gulaab

gulaab
ब्राइडल पिंक, हाइब्रिड टी गुलाब, मोरवैल गुलाब उद्यान
braaidal pink, haaibrid ti gulaab, moravail gulaab udyaan
vaigyaanik vargeekaran
jagat: paadap
vibhaag: pushpi paadap
varg: maagnolyopseeda
gan: rosaales
kul: rosaakeai
upajaati: rosoideai
vansh: rosa
liniys
jaati

paath dekhein

gulaab ek bahuvarsheeya, jhaadeedaar, kanteela, pushpeeya paudha hai jismein bahut sundar sugandhit fool lagte hain. iski 100 se adhik jaatiyaan hain jinmein se adhikaansh Asiaee mool ki hain. jabki kuchh jaatiyon ke mool pradesh Europe, uttari America tatha uttari pashchimi Africa bhi hai. Bhaarat sarkaar ne 12 February ko 'gulaab-diwas' ghoshit kiya hai. gulaab ka fool komalata aur sundarata ke liye prasiddh hai, isi se log chhote bachchon ki upama gulaab ke fool se dete hain.

anukram

parichay

gulaab praay: sarvatr 19 se lekar 70 akshaansh tak bhoogol ke uttaraardh mein hota hai. bhaaratavarsh mein yeh paudha bahut dinon se lagaaya jaata hai aur kai sthaanon mein jangali bhi paaya jaata hai. Kashmir aur bhootaan mein peele fool ke jangali gulaab bahut milte hain. vanya avastha mein gulaab mein chaar-paaainch chhitraai hui pankhadiyon ki ek hari pankti hoti hai par bageechon mein seva aur yatnapoorvak lagaae jaane se pankhadiyon ki sankhya mein bruddhi hoti hai par kesaron ki sankhya ghat jaati hain. kalam paiband aadi ke dbaara saikadon prakaar ke foolavaale gulaab bhinn-bhinn jaatiyon ke mel se utpann kiye jaate hain. gulaab ki kalam hi lagaai jaati hai. iske fool kai rangon ke hote hain, laal (kai mel ke halake gahre) peele, safed ityaadi. safed fool ke gulaab ko sevati kehte hain. kaheen kaheen hare aur kaale rang ke bhi fool hote hain. lata ki tarah chadhnevaale gulaab ke jhad bhi hote hain jo bageechon mein tattiyon par chadhaae jaate hain. ritu ke anusaar gulaab ke do bhed bhaaratabarsh mein maane jaane hain sadaagulaab aur chaiti. sadaagulaab pratyek ritu mein foolata aur chaiti gulaab keval basant ritu mein. chaiti gulaab mein vishesh sugandh hoti hai aur vahi itr aur dava ke kaam ka samajh jaata hai.

bhaaratavarsh mein jo chaiti gulaab hote hai ve praay: basara ya damishk jaati ke hain. aise gulaab ki kheti Gazipur mein itr aur gulaabajal ke liye bahut hoti hai. ek beeghe mein praay: hajaar paudhe aate hain jo chait mein foolate hai. bade tadke unke fool tod liye jaate hain aur attaaron ke paas bhej diye jaate hain. ve deg aur bhabhake se unka jal kheenchate hain. deg se ek patali baaains ki nali ek doosare bartan mein gayi hoti hai jise bhabhaka kehte hain aur jo paani se bhari naaaind mein rakkha rahata hai. attaar paani ke saath foolon ko deg mein rakh dete hai jismein mein sugandhit bhaap uthakar bhabhake ke bartan mein saradi se drav hokar tapakati hai. yahi tapaki hui bhaap gulaabajal hai.

gulaab ka itr banaane ki seedhi yukti yeh hai ki gulaabajal ko ek chhichhle baratan mein rakhakar baratan ko goli jameen mein kuchh gaadkar raat bhar khule maidaan mein padaa rahane de. subah sardi se gulaabajal ke oopar itr ki bahut patali malaai si padi milegi jise haath se kaaainchh le. aisa kaha jaata hai ki gulaab ka itr noorajahaaain ne 1612 isavi mein apne vivaah ke avsar par nikaala tha.

bhaaratavarsh mein gulaab jangali roop mein ugata hai par bageechon mein dah kitne dinon se lagaaya jaata hai. iska theek pata naheen lagta. kuchh log 'shatapatri', 'paatali' aadi shabdon ko gulaab ka paryaaya maanate hai. rasheeuddeen naamak ek musalmaan lekhak ne likha hai ki chaudahaveen shataabdi mein Gujarat mein sattar prakaar ke gulaab lagaae jaate the. baabar ne bhi gulaab lagaane ki baat likhi hai. jahaaaingeer ne to likha hai ki Hindustan mein sab prakaar ke gulaab hote hai.

