glaikso smithklaain

GlaxoSmithKline plc
prakaar Public limited company
(LSE: GSK
NYSE: GSK)
udmog Pharmaceutical
sthaapana 2000, by merger of Glaxo Wellcome and SmithKline Beecham
mukhyaalaya London, United Kingdom
pramukh vyakti Chris Gent, Chairman
Andrew Witty, Chief Executive
Julian Heslop, Chief Financial Officer
Dr. Moncef Slaoui, Chairman of Research and Development
utpaad Pharmaceuticals
raajasv £28.36 billion(2009)[1]
prachaalan aay £9.25 billion (2009)[1]
nivl aay £5.66 billion (2009)[1]
karmachaari 99,000 (2009)[2]
website www.gsk.com

jeeesake (GSK) ke naam se prasiddh glaiksosmithklaain peeelasi (GlaxoSmithKline plc) (LSE: GSKNYSE: GSK) ek vaishvik star ki aushadh, jeev-vigyaan (baayolaujiks), teeka evam upabhokta svaasthya-dekhbhaal company hai jiska mukhyaalaya London, United kingadam mein sthit hai. aamdani ke aadhaar par jaunsan end jaunsan evam faaijr ke baad yeh vishv ki teesari sabse badi faarmaasyootikl company hai.[3] iske utpaadon ki shrrunkhala mein badi beemaariyon jaise ki dama, Cancer, virus niyantran, sankraman, maanasik svaasthya, madhumeh evam paachan sambandhi utpaad shaamil hain.[4] iska ek bahut bada upabhokta svaasthya prabhaag hai jo ki maukhik svaasthya utpaadon, paushtik peya padaarthon evam aasaani se sulabh chikitsa utpaadon ka utpaadan evam vipnan karta hai, inmein seinsodaain, haurliks evam geviskaun jaise utpaad shaamil hain.[4]

yeh praathamik roop se London stock exchange mein soocheebaddh hai evam yeh FTSE 100 soochakaank ka ek ghatak hai. iske atirikt yeh New York stock exchange mein bhi soocheebaddh hai.

anukram

itihaas

Hamburg, Germany mein glaiksosmithklaain ki poorv imaarat

jeeesake ki sthaapana san 2000 mein glaiksovelakam peeelasi (jiska gathan glaikso peeelasi dvaara velakam peeelasi ke adhigrahan se hua tha) tatha smithklaain beekam peeelasi (iska gathan beekam peeelasi tatha smithklaain beekam kauraporeshan ke vilay se hua tha) ke vilay se hui thi.

glaiksovelakam

san 1980 mein ameriki faarmaasist henari velakam tatha silaas baroj ne London mein baroj velakam end company ki sthaapana ki thi.[5] san 1902 mein velakam traupikl research leboretareej praarambh hui.[5] san 1959 mein velakam company ne pashu svaasthya sambandhi utpaadon mein apni sakriya bhaageedaari badhaane ke uddeshya se koopar, maikadoogal end raubartasan ink ko khareed liya.[5] san 1970 mein velakam company ne apna utpaadan kendra New York se hataakar uttari kairoleena mein sthaapit kar diya aur iske baad ke varshon mein vahaaain ek anya anusandhaan kendra bhi sthaapit kiya gaya.

glaikso ki sthaapana san 1904 mein baneethorp, nyoojeelaind mein ki gayi thi.[5] glaikso moolaroop se shishu aahaar utpaadit karti aur sthaaneeya star par doodh ekatr kar use prasanskrut karke glaikso ke naam se hi shishu aahaar banaati thi: is utpaad ki bikri san 1930 ke dashak se praarambh ki gayi aur iska naara tha 'glaikso se bachche sudaul bante hain'. baneethorp ki mukhya sadak par ek veeraan aur puraani dairy factory (is factory mein gaaya ke doodh ko prasanskrut karke use paaudar mein badla jaata tha) sthit hai jispar glaikso ka vaastivik logo aaj bhi spasht roop se dikhaai deta hai, parantu yahaaain aisa kuchh bhi naheen hai jisse yeh pata chal sake ki is jagah se hi itni badi bahuraashtreeya company ki shuruaat hui thi.

san 1935 mein yeh glaikso company glaikso leboretareej ban gayi aur isne san 1935 mein London mein apni nai ikaaiyaaain sthaapit keen.[5] san 1947 evam 1958 mein glaikso leboretareej ne Joseph Nathan evam elan end hainabari naamak do kanpaniyaaain khareed leen.[5] san 1978[5] mein meyer leboretareej khareedne ke saath hi isne ameriki baajaar mein apni mahattvapoorn bhoomika nibhaani praarambh ki. san 1983 mein iski ameriki shaakha glaikso ink do anya sthaanon research traaiengal park (ameriki mukhyaalaya / anusandhaan) evam uttari kairoleena ke jeboolaun (America utpaadan) mein sthaapit ki gayi. san 1995 mein baroj velakam evam glaikso ke vilay se glaikso velakam company bani.[5] usi varsh glaikso velakam ne steevinej mein apne aushadh anusandhaan kendron ki shuruaat ki.[5] teen varshon ke pashchaat glaikso velakam ne polend mein polfa pojnaan company ko khareed liya.[5]

smithklaain beekam

san 1843 mein Thomas beekam ne inglaind mein apni beekams pils leksetiv ki shuruaat ke saath hi beekam samooh ko sthaapit kiya.[5]
davaaon ki utpaadan dar badhaane ke uddeshya se beekams ne apni pehli factory san 1859 mein inglaind mein lankaashaayar ke sent helens mein kholi. san 1960 tak yeh company faarmaasyootikl utpaadon mein vyaapak roop se sanlagn ho gayi.

