graamofon

edisn ka belan fonograaf (cylinder phonograph ; san 1899)

graamofon (gramophone) dhvani utpann karanevaala ek yantr hai, jo ek sooi ke dolanon ko vaayu mein sanchaarit kar dhvani utpann karta hai. sooi ek ghoomate hue rikaard mein bane ghumaavadaar khaaainche ke sampark mein hoti hai. graamofonyoonaani bhaasha mein "graamo" ka arth hai akshar aur "phone" ka arth hai dhvani. vyaapak arth mein kisi bhi aise yantr ko graamofon kehte hain jisse dhvani ka abhilekhan aur baad mein punarutpaadan hota hai.

anukram

aavishkaar evam vikaas

sarvapratham liyn Scott (Leon Scott) ne san 1857 mein ek aise yantr, fonaatograaf, ka aavishkaar kiya jiske dvaara dhvani ka abhilekhan kiya ja sakta tha. fonaatograaf mein ek jhilli thi, jisse ek bahut naajuk uttaalok (lever) sanlagn tha. jhilli ek paravaleeya keep (parabolic funnel) ke patale sire par tani hoti thi. uttolak ki nok ek aise belan par laai jaati thi jispar ek kaagaj lipta hota tha aur kaagaj par kaalikh puti hoti thi. belan ek bahut sookshm peinch se laga hota tha, jo belan ke ghoomane par kshaitij disha mein chalta tha. jab jhilli par dhvani padti thi aur belan ghumaaya jaata tha tab chinhak kaagaj ke kaale prushth par ek sarpil rekha ban jaati thi. is prakaar dhvani ka abhilekhan kar liya jaata tha.

abhilikhit dhvani ka pratham vaastavik punarutpaadan ti.A. edisn dvaara san 1876 mein sambhav ho saka. aidisn ne apne yantr ko fonograaf naam diya. ismein ek peetal ka belan tha, jispar sarpil rekha banaai jaati thi. belan se ek kshaitij peinch laga hota tha. lagbhag 2 inch vyaasavaale peetal ke ek chhote se belan ke muainh par paarchameint ki ek jhilli taani jaati thi. jhilli ke kendra se ek ispaat ki sooi sanlagn hoti thi jiski nok chheneedaar hoti thi. sooi ki nok ke paas ispaat ki ek kathor kamaani lagaai jaati thi. kamaani ka doosra sira peetal ke belan se juda hota tha. abhilekhi bade belan par is prakaar rakha jaata tha ki belan ke ghoomane par sooi ki patali dhaar sarpil khaaainch (groov) ke beech mein chale. belan par tin ki panni ki ek parat hoti th. jab chhote belan mein dhvani ka pravesh karaakar jhilli ko kanpaayamaan kiya jaata tha tab dolanon ke dabaabon ki vibhinnata ke kaaran khaaainch ke tal mein panni par chinhak dvaara vibhinn gaharaaiyon ki khudaai ho jaati thi. yeh khudaai dhvani tarangon ke anuroop hoti thi.

edisn aur usaka aarambhik fonograaf

dhvani ke punarutpaadan ke liye khaaainch par ek doosra chinhak rakha jaata tha. chinhak khudaai ka anusaran karta hua kram se oopar ya neeche jaata tha aur is tarah vah jhilli ko, jis prakaar vah abhilekhan ke samay kanpit ki gayi thi usi prakaar, kanpit hone ke liye baadhya karta tha. jhilli ke kanpan vaayu ko kanpit karte the aur is prakaar poorvadhvani ka punarutpaadan hota tha.

aage chalakar ismein bahut se sudhaar kiye gaye. edisn ke mom ke belanavaale fonograaf or graiham bail tatha si.S. teintar ke graamofon mein rikaard par oopar neeche khudaai karke naheen, varan kataai karke, dhvani abhilekhan kiya gaya. dhvani punarutpaadan vidyut-jamaav-prakriya dvaara kiya gaya. fonograaf ki tarah belanaakaar rikaardon ka upayog karanevaali masheenein bahut dinon tak janapriya naheen, parantu inmein bahut si trutiyaaain theen. in trutiyon mein se kuchh ko doorakar emaail barlinr (Emile Berliner) ne san 1887 mein ek yantr banaaya, jise graamofon naam diya.

uske peteint vivran ke pratham rekhaachitr mein ek belanaakaar rikaard tha, jo kaajal se pute ek kaagaj ke roop mein tha. yeh kaagaj ek dhol par lipta tha. kaatanevaali sooi kshaitij disha mein chalti thi aur kaajal ko hataakar ek sarpil rekha banaati thi. punarutpaadan ke liye usane rikaard ki nakal yaantrik dhang se, khudaai ya kataai kar pratirodhi padaarth par ki. usane taaainba, nikal ya anya kisi dhaatu ka sthaayi rikaard banaaya, jispar sarpil gahari rekha thi. abhilikhit dhvani ko utpann karne ke liye rikaard ek drum par lapeta jaata tha aur sooi ki nok khaaainch mein rakhi jaati thi tatha drum ko ghumaaya jaata tha.

beesaveen shataabdi ke uttaraardh ka graamofon

barlinr ke doosare aur sanshodhit graamofon mein rikaard ke liye ek chauras pattika ka upayog kiya gaya. kaaainch ki ek pattika par syaahi, ya rang ki ek parat jama dete the. usapar sooi kinaare se kendra ki or, ya kendra se kinaare ki or, sarpil rekha banaati thi. ek mej par rikaard pattika ko rakhakar mej ko kisi upayukt prakaar se ghumaaya jaata tha. pattika par ek aise padaarth ki parat jamaai jaati thi jo sooi ki gati ka bahut kam pratirodh karta tha aur amlon se prabhaavit naheen hota tha. beinjeen mein ghule hue madhumakkhi ke mom ko usane upayukt paaya. jab sooi se rikaard par khaaainch ban jaati thi or uske tal par thos khula rah jaata tha, tab aml daalkar khudaai ki jaati thi aur sthaayi rikaard bana liya jaata tha. kade rabar ya anya padaarthon ki pattikaaon ko dabaakar rikaard ki pratilipiyaaain praapt ki jaati theen. pattikaanuma rikaardon ka nirmaan san 1897 mein jaakar kaheen vyaapaarik drushti se safal ho saka.

