goleeya darpan

goleeya darpan (spherical mirror) ve darpan hain jinka paraavartak tal goleeya (sferikl) hota hai.

ye do tarah ke ho sakte hain -

  • uttal darpan (convex mirror / kaanveks mirror) (inka paraavartak tal baahar ki or ubhara hua hota hai) tatha
  • avatal darpan (concave mirror / kaunakev mirror) (jinka paraavartak tal andar ki taraf daba hua hota hai).

kuchh darpan aise bhi upayog kiye jaate hain jinka paraavartak tal samatal ya goleeya na hokar kisi anya roop ka hota hai, jaise paravalayaakaar (parabolic reflectors). inka upayog paraavartak dooradarshi aadi prakaasheeya upakaranon mein kiya jaata hai. inke upayog se goleeya darpanon mein paayi jaane waali 'goleeya vipthan' ki samasya se chhutakaara mil jaata hai.

prativimb

darpan ke focus bindu ke saapeksh vastu ki sthiti ke anusaar prativimb ki sthiti (uttal darpan)
vastu ki sthiti (S),
focus bindu (F)
prativimb chitr
  • aabhaasi (Virtual)
  • seedha (Upright)
  • chhota (Reduced (diminished/smaller))
Convexmirror raydiagram.svg


darpan ke focus bindu ke saapeksh vastu ki sthiti ke anusaar prativimb ki sthiti (avatal darpan)
vastu ki sthiti (S),
focus bindu (F)
prativimb (Image) chitr

(Object between focal point and mirror)
  • aabhaasi (Virtual)
  • seedha (Upright)
  • bada (Magnified (larger))
Concavemirror raydiagram F.svg

(Object at focal point)
  • Reflected rays are parallel and never meet, so no image is formed.
  • In the limit where S approaches F, the image distance approaches infinity, and the image can be either real or virtual and either upright or inverted depending on whether S approaches F from above or below.
Concavemirror raydiagram FE.svg

(Object between focus and centre of curvature)
  • vaastavik (Real)
  • ulta (Inverted (vertically))
  • Magnified (larger)
Concavemirror raydiagram 2FE.svg

(Object at centre of curvature)
  • Real
  • Inverted (vertically)
  • Same size
  • Image formed at centre of curvature
Image-Concavemirror raydiagram 2F F.svg

(Object beyond centre of curvature)
  • Real
  • Inverted (vertically)
  • Reduced (diminished/smaller)
  • As the distance of the object increases, the image asymptotically approaches the focal point
  • In the limit where S approaches infinity, the image size approaches zero as the image approaches F
Concavemirror raydiagram 2F.svg

agoleeya (Non-spherical) darpan

goleeya darpanon se vipthanamukt (unaberrated) binb keval unke vakrataakeindr par hi banta hai. praaya: anya sabhi shankukaaton (conic sections) ke isi prakaar ke prakaasheeya gun hote hain aur inheen gunon ke aadhaar par unka prakaasheeya mahatva niyat kiya jaata hai. paravalaya (parabola) ka gun hota hai ki uske focus se chalne waali sabhi kirnein paraavartan ke uparaant aksh ke samaantar chali jaati hain. is gun ke upayogaarth paravalayaj (paraboloidal) darpanon ka nirmaan kiya jaata hai. atyant deergh binbaantaron (image distances) ke liye inka upayog kiya jaata hai.

isi prakaar deerghavrutt (ellipse) ke is jyaamiteeya gun ka, ki iske ek focus par sthit vastu ka suteekshn binb doosare focus par banta hai, upayog deerghavruttajeeya (ellipsoidal) darpan ke nirmaan mein kiya jaata hai. lagbhag yahi visheshata atipravalayaj (Hyprboloidal) darpan mein bhi pai jaati hai. antar itna maatr hota hai ki deerghavruttajeeya darpanon mein kaalpanik vastu ka binb prateeyamaan aur vaastavik vastu ka binb vaastavik hota hai, kintu atipravalayaj darpanon dvaara vaastavik vastu ka prateeyamaan binb aur kaalpanik vastu ka vaastavik binb ban jaata hai.

uchchasaamarthya sampann dooradarshiyon (telescopes) tatha anya anek prakaasheeya yantron mein darpanon ka upayog kiya jaata hai. durgam chotiyon, shikharon ev aakaasheeya pindon ki ooainchaaiyaaain naapane ke liye vyavahrut yantr, seksataint (sextant), mein samatal darpanon ka upayog hota hai. visheshakar sudeergh focus antaravaali prakaash-yantr-pranaaliyon mein paravalayaj, deerghavruttajeeya tatha atipravalayaj darpanon ka upayog kiya jaata hai. inke kuchh drushtaant nimnalikhit hain:

nyootaneeya dooradarshi (Newtonian telescope) mein paravalayaj darpan ka prayog kiya jaata hai.

kaisigreneeya (Cassegranian) dooradarshi mein ek paravalayaj tatha ek atipravalayaj darpan paraspar is prakaar sthit rahate hain ki atipravalayaj ka ek focus to paravalayaj ke ek focus par padta hai aur doosra focus paravalayaj ke nikat hi sthit hota hai. falasvaroop, paravalayaj dvaara nirmit prateeyamaan binb atipravalayaj dvaara vaastavik binb mein parint kar diya jaata hai.

gregoriyn (Gregorian) dooradarshi mein ek deerghavruttajeeya tatha ek paravalayaj darpan ka prayog hota hai. deerghavruttajeeya ko paravalayaj ke focus bindu se kaafi door par rakha jaata hai aur usaka ek focus paravalayaj ke hi focus par padta hai. usaka doosra focus paravalayaj ke nikat hi padta hai. is vyavastha mein paravalayaj dvaara nirmit praathamik binb se deerghavruttajeeya, ek dviteeyak binb kaafi door banta hai.

baahari kadiyaaain

darpan Make-up mirror.jpg
samatal darpan | uttal darpan | avatal darpan