granth lipi

granth
Grantha Kalidasa Kumarasambhavam.svg
granth lipi mein kaalidaas ke kumaarasanbhavam ka ek shlok
prakaar abugida
bhaashaaeain sanskrut, manipravaalam
samay kaal 6veen sadi se 16veen sadi[1]
janani pranaaliyaaain
braahmi
  • dakshini braahmi
    • pallav
      • granth
janit pranaaliyaaain malayalam lipi, sinhal lipi, tulu lipi, tamil lipi
bhagini pranaaliyaaain vatteluttu

granth lipi (tamil: கaaிaaரaaநaa்aaத ௭aaழaaுaaதaa்aaதaaு, malayalam: ഗaa്aaരaaനaa്aaഥaaലaaിaaപaaി, sanskrut: granth arthaat "pustak") dakshin Bhaarat mein pehle prachalit ek praacheen lipi hai. aamtaur par yeh maana jaata hai ki ye lipi ek aur praacheen bhaarateeya lipi braahmi se upaji hai. malayalam, tulu va sinhal lipi par iska prabhaav raha hai. is lipi ka ek aur sanskaran "pallav granth", pallav logon dvaara prayog kiya jaata tha, ise "pallav lipi" bhi kaha jaata tha. kai dakshin bhaarateeya lipiyaaain, jese ki barma ki mon lipi, Indonesia ki jaavaai lipi aur khmer lipi isi sanskaran se upajeen.[2]

anukram

sanskrut aur granth

ab to sanskrut likhne ke liye praay: devanaagari lipi ka hi istemaal hota hai, lekin dakshin Asia ke tamil-bhaashi kshetron mein 19veen sadi tak sanskrut likhne ke liye granth lipi ka hi istemaal hota tha. vidvaanon ka maanana hai ki 5veen sadi mein vaidik pustakon ko pehli baar likhne ke liye (iske poorv bhi yeh peedhi dar peedhi bol ke aur yaad kar ke hi seekhe aur samajhe jaate the) granth lipi ka prayog hua tha[3]. 20veen sadi ke praarambh mein dhaarmik aur vidvattaapoorn granthon mein granth lipi ke badle devanaagari ka prayog hone laga aur aam lok-keindrit prakaashanon mein vishesh chihnon ke saath tamil lipi ka istemaal hone laga.

granth lipi ka prayog tamil-sanskrut manipravaalam likhne ke liye bhi kiya jaata tha, yeh tamil aur sanskrut ke mishran se bani ek bhaasha hai jiska prayog sanskrut ke lekhon ki teeka ke liye hota hai. yeh viksit hote-hote kaafi jatil lekhan pranaali mein parivrtit hoti gayi, jismein tamil shabdon ko tamil vattelutu mein aur sanskrut ke shabdon ko granth lipi mein likha jaata tha. 15veen sadi tak iska vikaas is star tak ho gaya tha ki dono lipiyon ka prayog ek hi shabd tak mein hota tha - yadi shabd ki dhaatu sanskrut aadhaarit ho to vah granth mein likhi jaati, kintu yadi shabd mein tamil pratyaya hon to ve tamil vattelutu mein likhe jaate. jaise jaise manipravaalam ki lokapriyta ghatati gayi, is lekhan shaili ka istemaal kam hota gaya, lekin 20veen sadi ke madhya tak moolat: manipravaalam mein likhi pustakon ke mudrit sanskaranon mein isi parampara ka nirvaah hota raha.

aadhunik samay mein granth lipi ka prayog kuchh paaramparik tamil-bhaashi hinduon dvaara kiya jaata hai. vishesh taur par iska prayog naamakaran par kisi shishu ka sabse pehle naam likhne ke liye hota hai aur vivaah ke aamantranon ke sanskrut ansh ko likhne ke liye tatha antim sanskaar ki ghoshanaaon ke liye hota hai. kai panchaangon mein bhi iska prayog hota hai.

bhootapoorv tulu lipi ko granth lipi kehte the.

dives aur granth

dives akuru ka prayog 12veen se 17veen sadi ke beech divehi bhaasha likhne ke liye hota tha. is lipi ke granth se bahut gahre sambandh hain.