saahitya mein

bhaarateeya saahitya mein- gulaab ke anek sanskrut paryaaya hai. apni rangeen pankhudiyon ke kaaran gulaab paatal hai, sadaiv taroon hone ke kaaran tarooni, shat patron ke ghire hone par 'shatapatri', kaanon ki aakruti se 'kaarnika', sundar keshar se yukt hone 'chaarukeshar', laalima rang ke kaaran 'laaksha' aur gandh poorn hone se gandhaadhya kahalaata hai. faarasi mein gulaab kaha jaata hai aur angareji mein roj, bangala mein golaap, taamil mein iraasha aur telugu mein gulaabi hai. arabi mein gulaab 'varde' ahamar hai. sabhi bhaashaaon mein yeh laavanya aur rasaatmak hai. Shiv puraan mein gulaab ko Dave pushp kaha gaya hai. ye rang birange naam gulaab ke vaividhya gunon ke kaaran ingit karte hain.

vishv saahitya- gulaab ne apni gandh aur rang se vishv kaavya ko apna maadhurya aur saundarya pradaan kiya hai. rom ke praacheen kavi varjil ne apni kavita mein vasant mein khilne vaale Syria desh ke gulaab ki charcha ki hai. angareji saahitya ke kavi taamas hood ne gulaab ko samay ke pratimaan ke rup mein prastut kiya hai. kavi Matthew aaranaald ne gulaab ko prakruti ka anokha varadaan kaha hai. tenisn ne apni kavita mein naari ko gulaab se upamit kiya hai. hindi ke shrrungaari kavi ne gulaab ko rasik pushp ke rup mein chitrit kiya hai 'foolyau rahe ganvai gaaainv mein gulaab'. kavi Dave ne apni kavita mein baalak basant ka svaagat gulaab dvaara kiye jaane ka chitran kiya hai. kavi shri niraala ne gulaab ko poonjeevaadi aur shoshak ke rup mein ankit kiya hai. raamavruksh beneepuri ne ise sanskruti ka prateek kaha hai.[1]

itihaas mein

ek laal gulaab

itihaas mein varnan milta hai ki aseeriya ki shaahajaadi peele gulaab se prem karti thi aur mugal begam noorajahaaain ko laal gulaab adhik priya tha. mugalaani jebunnisa apni faarasi shaayari mein kehti hai 'main itni sundar hooain ki mere saundarya ko dekhkar guvaab ke rang feeke pad jaate hain.' rajavaade gulaab ke baageeche lagavaate the. Syria ke baashaad gulaabon ka baag sthaapit karte the. pan॰ Jawahar laal Nehru gulaab ke prateek maane jaate hain. Europe ke do deshon ka raashtreeya pushp safed gulaab aur doosare desh ka raashtreeya pushp laal gulaab the. donon deshon ke beech gulaab yuddh chhid gaya tha. iske baavajood Europe ke kuchh deshon ne gulaab ko apna raashtreeya pushp ghoshit kiya hai. Rajasthan ki rajdhani Jaipur ko gulaabi nagar kaha jaata hai. gulaab ke itr ka aavishkaar noorajahaaain ne kiya tha.

kheti

ek aadhunik shankar gulaab

graameen kisaan gulaab ki kheti kar apni aarthik vyavastha ko sudrudh karte hai.[2] Bhaarat mein sugandhit udyog aur gulaab ki kheti puraani hai parantu utpaadan ki drushti se yeh anya deshon jaise ki bulagaariya, tarki, rus, France, Italy aur cheen se kaafi pichhda hua hai. Bhaarat mein uttar pradesh ke haatharas, eta, baliya, kannauj, farrukhaabaad, Kanpur, Gazipur, Rajasthan ke Udaipur (haldeeghaati), chittaud, Jammu aur Kashmir mein, Himachal ityaadi raajyon mein 2 hajaar he0 bhoomi mein damishk prajaati ke gulaab ki kheti hoti hai. yeh gulaab chikni mitti se lekar balui mitti jiska pee0echa0 maan 7.0-8.5 tak mein bhi safalataapoorvak ugaaya ja sakta hai. damishk gulaab sheetoshn aur samasheetoshn donon hi prakaar ki jalavaayu mein achhi tarah ugaaya ja sakta hai. samasheetoshn maidaani bhaagon mein jahaaain par sheet kaal ke dauraan abhisheetit taapakram (child taap) taapakram lagbhag 1 maah tak ho vahaaain bhi safalataapoorvak ki ja sakti hai.

vargeekaran

paudhon ki banaavat, ooainchaai, foolon ke aakaar aadi ke aadhaar par inhein nimnalikhit paaainch vargon mein baaainta gaya hai.[3]