breintaford mein jeeesake ka mukhyaalaya

san 1830 mein John ke. smith ne filaadelfiya mein apni pehli faarmesi ki shuruaat ki.[5] san 1865 mein maahalon klaain unke vyavasaaya se jude jiske parinaamasvaroop 10 varshon ke pashchaat smith, klaain end company astitv mein I.[5] iske pashchaat san 1891 mein French, richrd end company ke saath iska vilay ho gaya.[5] san 1929 mein anusandhaan kendrit hone ke kaaran iska naam badal kar smithklaain end French leboretareej rakh diya gaya. kuchh varshon ke pashchaat smith klaain end French leboretareej ne filaadelfiya mein ek nai prayogashaala kholi, tatpashchaat isne pashu svaasthya mein vyaavasaayik anusandhaan karne waali company naurdan leboretareej ko khareed liya.

vaikseen ke utpaadan par dhyaan kendrit karne ke uddeshya se smith klaain end French leboretareej ne san 1963 mein richerche eight indastri theraapyootiks (Recherche et Industrie Théarapeutiques) (Belgium) ko khareed liya.[5] vishv star par companiyon ko khareedne ki is prakriya ko jaari rakhate hue is company ne san 1969 mein Canada evam amareeka mein saat anya kanpaniyaaain khareedeen. san 1982 mein inhonne onkhon evam tvacha ki dekhbhaal se sambandhit utpaad banaane waali elarjan company ko bhi khareed liya.[5] usi varsh baad mein company ka vilay baikamain ink ke saath ho gaya aur iska naam badal kar smithklaain baikamain kar diya gaya.[5]

san 1988 mein smithklaain bekamain ne apni sabse badi pratidvandi intaraneshanal kleenikl leboretareej ko khareed liya,[5] aur san 1989 mein iska vilay beekam ke saath ho gaya aur smithklaain beekam peeelasi ka gathan hua.[5] iske baad is company ka mukhyaalaya inglaind mein sthaanaantarit kar diya gaya. amareeka mein anusandhaan evam vikaas kaaryakram ka vistaar karne ke uddeshya se smithklaain beekam ne 1995 mein ek naya anusandhaan kendra khareeda. san 1997 mein haarlo mein new frontier saains park mein ek anya anusandhaan kendra ki shuruaat ki gayi.[5]

san 2000 mein glaikso velakam evam smithklaain beekam ka vilay hokar glaiksosmithklaain company bani.[6]

nai gatividhiyaaain

san 2001 mein isne new jersey aadhaarit block drag ko khareeda hai.[7]

16 November 2009 ko Amreeki khaadya evam dava prashaasan (efadeee) ne ghoshana ki ki 2009 H1N1 inflyooenja se bachaav ke liye 15 September ko anumodit chaar vaikseen mein jeeesake ki I.di. baayomedikl kaurp naamak sahaayak company dvaara utpaadit ek vaikseen shaamil ki jaaegi.[8]

June 2010 mein company ne 253 million dollar waali leboretareej feeniks ka adhigrahan kiya; yeh company mukhya roop se braanded jenerik utpaadon ke vikaas, vipnan evam bikri ke kshetr mein kaaryarat thi.[9]

December 2010 mein jeeesake ne khelakood poshan company maikseenyootrishiyn ke adhigrahan ki ghoshana ki.[10]

vyaapaar

shuddh aay ke aadhaar par vishv ki doosari sabse badi faarmaasyootikl company ke roop mein, san 2007 mein company ki bikri £a22.7 million aur laabh £a7.8 million tha.[11] jeeesake ki vebasaait ke anusaar sampoorn vishv mein iske 90,000 karmachaari hain,[12] jinmein vipnan evam bikri se jude hue 40,000 karmachaari bhi shaamil hain. iska vaishvik mukhyaalaya United kingadam, London ke brentaford mein sthit jeeesake house hai saath hi America mein iska mukhyaalaya North kairoleena[13] ke research traaiengal park (RTP) mein sthit hai aur iska upabhokta utpaad prabhaag pensilvaaniya mein pitsabarg ke upanagar moonataaunaship mein sthit hai. anusandhaan evam vikaas prabhaag ke pramukh mukhyaalaya dakshin poorv inglaind, filaadelfiya evam uttari kairoleena ke research traaiengal park (RTP) mein hain.

company ka stock London stock exchange mein soocheebaddh hai tatha iske edeeaar enavaaiesai mein soocheebaddh hain. yadyapi company lagbhag 70 deshon mein apna vyaapaar chala rahi hai, iska sabse bada ekal baajaar amareeka mein hai (jo ki kul aay ka lagbhag 45% hai).

san 2009 mein glaiksosmithklaain ne faaijar company ke saath ek sanyukt udyam praarambh karke ViiV helthakeyar ka gathan kiya. ViiV helthakeyar ko faaijar va glaiksosmithklaain ki sabhi H.I.vi. parisanpattiyaaain praapt hui theen.[14] ViiV helthakeyar mein 85% bhaag glaiksosmithklaain, evam 15% bhaag faaijr company ka hai.

