grand trank road

grand trank road
uttarapath
سaaڑaaک اaaعaaظaaم
Route of grand trunk road.png
maarg ki jaankaari
vistaar: 2500 kilometer
astitv: puraatanata-vartamaan
saamraajya
maurya raajavansh
sher shaah soori ·mugl saamraajya
british raaj
desh
बांग्लादेश baangalaadesh
भारत Bhaarat ·
पाकिस्तान Pakistan
अफ़्गानिस्तान afgaanistaan
maarg
poorvi chhor: chatagaaainv
naaraayanaganj ·haavada ·bardhamaan ·apaanaagad ·adurgaapur ·aasanasol
dhanabaad ·aaurangaabaad ·dehari aan son ·saasaaraam
mohaaniya ·muglasaraaya ·Varanasi ·Allahabad ·Kanpur ·
kaliyaanapur ·kannauj ·eta ·Aligadh ·gaajiyaabaad
Delhi ·Panipat ·karanaal ·kurukshetr ·ambaala ·
ludhiyaana ·jalandhar ·amrutasar · ataari
;vaagha ·Lahore ·gujaraanvaala ·Gujarat ·ajhelam
Rawalpindi ·aatak ·anaushera ·peshaavar ·khaibar darra ·jalaalaabaad
pashchimi chhor: Kabul
is sandook ko: dekhein samvaad
british raaj ke dauraan Ambala chhaavani se ek drushya.
peshaavar mein ji ti road ka ek puraana chitr
takshashila, Afghanistan ke paas puraani ji ti road ka ek sanrakshit hissa

grand trank road, dakshin Asia ke sabse puraane evam sabse lambe maargon mein se ek hai. do sadiyon se adhik kaal ke liye is maarg ne bhaarateeya upamahaadveep ke poorvi evam pashchimi bhaagon ko joda hai. yeh haavada ke pashchim mein sthit baangalaadesh ke chatagaaainv se praarambh hota hai aur Lahore (Pakistan) se hote hue afgaanistaan mein Kabul tak jaata hai[1]. puraane samay mein ise, uttarapath[2],shaah raah-A-aajam,sadak-A-aajam[3] aur baadashaahi sadak ke naamon se bhi jaana jaata tha.
yeh maarg, maurya saamraajya ke dauraan astitv mein tha aur iska failaav ganga ke muainh se hokar saamraajya ke uttar-pashchimi seema tak hua karta tha[4] . aadhunik sadak ki poorvavarti ka pun:nirmaan sher shaah soori dvaara kiya gaya tha[5]. sadak ka kaafi hissa 1833-1860 ke beech britishon dvaara unnat banaaya gaya tha[6].

anukram

itihaas

sadiyon ke liye, grand trank road ka, ek pramukh vyaapaar maarg ke roop mein istemaal kiya gaya hai. itihaas mein vibhinn avadhiyon ke dauraan is maarg ko alag-alag naamon se bulaaya jaata tha. chaar mukhya saamraajyon ne iska vistaar evam vyaapaar ke liye upayog kiya:

uttarapath

yeh naam ise maurya saamraajya ke vakt diya gaya tha. uttarapath, sanskrut bhaasha ka shabd hai jiska saahityik arth hai- 'uttar disha ki or jaane wala maarg'. yeh maarg ganga nadi ke kinaare ki bagal se hote hue, ganga ke maidaan ke paar, Punjab ke raaste se takshashila ko jaata tha.[7] is raaste ka poorvi chhor tamaluk mein tha jo ganga nadi ke muhaane par sthit ek shahar hai. Bhaarat ke poorvi tat par samudri bandaragaahon ke saath samudri sanparkon mein vruddhi ki vajah se maurya saamraajya ke kaal mein is maarg ka mahatva badha aur iska vyaapaar ke liye upayog hone laga. baad mein, uttarapath shabd ka prayog poore uttar maarg ke pradesh ko darshaane ke liye kiya jaane laga.