  • haaibrid ti- yeh bade foolon wala mahatvapoorn varg hai is varg ke paudhe jhaaङaeenuma, lambe aur failane vaale hote hai inki visheshata yeh hai ki pratyek shaakha par ek fool niklata hai, jo atyant sundar hota hai haalaaainki kuchh aisi kismein bhi hain, jinmein chhote samooh mein bhi fool lagte hai adhik paala paङaane ki sthiti mein kabhi-kabhi paudhe mar jaate hai is varg ki pramukh kismein hai Ambassador, American pride, baraganda, double, dilaait, frendasip, superstar, rakt gandha, krimsanaglori, arjun, Jawahar, Rajni, raktagandha, siddhaarth, sukanya, faste red, raktima aur graandemaala aadi
  • floreebanda- is varg mein aane waali kismon ke fool haaibrid ti kismon ki tulana mein chhote hote hai aur adhik sankhya mein fool lagte hai is varg ki pramukh kismein hai- jambara, arebiyn naaitas, ramba varg, chariya, aaisabarg, first edeesan, lahar, banjaaran, jantar-mantar, sadaabahaar, prema aur arunima aadi
  • pauliyentha : is varg ke paudhon ko ghareloo bageechon va gamalon mein lagaane ke liye pasand kiya jaata hai. paudhe aur foolon ka aakaar haaibrid di evam flori banda varg se chhota hota hai lekin guchha aakaar mein floreebanda varg se bhi bada hota hai. ek guchhe mein kai fool hote hain. kyonki inmein madhyam aakaar ke fool adhik sankhya mein saal mein adhik samay tak aate rahate hain isliye yeh gharon mein shobha badhaane vaale paudhon ke roop mein bahutaayat se prayog mein laaya jaata hai. is varg ki pramukh kismein svaati, iko, anjani aadi hain.
  • mineeechar : is varg mein aane waali kismon ko baby gulaab, mini gulaab ya laghu gulaab ke naam se jaana jaata hai. ye kam lanbaai ke chhote baune paudhe hote hain. inki pattiyon va foolon ka aakaar chhota hone ke kaaran inhein baby gulaab bhi kehte hain. ye chhote kintu sankhya mein bahut adhik lagte hain. inhein bde shaharon mein bangalon, flaiton aadi mein chhote gamalon mein lagaaya jaana upayukt rahata hai, parantu dhoop ki aavashyakta anya gulaabon ke samaan chh: se aath ghante aavashyak hai. inhein gamalon mein ya khiङakiyon ke saamane ki kyaariyon mein sugamata se ugaaya ja sakta haiis varg ki pramukh kismein dvaarf King, baby daarling, kreeki, roj merin, silver tips aadi hain.
  • lata gulaab- is varg mein kuchh haaibrid ti floreebanda gulaaboain ki shaakhaaeain lataaon ki bhaaainti badhati hai jiske kaaran unhein lata gulaab ki sanjnyaa di jaati hai in lataaon par lage fool atyant sundar drushya prastut karte hai. inhein meharaab ya anya kisi sahaare ke saath chadhaaya ja sakta hai. inmein fool ek se teen (klaainbar) va guchhon (rembalar) mein lagte hain. lata varg ki prachalit kismein golden shaavar, kaukatel, raayal gold aur rembalar varg ki elavataain, ekselasa, doraathi paarkins aadi hain. kaasinon, prospereeti, maarshalaneel, klaaibing, kot tel aadi bhi lokapriya hain.
  • naveenatam kismein- poosa gaurav, poosa bahaadur, poosa priya, poosa baarahamaasi, poosa viraangana, poosa pitaambar, poosa garima aur da bharat Ram

pushp

gulaab ke paudhe mein pushpaasan jaayaang se hota hua lambaai mein vruddhi karta hai tatha pattiyon ko dhaaran karta hai. hare gulaab ke pushpatr patti ki tarah dikhaai dete hain. pushpaasan chhichhla, chapata ya pyaale ka roop dhaaran karta hai. jaayaang pushpaasan ke beech mein tatha anya pushpayatr pyaalaanuma rachana ki nemi ya kinaaron par sthit hote hain. inmein andaashaya ardh-adhovarti tatha anya pushpayatr adhovarti kahalaate hai. paanch akharit ya bahut chhote nakharavaale dal ke dalafalak baahar ki taraf faile hote hain. pankeshar lanbaai mein asamaan hote hai arthaat heplosteemonas. bahuandapi andaashaya, andap sanyojan naheen karte hain tatha ek-dusare se alag-alag rahate hain, is andaashaya ko viyuktaandapi kehte hain aur ismein ek andap ek andaashaya ka nirmaan karta hai.

aarthik mahatva

fool ke haat mein gulaab ke gajare khoob bikte hain.[4] gulaab ki pankhudiyon aur shakkar se gulakand banaaya jaata hai. gulaab jal aur gulaab itr ke kuteer udyog chalte hai. uttar pradesh mein kannauj, jaunapur aadi mein gulaab ke utpaad ki udyogashaala chalti hai. dakshin Bhaarat mein bhi gulaab ke utpaad ke udyog chalte hain. dakshin Bhaarat mein gulaab foolon ka khoob vyaapaar hota hai. mandiron, mandapon, samaarohon, pooja-sthalon aadi sthaanon mein gulaab foolon ki bhaari khapat hoti hai. yeh arthik laabh ka saadhan hai. vahaaain hajaaron graameen yuva foolo ko apni aay ka maadhyam bana lete hain.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain

sandarbh