gorakhanaath

gorakhanaath, puraatan pratima (gorakhanaath math, odaadr, porabandar, Gujarat, Bhaarat)

gorakhanaath' ya gorakshanaath ji mahaaraaj 11vi se 12vi shataabdi ke naath yogi the.[1][2] guru gorakhanaath ji ne poore Bhaarat ka bhraman kiya aur anekon granthon ki rachana ki. gorakhanaath ji ka mandir uttar pradesh ke Gorakhpur nagar me sthit hai. gorakhanaath ke naam par is jile ka naam Gorakhpur pada hai.

guru gorakhanaath ji ke naam se hi Nepal ke gorakhaaon ne naam paaya. Nepal mein ek jila hai gorakha, us jile ka naam gorakha bhi inhi ke naam se pada. maana jaata hai ki guru gorakhanaath sabse pehle yaheen dikhe the. gorakha jila mein ek gufa hai jahaaain gorakhanaath ka pag chinh hai aur unki ek murti bhi hai. yahaaain har saal vaishaakh purnima ko ek utsav manaaya jaata hai jise 'rot mahotsav' kehte hain aur yahaaain mela bhi lagta hai.

anukram

rachanaaeain

dau॰ badthvaal ki khoj mein nimnalikhit 40 pustakon ka pata chala tha, jinhein gorakhanaath-rachit bataaya jaata hai. dau॰ badthvaal ne bahut chhaanabeen ke baad inmein pratham 14 granthon ko asandigdh roop se praacheen maana, kyonki inka ullekh praay: sabhi pratiyon mein mila. terahaveen pustak 'gyaan chaunteesa' samay par na mil sakane ke kaaran unke dvaara sanpaadit sangrah mein naheen aa saki, parantu baaki terah ko gorakhanaath ki rachanaaeain samajhakar us sangrah mein unhonne prakaashit kar diya hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein] pustakein ye hain-

  1. sabadi
  2. pad
  3. shishyaadarshan
  4. praan saankali
  5. naravai bodh
  6. aatmabodh
  7. abhaya maatra jog
  8. pandrah tithi
  9. saptavaar
  10. manchhidr gorakh bodh
  11. romaavali
  12. gyaan tilk
  13. gyaan chaunteesa
  14. panchamaatra
  15. gorakhaganesh goshthi
  16. gorakhadatt goshthi (gyaan deepabodh)
  17. mahaadev gorakhagushti
  18. shisht puraan
  19. daya bodh
  20. jaati bhaunraavali (chhand gorakh)
  21. navagrah
  22. navaraatr
  23. ashtapaarachhya
  24. rah raas
  25. gyaan maala
  26. aatmabodh (2)
  27. vrat
  28. niranjan puraan
  29. gorakh vachan
  30. indri devata
  31. moolagarbhaavali
  32. khaaneevaani
  33. gorakhasat
  34. ashtamudra
  35. chaubees sidh
  36. shadakshari
  37. panch agni
  38. asht chakr
  39. avali silook
  40. kaafir bodh

guru gorakhanaath ka samay

matsyeindranaath aur gorakhanaath ke samay ke baare mein is desh mein anek vidvaanon ne anek prakaar ki baatein kahi hain. vastut: inke aur inke samasaamayik siddh jaalandharanaath aur krushnapaad ke sambandh mein anek dantakathaaeain prachalit hain.

gorakhanaath aur matsyeindranaath-vishyak samast kahaaniyon ke anusheelan se kai baatein spasht roop se jaani ja sakti hain. pratham yeh ki matsyeindranaath aur jaalandharanaath samasaayik the; doosari yeh ki matsyeindranaath gorakhanaath ke guru the aur jaalaandharanaath kaanupa ya krushnapaad ke guru the; teesari yeh ki matsyeindranaath kabhi yog-maarg ke pravartak the, fir sanyogavash aise ek aachaar mein sammilit ho gaye the jismein striyon ke saath abaadh sansarg mukhya baat thi - sanbhavat: yeh vaamaachaari saadhana thi;-chauthi yeh ki shuroo se hi jaalaandharanaath aur kaanipa ki saadhana-paddhati matsyeindranaath aur gorakhanaath ki saadhana-paddhati se bhinn thi. yeh spasht hai ki kisi ek ka samay bhi maaloom ho to baaki siddhon ke samay ka pata asaani se lag jaaega. samay maaloom karne ke liye kai yuktiyaaain di ja sakti hain. ek-ek karke ham un par vichaar karein.