utpaad

company ke utpaadon mein shaamil hain:

  • advaayar
  • albenja
  • eli
  • emarg
  • amoksil
  • ekvaafresh
  • ereekstra
  • eraanan
  • ogameintin
  • evaandiya
  • evodaart
  • beesi paaudar
  • biyeno
  • bekonej
  • baayoten
  • boniva
  • boost
  • seftin
  • kaureg
  • kaureg seeaar
  • deksedreen
  • fliksonas
  • geritl
  • gli-oksaaid
  • gudeej paaudar
  • jeeesake (GSK) - 189, 254
  • jeeesake (GSK) - 873140
  • jeedablyoo (GW) - 320, 659
  • jeedablyoo (GW) 501516
  • haurliks
  • imitreks
  • keppra
  • laamiktaal
  • lenoksin
  • levitra
  • lovaaja
  • lukojaad
  • maikalins
  • nikaudarm
  • nikoret
  • nikuitin
  • paandemriks
  • painaadol
  • penaadol naait
  • parnaat
  • perodaunteks
  • paaksil
  • promekta
  • raalgeks
  • rilenja
  • reekvip
  • ribena
  • seinsodin
  • serlipet
  • setlars
  • esakeef (SKF) 38393
  • esakeef (SKF) 82958
  • tegamet
  • treksimet
  • tums
  • trijivir
  • tikrb
  • valatreks
  • veintolin echaefae (HFA)
  • veraamist
  • veseekeyar
  • velabatarin
  • jenatek
  • jofran
  • joveeraiks

beemaariyon ko samaapt karne hetu uthaae gaye kadam

glaiksosmithklaain anya vishvastareeya companiyon ke saath linfaitik filaariyaasis beemaari ko samaapt karne hetu sakriya rahi hai.[15] glaiksosmithklaain ke poorv si.E.O. jeen piyre (J.pi.) gaarniyr ne kaha hai 'ijipt se praapt aankade yeh darshaate hain ki ab ham us beemaari ko jad se samaapt karne ki sthiti mein aa chuke hain jisne sampoorn vishv ko sadiyon se peedit kiya hua hai. ashakt bana dene waali is beemaari ko samaapt karne ke liye paryapr maatra mein aavashyak elbeindojol dene ke liye pratibaddh hain, parantu iski sampoorn safalta ke liye poore vishv mein faile saajhedaaron ko samagr roop se lambe samay tak kaarya karne ke liye pratibaddh hona padega.

iske atirikt glaikso ko keeniya mein maleriya ki beemaari samaapt karne par varldaaveyar bijnas award jaise puraskaaron ke liye bhi naamit kiya gaya hai.[16]

glaiksosmithklaain ne haal hi mein Britain mein I baadh mein raahat ke liye bhi daan diya hai aur is company ko Britain ki corporate siteejanaship indaiks mein daanadaataaon ki soochi mein pratham sthaan diya gaya hai.[17]

vaishvik sthaan

alavarstan mein factory
alavarstan sanyantr ka pravesh dwaar
  • vaishvik aushadh sanchaalan ka mukhyaalaya research treingal park, uttari kairolina mein sthaapit yooes opareshans ke saath breintaford, United kingadam mein sthit hai.
  • upabhokta utpaad ka mukhyaalaya pitsabarg ke upanagar moon taaunaship, peinsilveniya mein sthit hai.
  • pramukh aaraendadi sthal United kingadam ke staukale park, steveinj aur wear; jgareb, kroeshiya; France mein evreks aur les yoolis; research treingal park, uttari kairolina; leval, kyoobek aur upper meriyn aur kaulejavila, peinsilveniya mein sthit hain.
  • baayofaarmaasyutikl utpaadon ke pramukh kendra Belgium (vevar aur riksenasart), Germany (dresaden), Canada (kyoobek, kyoosi) aur America (meriyeta peee aur haimiltan emati) mein sthit hain.
  • thaane, Bhaarat aur naashik, Bhaarat mein aaraendadi ke nae kendra
  • Shanghai, cheen aur Boston, amareeka mein aaraendadi ke kendra
  • chikitsa utpaadon ke liye mukhya utpaadan sthal UK ke iravin, wear, mauntros, barnaard kesal, kraule, varthing aur alvarsatan; everyoo, France; America mein bristal, King of proosiya aur jebulan; sidra, pyoorto riko; jyoorong, Singapore; kork, Ireland; paujanan, paulaind; paarma, Italy; braasov, romaaniya; boroniya, ostraliya.
  • upabhokta utpaad ke liye mukhya utpaadan sthal midenahed, United kingadam; dungaarven, Ireland; misisauga, ontaariyo; eken, dakshin kairolina; kliftan, new jersey; aur seint. Louis, misoori aur kenya mein sthit hain.
  • jeeesake (GSK) 39 deshon ke 99 shaharon mein maujood hai

corporate shaasan pranaali

glaiksosmithklaain ke nideshak board ke vartamaan sadasya hain:

  • sar Christopher geint (gair-kaaryakaari adhyaksh);
  • endryoo viti (mukhya kaaryakaari adhikaari, kaaryakaari nideshak);
  • dau॰ steefani barns (gair-kaaryakaari nideshak);
  • Lawrence kalp (gair-kaaryakaari nideshak);
  • sar krispin Davis (gair-kaaryakaari nideshak);
  • jooliyn speinsar hesalop (mukhya vitteeya adhikaari, kaaryakaari nideshak);
  • sar derik maughan (gair-kaaryakaari nideshak);
  • sar Ian prosar (varishth svatantr gair-kaaryakaari nideshak);
  • dau॰ Ronaldo shmitj (gair-kaaryakaari nideshak);
  • monsef slaavui (adhyaksh, kaaryakaari nideshak, anusandhaan evam vikaas);
  • Robert Wilson (gair-kaaryakaari nideshak);
  • dau॰ dainiyl podolaski (gair-kaaryakaari nideshak);
  • Tom di svaan (svatantr gair-kaaryakaari nideshak);
  • mark doonoyar (adhyaksh, aushadhi Asia prashaant/ Japan);
  • David pulaman peeech.di. (adhyaksh - vaishvik vinirmaan aur aapoorti);
  • John Clark (adhyaksh - upabhokta helthakeyar);
  • emma vaalmsali (adhyaksh - upabhokta helthakeyar Europe);
  • Eddy gre (adhyaksh, faarmaasyootikls Europe);
  • Abbas husain (adhyaksh - imarjing market);
  • raubarto si. taboada (Philippine ke prabandh nideshak aur adhyaksh);
  • daayadri pi. kauneli (adhyaksh, uttar ameriki faarmaasyootikls);
  • James mardok (gair-kaaryakaari nideshak).

8 October 2007 ko yeh ghoshana ki gayi ki mukhya kaaryakaari ke pad par Dr gaarniyr ke sthaan par shri endryoo viti apna kaaryabhaar grahan kareinge. 44 varsheeya shri viti ne May 2008 mein apna pad grahan kar liya hai. yadyapi vigat varsh mein company mein bahut se logon ki naukri chali gayi parantu shri viti ke vetan mein 76% ki badhottari hui.

vividhta

varking madar patrika[18] ne san 2007 mein glaiksosmithklaain company ko kaamkaaji maataaon ke liye kaam karne waali sarvashreshth 100 companiyon mein sthaan diya saath hi company ko apne prayaason ke liye intaraneshanal chaartar dvaara bhi prashansa mili. jeeesake ko hyooman raaits kaimpen ke faaundeshan ke 2008 corporate ikvaliti indaiks mein 100 pratishat ka sampoorn score praapt hua. yeh indaiks amareeka ke corporate kshetr mein kaaryarat samalaingik, lesbiyn, ubhayalingi, evam vipreetalingi (GLBT) karmachaariyon, graahakon evam niveshakon ke saath vyavahaar karne ka vaarshik aankada hai. jeeesake, karmachaariyon ke vividh samoohon jaise ki ECN, PTPN, GLBT, AAA, aadi ko bhi sahayog deta hai.