tulu-malayalam lipi

tulu-malayalam lipi ko paaramparik granth kaha jaata hai; 1300 isaveen ke kareeb se aadhunik lipi ka prayog ho raha hai. aaj kal do sanskaranon ka prayog hota hai: braahmani, ya chaukor aur jain, ya gol. tulu-malayalam lipi 8veen ya naveen sadi ki granth lipi ka ek sanskaran hai. sambhav hai ki aadhunik tamil lipi bhi granth se hi I ho, par yeh nishchit roop se gyaat naheen hai.[2]

malayalam aur granth

malayalam lipi ka praadurbhaav granth lipi se hua. malayalam lipiyon aur granth lipiyon mein kai samaanataaeain hain. jab granth aksharon ko sanskrut ke akshar likhne ke liye prayog kiya gaya tha to use koleऱauttu (beint lipi) kaha gaya.[4]

tamil aur granth

yeh socha gaya hai ki tamil bhi ek samay par granth lipi mein hi likhi jaati thi. par filhaal tamil ki apni lipi hai.

aadhunik tamil lipi aur granth lipi mein kaafi samaanata hai, tamil mein mahaapraan aghosh (kh), alpapraan ghosh (g) aur mahaapraan ghosh (gh) shrunkhala ke akshar hata diye gaye hain.

inhein bhi dekhein: tamil lipi

granth ke prakaar

granth lipi ka is prakaar vargeekaran kiya ja sakta hai[5]:

pallav granth

praacheen va aalankaarik granth ko pallav granth kaha jaata hai. pallavon ke shilaalekhon mein inka prayog hota tha. aalankaarik granth kaafi jatil va alankrut thi, at: yeh sambhav naheen hai ki iska prayog rojamarra ke lekhan mein bhi hota ho, sanbhavat: iska istemaal keval shilaalekhon mein hota hoga. mahaabaleepuram ke shilaalekh, tiruchirpalli ki patthar kati ke gufaaon ke shilaalekh aur kailaashant shilaalekh isi shreni mein aate hain.

sankraantikaaleen granth

is granth ka prayog chol vansh dvaara san 650 se 950 ke beech hua. baad ke pallavon aur paandiyn nedunchejiyn ke shilaalekh bhi is shaili ki granth lipi ke udaaharan hain.

madhyakaaleen granth

tanjavur ke chol vansh ke saamraajyeeya shilaalekh madhyakaaleen granth ke udaaharan hain. yeh shaili 950 isaveen se 1250 isaveen ke beech prachalit thi.

aadhunik granth

aadhunik granth baad ke pandya aur vijyanagar shaasakon ke jariye I. aadhunik granth aadhunik tamil lipi se kaafi milti julati hai.

granth varnamaala

nimnokt taalikaaon ke liye indolipi ki E-grantamil mudralipi ka prayog kiya gaya hai.

neeche di aksharon ki banaavat granth lipi ka pashchaat kaaleen roop hai aur inmein aadhunik tamil lipi se samaanata dekhi ja sakti hai.

svar

Grantha Vowels.svg

vyanjan

Grantha Consonants.svg

anya dhvanyaatmak lipiyon ki tarah granth vyanjan chihnon mein antarnihit vyanjan a maujood hai. a ke svar ki anupasthiti halant se darshaai jaati hai: Grantha Halant.svg

anya vyanjanon ke liye maatraaon ka istemaal hota hai: Grantha Matras.svg

kabhi kabhi vyanjanon aur maatraaon ko mila ke sanyuktaakshar bhi ban sakte hain, jaise: Grantha Vowel Ligature.svg

kaheen kaheen par halant ke saath vyanjan (shuddh vyanjan) ke liye alag banaavat ka prayog bhi hai: Grantha Pure Consonant New Ligature Glyph.svg

ank

Grantha Numbers.svg

vyanjanon ke sanyuktaakshar

granth mein do prakaar ke vyanjan sambandhit sanyuktaakshar hain. "uttari" prakaar ke sanyuktaaksharon mein devanaagari jaisi uttari lipiyon ki tarah do ya adhik vyanjanon ko mila ke sanyuktaakshar banta hai. (aise kai udaaharan dakshin ki malayalam lipi mein bhi milte hain.) "dakshini" prakaar mein aksharon ko ek doosare ke oopar neeche kram mein rakha jaata hai jaise ki dakshin ki kannad aur telugu lipiyon mein hota hai (aur kuchh had tak malayalam aur udiya lipiyon mein bhi yahi hota hai).

