gondavaana

lauresiya evam gondavaana land

gondavaana (poorvanaam 'gondavaana land ') praacheen vruhat mahaadveep (angreji:super continent) painjiya ka dakshini bhaag tha. uttari bhaag ko laureshiya kaha jaata hai. gondavaana land ka naam eduarad sues ne Bhaarat ke gondavaana kshetr ke naam par rakha tha. gondavaana bhoobhaag aaj ke samast dakshini golaardh ke alaava bhaarateeya up mahaadveep aur arab praayadveep jo vartamaan me uttari golaardh me hai ka udgam sthal hai.

gondavaana naam narmada nadi ke dakshin sthit praacheen gond raajya se vyutpann hai, jahaaain se gondavaana kaal ki shilaaon ka pehle pahal vijnyaaanajagat‌ ko bodh hua tha. inka nikshepan puraakalp ke antim kaal se arthaat‌ antim kaarban yug (Carboniferous) se aarambh hokar madhyakalp ke adhikaansh samay tak, arthaat‌ juraisik (Jurassic) yug ke ant tak, chalta raha. ek poorvakaaleen vishaal dakshini praayadveep ke nimn sthalon athva vibhanjit droniyon mein jo sambhavat: mand gati se nimjit ho rahi theen, nadi dvaara nikshipt avasaadon se in shilaaon ka nirmaan hua. gondavaana kaal mein mukhyat: mruttika, shelashila (Shell), baluaa patthar (sandstone), kankarala mishrapindaashm (conglomerate), sakonaashm (braccia) ityaadi shilaaon ka nikshepan hua. svachh jal mein nirmit hone ke kaaran in shilaaon mein svachh jaleeya evam sthaleeya jeevon tatha vanaspatiyon ke jeevaashm ka baahulya aur mahaasaagareeya jeevon evam vanaspatiyon ke jeevaashm ka abhaav hai.

parichay

is mahaan‌ sthalakhand ko bhoogarbhavettaaon ne 'gondavaana pradesh' ki sanjnyaa di. kuchh vidvaanon ka mat hai ki yeh pradesh ek vishaal bhookhand na hokar anek bhoobhaagon ka samooh tha jo sainkare bhoosanyojakon athva sthalasetuon dvaara ek doosare se sambaddh the. iske antargat Bhaarat tatha sameepavarti desh Australia, dakshini amareeka, aintaarkatika, dakshini Africa aur maidaagaaskar aate the. is kaal ki shilaaon, jeev jantuon, vanaspatiyon, jalavaayu ityaadi ke adhyayan se gyaat hota hai ki poorvakaaleen gondavaana pradesh ke uparyukt antargat bhaagon par in dashaaon mein aashcharyajanak samaanataaeain theen. is prakaar yeh poorn roop se siddh ho jaata hai ki poorvakaaleen gondavaana pradesh ke antargat bhaag gondavaana kaal mein ek doosare se poornataya athva bhoosanyojakon dvaara sambaddh the, anyatha jeevon aur vanaspatiyon ka ek bhaag se doosare bhaag mein parigman asambhav tha. isi kaal mein, uttari golaardh mein, uttari amareeka, Europe tatha Asia mahaadveep bhi ek doosare se sambaddh the aur ek anya vishaal bhookhand ka nirmaan kar rahe the jise laareshiya kehte hain. laareshiya tatha gondavaana pradesh ke madhya teethis naamak ek sankara saagar tha. in donon sthalakhandon ko milaakar 'painjiya' kaha gaya hai.

gondavaana pradesh ka vikhandan madhyakaal ke ant mein athva truteeyak kalp ke aarambh mein hua. is kaal mein ek vishaal jvaalaamukhi udgaar bhi hua jo sambhavat: is vikhandan ki kriya se sambandhit ya isi ka poorvasanket tha. yeh parivartan sambhavat: antargat bhookhandon ke tatasth bhaagon athav sthalasetuon ke nimjjan se ya in bhoobhaagon ke ek doosare se door khisak jaane se sampann hua. isi ke saath saath Bengal ki khaadi, arab saagar, dakshin atalaantik saagar ityaadi ka janm hua.