vivaad

  • perokjetaain (serokset, peksil) ek esaesaaaraaai avasadaarodhi hai jise company ne san 1992 mein praarambh kiya tha. March 2004 mein efadeee ne esaesaaaraaai va anya avasadaarodhiyon par ek black box chetaavani likhne ka aadesh diya. chetaavani yeh thi ki is dava se bachchon tatha kishoron mein aatmahatya ki pravruti utpann ho sakti hai. 1992 mein efadeee dvaara perokjetaain anumodit karne ke baad se lagbhag 5,000 Amreeki naagrikon ne jeeesake ke viruddh mukadame darj karavaae. 29 January 2007 ko BBC ne yoo॰ake॰ mein apni 'painoraama' shrrunkhala ke tahat serokset par chautha vruttachitr prasaarit kiya.[19] yadyapi tab tak esaesaaaraaai evam vaastavik aatmahatyaaon ke beech koi sambandh siddh naheen hua tha aur blaikabauks chetaavani lebal vivaadit kahe gaye[20][21][22] parantu haal hi ke bahut se vishleshan is sambandh ko siddh karte hain aur yahaaain tak ki puraane mareejon par bhi iska prabhaav dekha gaya.[23]
  • November 2007 mein yoonaaite state kaugresanal committee ne ek report[24] jaari ki jismein company ki madhumeh-rodhi dava rojiglitaajon (evandiya) ke hradaya sambandhi khatre ke baare mein dau॰ John byoos (chepal hil[25][26] mein sthit North kairoleena vishvavidyaalaya) dvaara darshaai gayi chinta par glaiksosmithklaain dvaara unhein di gayi dhamaki ka varnan kiya gaya tha.[27]
  • March 2006 mein, kailoforniya attorney general bill laukeyar ne ghoshana ki ki glaiksosmithklaain (GSK) company 14 million dollar ada karegi kyonki company par aarop the ki raajya sarkaar ke kaaryakram ke tahat company ki avasadaarodhi dava peksil ko badhi hui keematon par bhugataan kiya gaya kyonki jeeesake petent ki dhokhaadhadi, spardhaarodhi kaanoon ke ullanghan, evam baajaar par apna ekaadhikaar banaae rakhane ke liye tatha davaaon ke jenerik sanskaran ko baajaar mein aane se rokane ke liye ochhi mukadamebaaji mein lipt rahi.[28]
  • 19 May 2003 ko ejeeem mein jeeesake ke sheyaradhaarakon ne company ke si.E.O. J.pi.gaarnar ko £a22 million ka vetan va anya laabh pahuainchaane vaale prastaav ko khaarij kar diya. aisa pehli baar hua tha ki kisi badi british company ke sheyaradhaarakon ne itne bade star par company ke viruddh vidroh kiya ho parantu is vidroh ko uchchaadhikaariyon ki aay ke naam par hone vaale anya tathaakathit 'fait kait' samjhauton ke viruddh ek sambhaavit nirnaayak mod ke roop mein jaana gaya.
  • company tatha iske sheyaradhaarakon ko pashu adhikaar kaaryakartaaon ne bhi apne nishaane par liya kyonki yeh company jaanvaron par pareekshan karne waali ek anya vivaadit company hantignatan life saainsej (echaelaes) ki graahak hai.[29] echaelaes san 1999 se hi, stop hantingadan eneemal krooaliti (SHAC) evam eneemal libreshan frant (ALF) dvaara praarambh kiye gaye ek antararaashtreeya abhiyaan ke nishaane par rahi hai; iski shuruaat tabase hui thi jab peepul for the ethikl treetamaint of eneemal (PETA) ne chhupakar echaelaes ki ek video footage bana li. is video footage ka prasaaran british television par kiya gaya, is footage mein dikhaaya tha ki kis tarah se company ke log jaanvaron ko peet rahe the, laat va ghoose maar rahe the, jaanavar cheekh rahe the aur jaanvaron ki dekhbhaal ke liye niyukt company ke log un jaanvaron par hains rahe the. 7 September 2005 ko ALF ne jeeesake ke adhikaari paul blaikabarn ke ghar ke darvaaje par do liter indhan va chaar paaund visfotak saamagri se bhara hua bam feink diya isse unke ghar ko thoda bahut nuksaan hua.
  • November 2005 mein, eds helthakeyar faaundeshan ne company par yeh aarop lagaaya ki company ne apna laghu avadhi ka ekaadhikaar laabh badhaane ke liye eds rodhi dava AZT ka utpaadan naheen badhaaya jabki is dava ki baajaar mein maang bahut badh chuki thi jiske kaaran baajaar mein AZT ki kami ho gayi aur isse Africa mein eds ke bahut se mareej prabhaavit hue. jeeesake ne yeh ghoshana ki ki company ne eds ke mareejon ke gambhir hepaatotoksiti ko dhyaan mein rakhate hue HIV ke mareejon ke CCR5 entri inahibitr, eplaavirok (GW873140) ke naidaanik pareekshanon par rok laga di hai.[30] June 2006 mein jeeesake ne kaha ki company ne duniya bhar ke gareeb deshon mein in davaaon mein se kuchh par apne laabh rahit shulk mein bhi lagbhag 30% ki katauti ki hai.[31]
  • December 2003 mein glaiksosmithklaain mein aanuvanshiki ke tatkaaleen antarraashtreeya upaadhyaksh ne yeh sveekaar kiya ki adhiktar nuskha davaaiyaaain rogiyon ke liye kaaragar naheen hoteen. "90 pratishat se bhi adhik davaaeain keval 30 se 50 pratishat logon ke liye hi kaaragar hoti hain.' dau॰ rojej ne kaha ki 'main yeh naheen kehta ki adhiktar davaaeain kaam naheen karti. balki main yeh kahooainga ki adhiktar davaaeain maatr 30 se 50 pratishat rogiyon ke liye hi kaaragar rahati hain."[32]
  • October 2010 mein amareeka ke nyaaya vibhaag ne ghoshana ki ki smithklaain aaparaadhik dand ke roop mein 150 million dollar, tatha naagrik dand ke roop mein 600 million dollar ka bhugataan karegi. glaiksosmithklaain ne pyoortiko ke sidra mein sthit apni sahaayak company S.bi. faarmaako pyoorto riko ink (SB Pharmco Puerto Rico Inc) dvaara kharaab tareeke se banaai gayi tatha dooshit davaaon ke utpaadan karne par company ke viruddh aaparaadhik evam naagrik shikaayaton ki kshatipoorti ke roop mein 750 million dollar ka bhugataan karne par apni sahamati de di.

vidhik

2003 mein adhikaariyon ne paaya ki glaikso smithklaain ne apne do utpaadon, avasaad ki dava peksil tatha naasika elarji spray flonais ke liye medeeked se uchit se adhik keemat li hai. at: ek corporate naitikta samjhaute ke antargat company ko jurmaane ke roop mein 88 million dollar chukaane pade. usi saal company intaranal revenyu service (aaiaaraes) ke viruddh bhi case haar gayi tatha use gat varshon mein bakaaya tax va byaaj ke maamale mein 7. 8 billion dollar ka bhugataan karna pada, jo aaiaaraes ke itihaas ka ab tak ka sabse bada maamala tha.

