goti

draufts ka board evam gottiyaaain

goti (draft/Draughts) shataranj se milta-julata ek khel hai jo pashchimi deshon, visheshakar Europe aur amareeka mein adhik prachalit hai. ameriki angreji mein ise 'chekars' kaha jaata hai. yeh do vyaktiyon ke beech khela jaata hai. is khel ka pradhaan upakaran ek patt (board) hota hai, jismein 64 khaane bane hote hain. ye khaane ekaantar kram se virodhi rangon mein (kaale safed ya laal neele rangon mein) range hote hain. is prakaar kul 32 safed aur utane hi kaale khaane ismein hote hain. shataranj ke moharon ke sthaan par ismein chapati gotein hoti hain. pratyek paksh ke paas 12 gotein hoti hain - ek ke paas kul safed aur doosare ke paas kul kaali. goton ko neeche chitr mein pradarshit dhang se patt par lagaate hain.

itihaas

yeh khel atyant praacheen hai. iska praacheen naam chekars (Checkers) hai. yoonaani tatha roman logon ka yeh atyant priya khel tha. iski lokapriyta ka kuchh aabhaas is tathya se mil sakta hai ki raamanon ke anek aitihaasik mahatva ke bhavanon mein isi ke patt (board) ke chitr sthaan-sthaan par bane hue dikhlaai padte hain. isse bahut kuchh milta julata ek khel misr deshavaasi bhi sahastron varsho se khelte aa rahe hain. yoonaan se is khel ka prachaar arab deshon mein hua aur aisa prateet hota hai ki vaheen se pun: England, France aur Spain aadi deshon mein aaya. Bhaarat mein nau goton ka ek khel bahut praacheenakaal se khela jaata raha hai. yadyapi vah is khel se bahut bhinn hai, fir bhi goton ko bandi banaakar utha lena aur raaja banaane (mukut dhaaran karaane) ki prakriya aadi is khel se bahut kuchh milti julati hai.

is khel se sanbadhit saahitya ka bhi vistrut parimaan mein nirmaan hua hai aur antaraashtreeya niymopaniymon ka bhi srujan hota raha hai. vaileinshiya ke aintoniya taurkimaada (Antonia Torquemada) ne san 1547 mein is khel ke baare mein sarvapratham pustak prakaashit ki. iske baad inglainnd ke suvikhyaat ganitjnya William pen (William Payne) ne apni vishvavishrut pustak 'guide tu di game ov draafts' (draft ke khelaki sandarshika) san 1756 mein prakaashit ki. inki prerana se is khel se sabandhit saahitya mein drut gati se abhivruddhi hone lagi aur lokaruchi is or keindrit hone lagi. 19veen shataabdi mein aindroo aindarasan (England) goti-draft ke khel ka vishvavikhyaat vijeta hua. vah anek pratiyogitaaon mein samilit hua aur adhikaansh mein vijayi raha. is khel se sambandhit anek niymopaniymon ka vah pravartak tha. khel ke aadhunik roop ka shilpkaar use hi kaha ja sakta hai. 20veen shataabdi mein amareekanon ne is khel mein badi pragati ki aur yaropeeya khilaadiyon ko bahut peechhe dhakel diya.

khel ki prakriya

khel ke praarambh ki avastha mein kaale vrutton mein kaali tatha shvet vrutton mein shvet gotiyaaain baithaai jaati hain. khel ki praarambhik chaal kaali gotavaala vyakti chalta hai aur iske baad doosari chaal safed gotavaala chalta hai. koi got ek ghar se doosare aise ghar mein chali ja sakti hai jo pehle ghar ke karnavat ek se adhik ghar hon to yeh chalanevaali ki ichha par hai ki vah apni got jis or chaahe chal sakta hai. yadi vipakshi ki got agale ghar mein ho aur uske aage (karnavat) ghar rikt ho to khilaadi apni got us rikt ghar mein pahuainchaakar beech mein padnevaali vipakshi ki got ko utha le sakta hai.vipakshi ki got ko is prakaar utha lene ki kriya ko bandeekaran (Capture) kehte hain. yeh dhyaan dene yogya hai ki koi got keval aage hi chali ja sakti hai.

jab koi got vipakshi ke pratham shreneevaale safed gharon mein se kisi ek mein pahuainch jaati hai, to use raajamukut dhaaran karaaya jaata hai, kyonki ye ghar 'raaja ke ghar' kahe jaate hain. mukut dhaaran karne ki kriya raaja ke ghar mein pahuainchi hui got par usi rang ki doosari got rakhakar sampann karaai jaati hai. yeh mukutadhaari naya raaja aage peechhe kisi or bhi karnavat ghar mein ja sakta hai aur uparyukt bandeekaran vidhi se vipakshi ki kisi bhi got ko bandi bana sakta hai. kintu raaja ke ghar mein pahuainchi hui koi vipakshi got tab tak naheen chali ja sakti jab tak mukut dhaaran ki kriya sampann na ho jaaya.

koi paksh jab apni kisi got ko, vipakshi ki got paar karaate hue, agale ghar mein daal sakane mein chook jaata hai aur vipakshi ki got ko utha naheen leta, to vipakshi use dandit kar sakta hai. ise 'hafing' (huffing) bhi kehte hain. tab yeh vipakshi ki ichha par nirbhar karta hai ki vah dandasvaroop us got ko, jiske kaaran usaki apni got ko bandi ho jaana chaahiye tha, swayam utha le athva us paksh ko apni chaal ko vaapas kar pun: vahi chaal chalakar apni got ko bandi banaane ke liye baadhya kare, jaisa bhi vah apne hit ke anukool samajhe. jnyaaatavya hai ki is khel mein kabhi-kabhi vijayi hone ke nimitt apni hi got ko vipakshi dvaara bandi banava lena bhi aavashyak ho jaata hai.

koi paksh jab vipakshi ki sabhi goto ko bandi bana leta hai athva un goton ka maarg is prakaar avaruddh kar det hai ki vah vivsh ho jaaya aur aage koi chaal chal hi na sake, to vah paksh vijay maana jaata hai. jab koi paksh vijyashri na praapt kar sake aur khel ki sthiti kuchh is prakaar ki ho jaaya jisse yeh spasht ho jaaya ki aage nirnaya ho sakana asambhav hai, to us baaji ko anirneet ghoshit kar diya jaata hai. pratyek baaji samaapt hone ke baad khilaadi aapas mein gotein badal lete hain. chaal chalte samay yeh aavashyak hai ki koi khilaadi jis got ko chhoo le, aur usaki chalne ki gunjaayash hai to vah usi got ko chale.