edisn ka fonograaf

abhilekhan (recording) ki praarambhik vidhi

gaayakon ko bhonpoo (horn) ke mukh ke theek saamane rakha jaata tha taaki dhvani ki oorja tanupat (diaphragm) par keindrit ho sake. gaayak ya vaadak simtakar baithate the. ek parade ke aage bhonpoo baahar ki or nikla hota tha. parade ke doosari or abhilekhan machine hoti thi, jismein mom jaise padaarth ki chauras pattika hoti thi. isi pattika par sooi sarpil rekha ankit karti thi. vidyut jamaav ki prakriya dvaara is pattika se thos dhaatu ka ek pratichhaap (negative) banaaya jaata tha. ek aise padaarth par jo saadhaaranat: kada hota hai, parantu garam karne par mulaayam ho, jaata hai, is pratichhaap ko dabaakar usaki pratilipiyaaain banaai jaati theen.

isi samay ke aas paas bahut se aavishkaarakon ne punarutpaadan karanevaali masheenon ke sudhaar ki or dhyaan diya. London ke vijnyaaanasangrahaalaya mein pradarshit bahut se graamofonon dvaara unke vikaas ki vibhinn avasthaaon ki jhalak milti hai. aarambh mein barlinr ki machine hai, jismein dhaatu tanupatavaali anunaad petika (Sound box) hai. yeh haath se chalaai jaati thi. san 1896 mein yaantrik niyantran ka pravesh hua aur shataabdi ke ant tak ghadi ke samaan yantr banaaya gaya, jo keval punarutpaadan ke liya prayukt hota tha. ismein seloolaayad ka tanupat tha, parantu do saal pashchaat abhrak ka upayog hone laga. san 1905 tak aisi anunaadapetika ka vikaas ho chuka tha jo bina kisi mahatvapoorn parivartan ke 20 varsh tak prachalit rahi. ismein abhrak ka tanupat tha, jo chaaron taraf kinaare par rabar ke khokhale chhalle roopi gaisket (gasket) se achhi tarah kasa rahata tha. jo uttolak tanupat ke kendra ko sui ki nok se lodta tha, usaka aalanb asikor ka hota tha aur usaki gati ka niyantran komal kamaaniyon dvaara hota tha. achhe punarutpaadan ke liye bade haarn aavashyak the, parantu jab inka bhaar bahut adhik hone laga tab unhein anunaadapetika se alag kar diya gaya aur machine ki peti par bane ek braiket se joda jaane laga. anunaadapetika ko bhonpoo se jodne ke liya ek chhoti nalika ka upayog kiya gaya, jise dhvanibhuja (tone arm) kehte the. bhonpoo ka dikhaai dena janta pasand naheen karti thi, isaliye use ulata karke peti mein rakha gaya.

abhilekhan ki aadhunik vidhi

vakta ya gaayak dhvaniposh (microphone) ke saamane bolata ya gaata hai. dhvaniposh mein utpann parivrti vidyuddhaara ko radio vaalvon dvaara sambandhit kar ek kundali mein le jaate hain. vidyuddhaara ke ghatne badhne se naram lohe ka aarmechar paarshv disha mein dolit hota hai aur usase judi hui neelam (sapphire) ki sooi momapattika par sarpil khaaainch bana deti hai.

vidyudvidhi se dhvani utpaadan karne ke liye anunaadapetika ki jagah vidyuddhvanigrah (pick up) ka upayog karte hain. sooi ki paarshveeya gati ek kundali mein parivrti dhaara utpann karti hai, jise sambandhit kar laaudaspeekar mein le jaate hain. bahut se dhvanigrah manibh ka upayog karte hain aur bahuton mein ghoomanevaala ghaatr (armature) hota hai ya kundali. kuchh dhvanigrah vidyuddhaaritr ka bhi upayogakarate hain.

1926 E. tak tavein (records) ka vyaas 10-12 inch hota tha aur ve ek minute mein 78 ya 80 baar ghoomate the. unke ghoomane ki avadhi chaar minute tak hoti thi, parantu ab aise sudhaar kiye gaye hain ki ek hi tave se aadha ghanta tak gaana suna ja sakta hai. ye tave ek minute mein 33 baar ghoomate hain. aisa bhi prabandh kiya gaya hai ki tave apne aap badalate rahate hain.

san 1935 se pehle praaya: ispaat ki sooiyon ka upayog kiya jaata tha, ek hi tave par chalne ke baad unhein badalna aavashyak ho jaata tha, parantu aajkal neelam ki sooiyon ka upayog kiya jaata hai.

punarjanan abhilekhak (Feed-back recorder)

vidyut aur yaantrik samudaayon ki sadrushata ke aadhaar par hairisn ne san 1925 mein ek paarshveeya abhilekhak banaaya tha. doosra mahatvapoorn charan tha oordhvaadhar abhilekhan ke liye punarjanan abhilekhak ka nirmaan. san 1947 tak punarjanan abhilekhak ka upayog paarshveeya abhilekhan ke liye bhi kiya jaane laga. isse yeh laabh hua ki sooi par pattika ki abhikriya se jo vikruti utpann hoti thi vah kam ho gayi.

baahari kadiyaaain