antat: 26 August 2004 ko new yaark state ataarni general eliyt spitjar ke kaaryaalaya ne yeh ghoshana ki ki glaiksosmithklaain ke viruddh sabhi kaanooni maamale nibta liye gaye hain. karaar ke tahat company ko apne kuchh pareekshan-poorv va naidaanik shodh saarvajanik karne ko kaha gaya, jinhein aam taur par anya dava kanpaniyaaain athva yooes food end drag edaministreshan (ef.di.A.) gupt rakhate the. ataarni general spitjar ne is samjhaute ki saraahana ki tatha kaha ki yeh samjhauta ek mool badlaav ka kaaran banega kyonki ab Doctor va mareej in shodhon ke aadhaar par uchit nirnaya le paayeinge . samjhaute ka yahi bhaag new yaark ataarni general tatha roj faaerasteen ka mukhya dhyeya tha. roj ataarni aafis mein kaaryarat vah vyakti the jinhonein is maamale ke liye athak prayaas kiye the. jurmaane ke roop mein donon paksh 2. 5 million dollar par sahamat ho gaye. is samjhaute se kuchh poorv, 3 August 2004 ko aayova se senate sadasya Charles graisali ne glaiksosmithklaain ko lova se ek patra likh kar chinta vyakt ki thi ki company sabhi upalabdh jaanakaariyaaain food end drag edaministreshan (ef.di.A.) ko muhaiya naheen karva rahi hain. unke is patra ka mukhya aadhaar, food end drag edaministreshan (ef.di.A.) ke ek sadasya Doctor endryoo mosholdar ke glaiksosmithklaain ke viruddh diye gaye kuchh ati aalochanaatmak bayaan the. in bayaanon mein mosholdar ne glaiksosmithklaain par yeh gambhir aarop lagaaye the ki company ki dava peksil ka prayog karne se bachchon mein aatmaghaati pravruttiyaan utpann hoti hain, va company is tathya ko saarvajanik naheen kar rahi hai. glaiksosmithklaain ne yeh baat kabhi sveekaar naheen ki ki unke dvaara new yaark state ataarni ke saath samjhaute ke liye raaji hone ke peechhe senator graisali ka patra hi tha.[33]

12 sitmbar 2006 ko glaikso smithklaain ne itihaas ke sabse bade tax bhugataan mein tax adhikaariyon ko 3. 1 billion dollar chukaane ki sahamati di. is vivaad ke mool mein 1989 aur 2005 ke beech beche gaye company ke kuchh puraane utpaad the jinmein jaintek (Zantak)) pramukh tha. badi bahuprabhaageeya companiyon mein tax ka moolyaankan harek prabhaag ke sthaaneeya raajya ke tax niyamon ke anusaar kiya jaata tha. is maamale mein mukhya mudda yeh raha ki glaikso smithklaain kis tarah laabhaansh apne vibhinn prabhaagon mein baaaint raha hai. company ke bheetar hi utpaadon ke hastaantaran ki prakriya, keemat nirdhaaran tatha intaranal revenyu service ko deya taikson ko lekar hue vivaad ne itna bada svarup le liya.[34]

February 2007 mein UK ke seeriys fraud office ne glaiksosmithklaain ke viruddh iraak mein 'aayal faar food ' vivaad mein shaamil hone ke aaropon ki jaanch shuroo ki. company par saddaam husain ko rishvat dene ka aarop tha.[35]

pairokjeteen

avasaad ki dava pairokjeteen ki pehle das saal ki kraya avadhi mein glaiksosmithklaain yeh daava karti rahi thi yeh mareej ko "lat naheen lagaati" hai.[36] parantu 2001 mein bi. bi. si. ne yeh ghoshana ki ki world helth organization (W. H. O) ke shodh mein tathya iske theek vipreet paae gaye hain tatha ise chhodne ke samay mareej ko atyant peeda hoti hai.[37] 2002 mein yooes food end drag edaministreshan (ef.di.A.) ne bhi is dava ke viruddh chetaavani jaari kar di. saath hi international fedarashan of faarmaasyutikl menyoofekcharars (IFPMA) ne glaiksosmithklaain par TV vijnyaaapanon ke maadhyam se darshakon evam mareejon ko dhokha dene ka aarop jad diya.[38] is beech social aadit ke pramukh Charles medaavar ne british medical journal mein likhe apne ek lekh mein kaha, "yeh dava varshon se mareejon ke liye surakshit bataai ja rahi hai, parantu tathya yeh hai ki ise chhodte samay mareej ko atyant peeda hoti hai aur vah iska aadi ho jaata hai. is baat ko jaanana doctoron, mareejon tatha niveshakon teenon ke liye behad mahattvapoorn hai." das varsh ki license praapt bikri ke dauraan pairokjeteen ek atyant safal utpaad saabit hui tatha glaiksosmithklaain ke raajasv ka 10 % bhaag isi se aata tha. iseeliye company is par kuchh kehne se bachati rahi hai, tatha aaj bhi yeh dava surakshit (mareej ko aadi na karne waali) kah kar bechi ja rahi hai.[38]

22 December 2006 ko ek Amreeki adaalat ne hoorman banaam smithklaain beekam maamale mein yeh nirnaya sunaaya ki jo vyakti peksil (aar) athva peksil seeaar (ti.M.) (pairokjeteen) bachchon ke liye prayog karte hain ve 63. 8 million dollar ke ek kaanooni samjhaute ke tahat laabhaansh ke hakdaar hain.[39] is dava ke viruddh yeh case upabhokta adhikaaron ka case ban gaya tha. 1992 mein ef.di.A. se laaiseins praapt karne se ab tak 5000 Amreeki tatha hajaaron anya mareejon ne is dava ke liye glaiksosmithklaain ke khilaaf case darj kiye hain. adhiktar logon ka yeh aarop raha ki company ne iske abhyast karne vaale lakshan tatha dushprabhaavon ka sahi gyaan upabhoktaaon ko naheen diya.