  • (1) sabse pratham to matsyeindranaath dvaara likhit 'kaul gyaan nirnaya' granth (Calcutta sanskrut series mein dau॰ prabodhachandr vaagachi dvaara 1934 i0 mein sanpaadit) ka lipikaal nishchit roop se sidgh kar deta hai ki matsyeindranaath gyaarahaveen shataabdi ke poorvavarti hain.
  • (2) suprasiddh Kashmiri aachaarya Abhinav gupt ne apne tantraalok mein machhand vibhu ko namaskaar kiya hai. ye 'machhand vibhu' matsyeindranaath hi hain, yeh bhi nishchachit hai. Abhinav gupt ka samay nishchit roop se gyaat hai. unhonne ishvar pratyaabhijnyaa ki bruhati vrutti san 1015 i0 mein likhi thi aur kram strot ki rachana san 991 i0 mein ki thi. is prakaar Abhinav gupt san isavi ki dasveen shataabdi ke ant mein aur gyaarahaveen shataabdi ke aarambh mein vartamaan the. matsyeindranaath isse poorv hi aavibhoort hue honge. jis aadar aur gaurav ke saath aachaarya Abhinav guptapaad ne unka smaran kiya hai usase anumaan kiya ja sakta hai ki unke paryaapt poorvavarti honge.
  • (3) pandit Rahul saankrutyaayan ne ganga ke puraatattvaank mein 84 vajrayaani siddhon ki soochi prakaashit karaai hai. iske dekhne se maaloom hota hai ki meenapa naamak siddh, jinhein tibbati parampara mein matsyeindranaath ka pita kaha gaya hai par ve vastut: matsyeindranaath se abhinn hain raaja devapaal ke raajyakaal mein hue the. raaja devapaal 809-49 i0 tak raaj karte rahe (chaturaasheet siddh pravrutti, tanjoor 86. 1. kaardiyr, pru0 247). isse yeh siddh hota hai ki matsyeindranaath naveen shataabdi ke madhya ke bhaag mein aur adhik se adhik antya bhaag tak vartamaan the.
  • (4) govindachandr ya gopeechandr ka sambandh jaalandharapaad se bataaya jaata hai. ve kaanifa ke shishya hone se jaalandharapaad ki teesari pusht mein padte hain. idhar tirumalaya ki shailalipi se yeh tathya udadhrut kiya ja saka hai ki dakshin ke raaja raajeindr chol ne manikchandr ko paraajit kiya tha. bangala mein 'govind chanjeindr chol ne manikchandr ke putr govindachandr ko paraajit kiya tha. bangala mein 'govind chandrer gaan' naam se jo pothi upalabdh hui hai, uske anusaar bhi govindachandr ka kisi daakshinaatya raaja ka yuddh varnit hai. raajeindr chol ka samay 1063 i0 -1112 i0 hai. isse anumaan kiya ja sakta hai ki govindachandr gyaarahaveen shataabdi ke madhya bhaag mein vartamaan the. yadi Jalandhar unase sau varsh poorvavarti ho to bhi unka samay dasveen shataabdi ke madhya bhaag mein nishchit hota hai. matsyeindranaath ka samay aur bhi pehle nishchit ho chuka hai. jaalandharapaad unke samasaamayik the. is prakaar anek kasht-kalpana ke baad bhi is baat se poorvavarti pramaanon ki achhi sangati naheen baithati hai.
  • (5) vajrayaani siddh kanhapa (kaanipa, kaanifa, kaanhoopa) ne swayam apne gaanon par jaalandharapaad ka naam liya hai. tibbati parampara ke anusaar ye bhi raaja devapaal (809-849 i0) ke samakaaleen the. is prakaar jaalandharapaad ka samay inse kuchh poorv thaharata hai.
  • (6) kanthadi naamak ek siddh ke saath gorakhanaath ka sambandh bataaya jaata hai. 'prabandh chintaamani' mein ek katha aati hai ki chaulukya raaja moolaraaj ne ek mooleshvar naam ka shivmandir banavaaya tha. somanaath ne raaja ke nitya niyat vandan-poojan se santusht hokar anahillapur mein avateern hone ki ichha prakat ki. falasvaroop raaja ne vahaaain tripurush-praasaad naamak mandir banavaaya. usaka prabandhak hone ke liye raaja ne kanthadi naamak shaivasiddh se prarthana ki. jis samay raaja us siddh se milne gaya us samay siddh ko bukhaar tha, par apne bukhaar ko usane kantha mein sankraamit kar diya. kantha kaaainpane lagi. raaja ne poochha to usane bataaya ki usi ne kantha mein jvar sankramit kar diya hai. bade chhal-bal se us ni:spruh tapasvi ko raaja ne mandir ka prabandhak banavaaya. kahaani mein siddh ke sabhi lakshan naagapanthi yogi ke hain, isliye yeh kanthadi nishchaya hi gorakhanaath ke shishya hi honge. 'prabandh chintaamani' ki sabhi pratiyon mein likha hai ki moolaraaj ne sanvat 993 ki aashaadhi poornima ko raajyabhaar grahan kiya tha. keval ek prati mein 998 sanvat hai. is hisaab se jo kaal anumaan kiya ja sakta hai, vah poorvavarti pramaanon se nirdhaarit tithi ke anukool hi hai. ye hi gorakhanaath aur matsyeindranaath ka kaal-nirnaya karne ke aitihaasik ya arddh-aitihaasik adhaar hain. parantu praay: dantakathaaon aur saampradaayik paranmaparaaon ke aadhaar par bhi kaal-nirnaya ka prayatn kiya jaata hai.