uttari prakaar ke sanyuktaakshar

Grantha Script Northern Style Consonant Ligatures.svg

dakshini prakaar ke sanyuktaakshar

in sanyuktaaksharon ko pehchaanana aasaan hai at: inke kuchh udaaharan hi yahaaain prastut hain:

Grantha Script Southern Style Consonant Ligatures.svg

vishesh roop:

yadi Grantha Ya.svg ya aur Grantha Ra.svg r kisi sanyuktaakshar ke praarambh mein naheen hote hain to ve kramash: Grantha yvat.svg aur Grantha rvat.svg ban jaate hain.

Grantha Ya Ra Ligatures.svg

yadi Grantha Ra.svg r kisi sanyuktaakshar ke shuroo mein ho to Grantha reph.svg ban ke sanyuktaakshar ke ant mein pahuainch jaata hai (ise anya bhaarateeya lipiyon mein ref kehte hain).

Grantha Ligatures With Reph.svg

granth sankhyaaeain

1-9 aur 0 ki sankhyaaeain granth lipi mein is prakaar hain - Grantha Numbers.svg

lekhan ke namoone

harek granth lipi ke namoone ke baad usaka roman (ISO 15919) aur devanaagari lipiyon mein lipyantaran bhi hai.

udaaharan 1: kaalidaas ke kumaarasanbhavam se

Grantha Text1.gif
astyuttarasyaan dishi devataatma himaalayo naam nagaadhiraaj:.
poorvaaparau toyanidhi vagaahya sthit: pruthivya iv maanadand:.

udaaharan 2: sant John 3:16

yahaaain ek hi lekh ko pradarshit kiya gaya hai. 1886 ke puraane prushth ki aadhunik sanskaran se tulana karke yeh pata chalta hai ki granth ke puraane prushth ko banaane mein kaareegar ko kitni kathinaai I hogi.

John 3 16 Sanskrit translation grantham script.gif
Grantha Text2.svg
yat ishvaro jagateetthan prem chakaar yannijmekajaatan
putran dadau tasmin vishvaasi sarvamanushyo yatha
na vinshyaanantan jeevanan lapsyate.

granth ki anya samaan lipiyon se tulana

svar

Grantha VowelComp.gif dhyaan dein: devanagaari ki tarah hi ऎ(deergh A) aur ऒ(deergh O) ke liye A aur O ka hi prayog hota hai (ऎ aur ऒ vaastav mein devanaagari mein naheen hain, ye isliye devanaagari mein chhap pa rahe hain kyonki devanaagari ke yoonikod maanak mein inhein lipyantaran ki drushti se sthaan diya gaya hai). moolat: malayalam lipi aur tamil lipi mein bhi laghu va deergh A aur O mein koi bhed naheen kiya jaata tha, par ab in lipiyon mein ye svar jud gaye hain. iske jimmedaar itaalavi dharmaparivrtak konstaanjo beshi (1680-1774) hain.

vyanjan

Grantha ConsComp.gif

tamil akshar ஜ(j) ஶ(sh) ஷ(sh) ஸ(s) ஹ(h) aur sanyuktaakshar கaa்aaஷ (ksh) ko "granth akshar" kaha jaata hai kyonki sanskrut ke shabdon ko likhne ke liye inhein tamil lipi mein shaamil kiya gaya tha. ழ(l) ற(ऱ) ன(ऩ) aur unke uchchaaran keval dravideeya bhaashaaon mein hain.

granth lipi ka yoonikod

granth[[#endnote_U11300_as_of_Unicode_version{{{3}}}|[1]]]
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