ek peksil virodhi website[40] ke anusaar is muhim mein glaiksosmithklaain ke khilaaf ab laakhon log shaamil hain. haalaaainki is aashay ki pehli website 2006 mein web se hata li gayi thi. sunane mein aaya tha ki us website ke maalik ne glaiksosmithklaain se aarthik samjhauta kar liya hai. (baad mein March 2007 mein sairokjet seekrets[41] naamak ek anya website[42] ne khulaasa kiya ki www.archive.org par abhi bhi yeh vebapej upalabdh hai).

isi se milte julate ek case mein January 2007 mein sairokjet seekrets naam ki is website[43] ne likha ki ve sairokjet naam ki dava ke viruddh case mein landan haai court pahunchane ke nikat hain. is dava mein bhi chhodte samay atyant peeda daayak hone tatha mareejon ko abhyast karne vaale lakshan the. national litigeshan group naamak ek samooh ne hajaaron mareejon ke laabh ke liye glaiksosmithklaain ke viruddh yeh mukadama ladne ka beeda uthaaya. iske liye pehle sarkaari dhan upalabdh naheen tha parantu baad mein ve ek saarvajanik hit appeal panel mein appeal jeet gaye aur yeh dhan case ke liye mil gaya. hyoo James ke vakeelon ne bhi iski pushti ki. dikkat yeh thi ki puraane kaanoon ke tahat glaiksosmithklaain ke viruddh koi case banta hi naheen tha![44]

lekin fir bhi medisins end helthakeyar praadakts reguletari agency (MHPRA) ne March 2008 mein yeh nirnaya sunaaya ki sairokjet namak is dava ke dushprabhaavon tatha anya haaniyon ki jaankaari glaiksosmithklaain ko pehle se hi mareejon ki vistaar se deni chaahiye thi.[45] jeeesake par puraane niyamon ke tahat kaaryavaahi naheen ki ja sakti thi.

2008 ke baad se is dava ke vishay mein glaiksosmithklaain ne yeh sveekaar kiya ki iske prayog ko chhodte samay kuchh jatil samasyaaen utpann ho sakti hain.[46]

ribena

27 March 2007 ko hi glaiksosmithklaain ne New Zealand ki kaamars commission mein fair trade act ke tahat logon ko gumaraah karne ke 15 mahaabhiyogon mein apna dosh sveekaar kiya. yeh abhiyog ribena naamak ek lokapriya peya (blaikakaraant fal se nirmit) se sambandhit the. company ne ise vitaamin si se samruddh kah kar becha tha. parantu okalaind ke pakuranga kaalej ki do chhaatraaon aina devathaasan tatha Jenny suo ke ek schooli project se yeh siddh ho gaya ribena ke 100 mileeleetar ke paik mein na ke baraabar vitaamin si upalabdh hai. donon chhaatraaon ne company se uttar maaainga parantu glaiksosmithklaain ne koi sahi uttar naheen diya. tatpashchaat yeh vivaad TV par bhi chha gaya, jiske baad kaamars commission ne ise apne haath mein le liya. commission ke pareekshanon mein donon chhaatraaon ka daava sahi siddh hua!

haalaaainki kul abhiyogon ki sankhya 88 se ghat kar 15 rah gayi, parantu March 2002 se March 2006 ke beech huyi ribena ki bikri ke liye company ko 217,000 dollar chukaane pade. glaiksosmithklaain ne court mein kaha ki kuchh pareekshan prakriyaaon ki kamiyon ke kaaran yeh sab samasyaaen utpann hui hain aur ab in prakriyaaon ko badal diya gaya hai. iske baad court ne company ko ek sahi tathya bataane wala vigyaapan banaane ke liye kaha. apne adhivakta Adam Ross ke maadhyam se company ne yeh maan liya ki ribena ke 100 mileeleetar paik mein 7 mileegraam vitaamin si naheen hai (yeh maatra ek aam svasth vyakti ki vitaamin si ki pratidin ki jrurat ka lagbhag 44 pratishat hai). antat: apne nae vigyaapan mein company ne keval yeh daava kiya ki blaikakaraant mein santare se 4 guna adhik vitaamin si hai. shabdon ke her fer mein lipt yeh daava bhi aadha sach aur aadha mithya hi tha![47]