yeh oopar bataaya ja chuka hai ki ek samay mein, ek doosare se sambaddh hone ke kaaran Bhaarat, dakshini Africa, Australia ityaadi ki puraabhaugolik dashaaon mein samaanataaeain pai jaati hain. is kaal ki bhaugolik dashaaon ke adhyayan se gyaat hota hai ki praarambh mein, arthaat‌ antim kaarban yug mein, gondavaana pradesh ki jalavaayu himaaneeya (Glacial) thi jiski pushti is yug ke boldar tahon (Boldar Beds) ki upasthiti se hoti hai jo sabhi antargat bhaagon par milte hain. Bhaarat ki taalacheer, dakshini Africa ki dvaaika, dakshini-poorvi Australia ki muri tatha dakshini amareeka ki Rio tubaaro samudaayon ki shilaaeain inheen boldar tahon par sthit hain. is kaal mein glaasaipateris (Glossopteris) evam gangamaupateris vanaspatiyon ki prachurata thi tatha ubhayachar jeevon ka bhootal par pratham baar aagaman hua tha. tatpashchaat‌ parmiyen kaarban yug mein mote koyala star milte hain jo ushn evam nam jalavaayu ke dyotak hain kyonki prachur vanaspati ki upaj ke liye, jiske dvaara kaalaantar mein koyale ka nirmaan hota hai, isi prakaar ki jalavaayu ki aavashyakta hoti hai. ye koyala-star is kaal mein nirmit Bhaarat ki daamuda samudaaya, dakshini Africa ki ikka tatha dakshinpoorv Australia ki metalaind upasamudaayon ki shilaaon mein milte hain. is kaal mein glaasaupateris vanaspati evam ubhayachar jeevon ka poorn vikaas ho gaya tha parantu gangamaupateris vanaspati ka hraas ho raha tha.

taduparaant madhya gondavaana kaal ke aanrabh mein athva aanrabhik traaiaisik (Triassic) yug mein jalavaayu mein pun: sheetalata aa gayi, jaisa is kaal ki shilaaon ke adhyayan se spasht vidit hota hai. in shilaaon mein upasthit felsapaar ke kanon mein vightan hokar vichhedan (disintegration) hua hai. vichhedan kriya mukhyat: sheetal jalavaayuvaale pradeshon mein tatha vightan kriya samaanya (ushn evam nam) jalavaayu ke pradeshon mein adhik mahatvapoorn hai. is kaal ki shilaaeain Bhaarat ke panchat‌ samudaaya, dakshini Africa ke vyoofart tatha dakshini-poorvi Australia ke haaksabari upasamudaayon ke antargat milti hain. iske pashchaat‌ antim traaiesik yug mein jalavaaya ushn evam shushk ho gayi. iski pushti is kaal ke laal varn ke baalukaashm se hoti hai jismein lauhayukt padaarthon ka baahulya tatha vaanaspatik padaarthon ka poornataya abhaav marusthaleeya jalavaayu ka dyotak hai. Bhaarat mein mahaadev samudaaya ki shilaaeain isi kaal mein nikshipt hui theen. madhya gondavaana kaal ki mukhya vanaspati thinfaildiya-tilofaailam (Thinnfeldia Telophylum) hai jisne poorvakaaleen glaasepateris vanaspati ka sthaan le liya tha. jeevon mein sareesrupon (reptiles) ka pruthvi par sarvapratham aagaman isi kaal mein hua tha ki ubhayacharon evam meenon ka bhi baahulya tha. in sab jeevon ke jeevaashm is kaal ki nikshipt shilaaon mein milte hain.

gondavaana kaal ke antim bhaag mein, arthaat‌ juraisik yug mein, jalavaayu mein pun: saamaanyata aa gayi thi. is kaal ki shilaaon mein vaanaspatik padaarth milte hain; parantu koyale ka nirmaan mahatvapoorn naheen hua tha. mukhya vanaspatiyaaain saaiked, kaaneefar evam farn hain tatha mukhya jeev steshiya evam meen hain. gondavaana kaal ka ant athva gondavaana pradesh ka vikhandan sambhavat: ek bheeshan jvaalaamukhi udgaar se hua, jiska ullekh oopar kiya ja chuka hai. is kaal mein bhaaratavarsh mein raajamahal upasamooh tatha dakshini Africa mein staarmabarg samudaaya ki shilaaon ka nikshepan hua tha.

sandarbh granth

  • blainaford, dablyoo.ti. : di enshyeint jiogrefi ov gondavaanaalaind, rikaard. jiolaujikl sarve ov India, khand 29, bhaag 2, 1896;
  • Krishnan, M.S. : jioloji ov India aind varma, 1960;
  • vaadiya, di.N. : jioloji ov India, 1961

baahari kadiyaaain