haal mein hua sanshodhan yeh darshaata hai ki, maurya saamraajya ke kaalaavadhi mein, Bhaarat aur pashchimi Asia ke kai bhaagon aur helenistik duniya ke beech thalachar vyaapaar, uttar-pashchim ke shaharon mukhyat: takshashila ke maadhyam se hota tha. takshashila, maurya saamraajya ke mukhya shaharon se, sadkon dvaara achhi tarah se juda hua tha. maurya raajaaon ne paataliputr (Patna) ko jodane ke liye takshashila se ek raajamaarg ka nirmaan kiya tha. chandragupt maurya ne yoonaani raajanayik megasthaneej ki aajnyaa se is raajamaarg ke rakharakhaav ke liye apne sainikon ko vividh jagahon par tainaat kiya tha. aath charanon mein nirmit yeh raajamaarg, peshaavar, takshashila, hastinaapur,kannauj, prayaag, paataliputr aur taamralipt ke shaharon ko jodane ka kaam karta tha.[8]

sadak-A-aajam

16 veen sadi mein, is maarg ka jyaadaatar bhaag sher shaah soori dvaara nae sire se punarnirmit kiya gaya tha.[9] sadak-A-aajam, shabd ka saahityik arth hai- 'pradhaan sadak'. Afghan samraat, sher shaah soori ne sankshipt avadhi ke liye jyaadaatar uttari Bhaarat par shaasan kiya tha.[10] uske mukhya do uddeshya the-

par kam samay mein hi sher shaah soori ka dehaant ho gaya aur sadak-A-aajam unke naam par samarpit kar di gayi. aage jaakar mugal samraaton ne yeh maarg pashchim mein khaibar darre ko paar kar Kabul tak aur poorv mein Bengal ke chatagaaainv bandargaah tak badhaaya.

grand trank road

17 veen sadi mein is maarg ka british shaasakon ne punarnirmaan kiya aur iska naam badalkar grand trank road kar diya.[11] abhi yeh maarg jyaadatar uttar Bhaarat ko jodata hai. british is maarg ko laaaing road (long road) bhi kehte the.

kos meenaar

sher shaah soori ke jamaane mein sadkon ko niyamit antaraal par chinhit kiya jaata tha aur ped sadak ke kinaare par lagaae jaate the[12]. yaatriyon ke liye vividh jagahon par kuon ka paani upalabdh karaaya gaya tha. is sadak ke kinaare har kos par meenaarein banvaai gayi theen. adhiktar inhein 1556-1707 ke beech banaaya gaya tha. kai meenaarein aaj bhi surakshit hain tatha inhein Delhi-Ambala raajamaarg[13] par dekha ja sakta hai. puraatatv vibhaag ke anusaar Bhaarat ke Haryana raajya mein kul 49 kos meenaare hai jinmein Faridabad mein 17, soneepat mein 7, Panipat mein 5, karanaal mein 10, kurukshetr aur ambaala mein 9 evam Rohtak mein 1 meenaar hain. aajkal inhein surakshit smaarak ghoshit kiya gaya hai tatha puraatatv vibhaag inki dekharekh karta hai.


sadiyon ke liye, grand trank road ek mahatvapoorn vyaapaar maarg raha hai. is maarg ka upayog vyaapaar evam daak sanchaar ke liye kiya jaata tha. doosari taraf, is sadak ne sainikon aur videshi aakramanakaariyon ke teevr aandolan mein madad ki, Afghan aur faarasi aakramanakaariyon[14] ke Bhaarat ke aantarik kshetron mein, lootpaat chhaape mein teji laai aur Bengal se uttar Bhaarat ke maidaan mein british sainikon ki aavaajaahi mein madad ki.

vartamaan praaroop

ji ti road par Bhaarat-Pakistan seema

vartamaan mein is maarg ko vibhinn raashtreeya raajamaargon mein baaainta gaya hai. aaj, grand trank road (jeeti road) ki lanbaai 2500 kilometer hai. yeh maarg baangalaadesh se shuru hokar afgaanistaan mein samaapt hota hai.