in dantakathaaon se sambaddh aitihaasik vyaktiyon ka kaal bahut samay jaana hua rahata hai. bahut-se aitihaasik vyakti gorakhanaath ke saakshaat shishya maane jaate hain. unke samay ki sahaayata se bhi gorakhanaath ke samay ka anumaan lagaaya ja sakta hai. brigs ne ('gorakhanaath end kanafata yogeej' Calcutta, 1938) in dantakathaaon par aadhaarit kaal aur chaar mote vibhaagon mein is prakaar baaaint liya hai-

  • (1) kabeer naanak aadi ke saath gorakhanaath ka samvaad hua tha, is par dantakathaaeain bhi hain aur pustakein bhi likhi gayi hain. yadi inse gorakhanaath ka kaal-nirnaya kiya jaae, jaisa ki bahut-se panditon ne bhi kiya hai, to chaudahaveen shataabdi ke ishat poorv ya madhya mein hoga.
  • (2) googa ki kahaani, pashchimi naathon ki anushrutiyaaain, baingaal ki shaiv-parampara aur dharmapooja ka sanpadraaya, dakshin ke puraatattv ke pramaan, jnyaaaneshvar ki parampara aadi ko pramaan maana jaae to yeh kaal 1200 i0 ke udhar hi jaata hai. terahaveen shataabdi mein Gorakhpur ka math dhaha diya gaya tha, iska aitihaasik saboot hai, isliye nishchit roop se kaha ja sakta hai ki gorakhanaath 1200 i0 ke pehle hue the. is kaal ke kam se kam sau varsh pehle to yeh kaal hona hi chaahiye.
  • (3) Nepal ke shaiv-bauddh parampara ke nareindradev, ke baappaaraav, uttar-pashchim ke rasaaloo aur hodo, Nepal ke poorv mein shankaraachaarya se bheint aadi aadhaarit kaal 8veen shataabdi se lekar naveen shataabdi tak ke kaal ka nirdesh karte hain.
  • (4) kuchh paranparaaeain isse bhi poorvavarti tithi ki or sanket karti hain. brigs doosari shreni ke pramaanon par aadhaarit kaal ko uchit kaal samajhte hain, par saath hi yeh sveekaar karte hain ki yeh antim nirnaya naheen hai. jab tak aur koi pramaan naheen mil jaata tab tak ve gorakhanaath ke vishay mein itna hi kah sakte hain ki gorakhanaath 1200 i0 se poorv, sanbhavat: gyaarahaveen shaataabdi ke aarambh mein, poorvi, Bengal mein praadurbhut hue the. parantu sab milkar ve nishchit roop se jor dekar kuchh naheen kehte aur jo kaal bataate hain, use anya pramaanon se adhik yuktisangat maana jaae, yeh bhi naheen bataate. mainne naath sanpradaaya mein dikhaaya hai ki kis prakaar gorakhanaath ke anek poorvavarti mat unke dvaara pravartit baarahapanthi sanpradaaya mein antarbhukt ho gaye the. in sanpradaayon ke saath unki anek anushrutiyaaain aur dantakathaaeain bhi sanpradaaya mein pravisht huin. isliye anushrutiyon ke aadhaar par hi vichaar karne vaale vidvaanon ko kai prakaar ki parampara-virodhi paranparaaon se takaraana padta hai.

parantu oopar ke pramaanon ke aadhaar par naathamaarg ke aadi pravartakon ka samay naveen shataabdi ka madhya bhaag hi uchit jaan padta hai. is maarg mein poorvavarti siddh bhi baad mein chalakar antarbhukt hue hain aur isliye gorakhanaath ke sambandh mein aisi darjanon dantakaathaaeain chal padi hain, jinko aitihaasik tathya maan lene par tithi-sambandhi jhamela khada ho jaata hai.

sandarbh

  1. Omacanda Hāaṇaḍaā. Buddhist Art & Antiquities of Himachal Pradesh, Up to 8th Century A.D. Indus Publishing. p. 71.
  2. Briggs (1938), p. 249

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain

gorakhanaath par upalabdh saahitya

  1. Gorakhnāath and the Kāanphaṭaa Yogīas - George Weston Briggs
  2. gorakh darshan - gorakhanaath mandir, Gorakhpur
  3. Philosophy of Gorakhnath: With Goraksha-Vacana-Sangraha - Akshaya Kumar Banerjea