhak ne is upanyaas mein gulaag naamak ek dweep ki kalpana ki hai. is upanyaas ke prakaashan ke baad "gulaag" shabd vishv bhar mein mashahoor ho gaya.

ain aippalabaum, jinhonein gulaag pranaali ka gahra adhyayan kiya, kehti hain ki "bade maayanon mein, 'gulaag' ka arth soviyt julmi vyavastha hi ban chuka hai, vah tareeke jinhein kaidi kabhi 'maans peesane ki chakki' bulaaya karte the: girftaariyaaain, kathor poochh-taachh, sard jaanavar le jaane waali gaadiyon mein safr, jbaradasti mehnat karavaana, parivaaron ka naash, varshon ka nirvaasan, chhoti umr mein bevajah ki maut aadi."[4]

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh

  1. "What Were Their Crimes?". Gulaghistory.org. http://gulaghistory.org/nps/onlineexhibit/stalin/crimes.php.
  2. Zemskov, Gulag, Sociologičaeskije issledovanija, 1991, No. 6, pp. 14-15.
  3. Steven Rosefielde. "Red Holocaust". Taylor & Francis, 2010. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 9780415777575. http://books.google.com/books?id=_vFEPi_c-ooC.
  4. Anne Applebaum. "Gulag: a history". Random House Digital, Inc., 2004. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 9781400034093. http://books.google.com/books?id=fCurJRhH-GgC.