kai bade shaharon mein baaipaas aadi banane ke kaaran kai sthaanon par yeh apne mool sthaan se hat bhi gayi hai. udaaharan ke liye vartamaan mein Delhi ke raashtreeya chidiyaaghar mein sthit kosameenaar is baat ka pramaan hai ki kisi samay mein yeh sadak us sthaan se niklati thi. vaheen Haryana ke soneepat mein bhi kos meenaar dekhe ja sakte hain kintu ab yeh sadak soneepat se kuchh kilometer poorv mein sthit murathal va bahaalagadh se hokar gujrati hai.[15]

baangalaadesh

is maarg ka aarambh chatagaaainv shahar se hota hain aur naaraayanaganj jile se hote hue Bhaarat mein pravesh karta hai.[15]

Bhaarat

Bhaarat mein yeh maarg haavada, bardhamaan, paanaagad, durgaapur, aasanasol, dhanabaad, Aurangabad, dehari aan son, saasaaraam, mohaaniya, muglasaraaya, Varanasi, Allahabad, Kanpur, kaliyaanapur, kannauj, eta, Aligadh, gaajiyaabaad, Delhi, Panipat, karanaal, ambaala, ludhiyaana, jalandhar aur amrutasar se jaata hai. Bhaarat mein is maarg ko kaafi jagahon par raashtreeya raajamaargon mein badla gaya hai.[15]

grand trank road ka Islamabad se drushya

raashtreeya raajamaarg 2

haavada se Kanpur tak ke khand ko raashtreeya raajamaarg 2 naamit kiya gaya hai.[15]

raashtreeya raajamaarg 91

Kanpur se gaajiyaabaad tak ke khand ko raashtreeya raajamaarg 91 naamit kiya gaya hai.[15]

gaajiyaabaadAligadh - eta - kannauj - Kanpur

raashtreeya raajamaarg 1

Delhi se Haryana aur Punjab raajyon se amrutasar hote hue ataari tak ke khand ko raashtreeya raajamaarg 1 naamit kiya gaya hai. yahaaain se yeh sadak Pakistan ke vaagha mein pravesh karti hai.[15]

Pakistan

Pakistan ki seema se yeh maarg Lahore, gujaraanvaala, Gujarat, Jhelum, Rawalpindi, atak, naushera aur peshaavar se jaata hai.[15]

afgaanistaan

afgaanistaan mein yeh maarg khaibar darra se shuru hota hai aur jalaalaabaad, surobi se hote hue Kabul mein jaakar samaapt hota hai. is maarg ka jyaadaatar bhaag jalaalaabaad-Kabul raajamaarg ka hissa hai.[15]

deerghika

saahitya

  • briteesh lekhak, rudayaard kipling ne apne pustak kim mein grand trank road ka ullekh kiya hai. ve yeh kehte hai ki[16]-
Look! Brahmins and chumars, bankers and tinkers, barbers and bunnias, pilgrims -and potters - all the world going and coming.It is to me as a river from which I am withdrawn like a log after a flood. And truly the Grand Trunk Road is a wonderful spectacle. It runs straight, bearing without crowding India's traffic for fifteen hundred miles - such a river of life as nowhere else exists in the world.

iska hindi mein arth-

dekhiye! braahman aur chamaar, banker aur tin se madhnevaale, naai aur baniye, teerth yaatri aur kumhaar- poori duniya yahaaain se aa-ja rahe hain. sahi maayane mein grand trank road ek adbhut drushya hai. aisa maarg duniya mein kaheen naheen milega, jo pandrah sau meal ki doori ke liye Bhaarat ki yaataayaat bheed se beasar seedha chalta hai. yahaaain hamein jeevan ki nadi ka bahaav dekhne ka anubhav milta hai.


sandarbh

  1. "grand trank road". Dangerousroads.org (asia). http://www.dangerousroads.org/asia/india/119-grand-trunk-road-india.html. abhigman tithi: 1 January 2015.
  2. Eric Flint, David Drake (2006). The Dance of Time. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 9781416509318. https://books.google.co.in/books?id=sbDxkzAn6KMC&pg=PT240&lpg=PT240&dq=uttarpath&source=bl&ots=TP3wIyRMAN&sig=xKmdcPOC0KQppbyo0DOGuidBOdk&hl=en&sa=X&ei=ZNakVKSDIJeSuASgvoD4Cg&ved=0CCwQ6AEwBDgK#v=onepage&q=uttarpath&f=false.
  3. "The Road Where Once Horses Rode". pakistanpaedia.com. http://pakistanpaedia.com/landmarks/grand%20trunk%20road.htm. abhigman tithi: 1 January 2015.
  4. ke.M. sarkaar (1927). Punjab mein grand trank road: 1849-1886. Atlantic Publishers & Distri. pp. 2–. GGKEY:GQWKH1K79D6. http://books.google.com/books?id=qFdJbRywbKwC&pg=PA2.
  5. Chaudhry, Amrita (27 May 2012). "Cracks on a historical highway". The Indian Express. Archived from the original on 22 May 2013. http://web.archive.org/web/20130522025746/http://www.indianexpress.com/news/cracks-on-a-historical-highway/954273/0.
  6. David Arnold (historian); Science, technology, and medicine in colonial India (New Cambr hist India v.III.5) Cambridge University Press, 2000, 234 pages p.106
  7. dhanapati paandeya (1998). praacheen Bhaarat ka raajaneetik aur saanskrutik itihaas. Motilal banaaraseedaas pablishrs. pa॰ 112. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 9788120823808. https://books.google.co.in/books?id=EGR2yLsj1DcC.
  8. naaraayaan Singh kalota. India as directed by Megasthenes [megasthaneej dvaara nirdisht Bhaarat]. kaunsept pablishing company. https://books.google.co.in/books?id=tQ1iBQAAQBAJ.
  9. a aa "sherashaah soori ka saasaaraam haashiye par". BBC hindi. 25 March 2010. http://www.bbc.co.uk/hindi/india/2010/03/100325_shershahsuri_vv.shtml. abhigman tithi: 25 January 2015.
  10. Varanasi vaibhav ya kaashi vaibhav, abhigman tithi: 25 January 2015
  11. e॰ sinopoli (1998). Arch Bridges [vrutt-khand pul]. seeaarasi press. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 9789058090126. https://books.google.co.in/books?id=l2CrrQa6kFEC.
  12. "Caravanserias along the grand trunk road in Pakistan". UNESCO. https://en.unesco.org/silkroad/sites/silkroad/files/knowledge-bank-article/caravanserais%20along%20the%20grand%20trunk%20road%20in%20pakistan.pdf. abhigman tithi: 24 December 2014.
  13. "kos meenaar itihaas, soneepat". Society for development and Beautification of Sonepat Town (regd.). http://sdbst.org/KosMinar.aspx. abhigman tithi: 24 December 2014.
  14. Steve Coll. On the Grand Trunk Road: A Journey into South Asia. Penguin. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 9781101029138.
  15. a aa i E u oo A ai tim smith aur irana kuraishi (angreji mein). The Grand Trunk Road: From Delhi to the Khyber Pass [the grand trank road: Delhi se Khyber paas tak]. devi luis prakaashan. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 9781904587996.
  16. A description of the road by Kipling, found both in his letters and in the novel "Kim". He writes: "Look! Brahmins and chumars, bankers and tinkers, barbers and bunnias, pilgrims -and potters - all the world going and coming. It is to me as a river from which I am withdrawn like a log after a flood. And truly the Grand Trunk Road is a wonderful spectacle. It runs straight, bearing without crowding India's traffic for fifteen hundred miles - such a river of life as nowhere else exists in the world."

baahari kadiyaaain