aveindiya

kleevalaind klinik ke hrudayarog vibhaag ke pramukh Steve nisen ne 14 June 2007 ko new England journal of medisin mein ek lekh likha. unhonne kaha ki anusandhaan ne yeh spasht kar diya hai ki aveindiya naam se bikne wala padaarth rojiglitaajon, hradaya ghaat ka kaaran ban sakta hai. usi samay ke aaspaas new yaark times ne bhi nisen ke dava companiyon ke kuchh karmachaariyon ke saath hue vaartaalaap prakaashit kiye. iska koi parijnyaaan glaiksosmithklaain ko naheen tha, tatha ohaayo praant mein yeh prakaashan vaidhaanik tha kyonki vahaan ke kaanoonon ke mutaabik donon mein se ek party ko parijnyaaan hona kaafi tha. Amreeki Congress ab yeh jaanch kar rahi hai ki rojiglitaajon ko license dete samay tatha baad mein kya-kya jaanakaariyaaain upalabdh theen, tatha kya glaiksosmithklaain ne jaanaboojh kar kuchh mahattvapoorn tathya chhupaaye the. February 2010 mein glaiksosmithklaain ne rojiglitaajon par ek lekh[48] ko chhapane se rokane ka poora prayaas kiya.[49] vaheeain July, 2010 mein Amreeki vitt samiti ne ek patra mein glaiksosmithklaain par yeh gambhir aarop lagaaye ki usane aveindiya ke khataron se logon ko avagat naheen karaaya.[50]

company ki neetiyon mein badlaav ki ghoshanaaen

February 2009 mein glaiksosmithklaain pramukh endryoo vitti ne yeh ghoshana ki ki company atyant nirdhan deshon mein apne utpaadon par 25 pratishat chhoot degi, saath hi kuchh vishesh rogon ke petant va saamagri gyaan bhi un deshon ke saath saajha karegi, evam apne laabh ka 20 pratishat hissa vahaan ki svaasthya pranaaliyon ko sudhaarane mein vyaya karegi.[51] is nirnaya ko chikitsa kshetr ke dharmaarth sangathanon se mishrit pratikriyaaen mili hain. medisin sains frantiyres (Méadecins Sans Frontièares) jaisi pramukh sansthaaon ne iska khule dil se svaagat kiya, jise dekh kar anya sansthaaen bhi is kadam ke svaagat ko aage aayeen.[52][53] haalaaainki medisin sains frantiyres ne is baat par khed bhi jataaya ki glaiksosmithklaain ne is nirnaya mein echaaivi sambandhi peteinton tatha madhya aay vaale raashtron ko shaamil naheen kiya.[54]is nirnaya ko chikitsa kshetr ke dharmaarth sangathanon se mishrit pratikriyaaen mili hain.[55][56] medisin sains frantiyres (Méadecins Sans Frontièares) jaisi pramukh sansthaaon ne iska khule dil se svaagat kiya, jise dekh kar anya sansthaaen bhi is kadam ke svaagat ko aage aayeen.[57][58] haalaaainki usane is baat par khed bhi jataaya ki glaiksosmithklaain ne is nirnaya mein echaaivi sambandhi peteinton tatha madhya aay vaale raashtron ko shaamil naheen kiya.[59]

inhein bhi dekhein

luaa truti package.lua mein pankti 80 par: module 'Module:Portal/images/c' not found.

  • United kingadam mein aushadh udyog
  • recherch eight industry theraapayootiks (Recherche et Industrie Théarapeutiques) (aar.I.ti.)
  • kvest daayagnostiks
  • faaijr

sandarbh

  1. a aa i Annual Report 2009
  2. "Company Profile for GlaxoSmithKline PLC (GSK)". http://zenobank.com/index.php?symbol=GSK&page=quotesearch. abhigman tithi: 2008-10-03.
  3. "Global 500 - Pharmaceuticals". Fortune. 20 July 2009. http://money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/global500/2009/industries/21/index.html. abhigman tithi: 19 August 2010.
  4. a aa "Our company". GlaxoSmithKline plc. http://www.gsk.com/about/company.htm. abhigman tithi: 25 August 2010.
  5. a aa i E u oo A ai O au k kh g gh ch chh j jh nya jeeesake (GSK) history
  6. faarmaasyutikl geints glaikso ins smithklaain faainali marj daily teleegraaf, 2000
  7. "GlaxoSmithKline Completes the Purchase of Block Drug for $1.24 Billion". PR Newswire. http://prnwire.com/cgi-bin/stories.pl?ACCT=104&STORY=/www/story/01-16-2001/0001404508&EDATE=. abhigman tithi: 2010-08-01. press release.
  8. "FDA Approves Additional Vaccine for 2009 H1N1 Influenza Virus". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). November 16, 2009. http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm190783.htm.
  9. jeeesake (GSK) ekveris leboretareej feeniks for $253m$ infogrok (InfoGrok) se lekh samaachaar
  10. "UPDATE 2-Glaxo buys protein-drinks firm Maxinutrition". Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSLDE6BC0XO20101213. abhigman tithi: 2010-12-20. aartikl.
  11. jeeesake (GSK) enaval report 2007
  12. "glains par jeeesake (GSK)." glaiksosmithklaain. 03 November 2009. jeeesake (GSK), web. 23 fravari 2010. <http://www.gsk.com/about/ataglance.htm>.
  13. glaiksosmithklaain piks aarateepi (RTP) for kansodilideted yooes hedakvaatars
  14. http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/5327ff12-2aaa-11de-8415-00144feabdc0.html
  15. global elaains too eliminet limfetik faaileriyesis
  16. di shail technology for development evaard varldaveyar business award
  17. UK kauparet siteejnaship rainkings
  18. varking madar
  19. "Secrets of the drug trials". BBC. 2007-01-29. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/programmes/panorama/6291773.stm. abhigman tithi: 2007-08-15.
  20. suicide data prompt call for black-box review
  21. rileshanaship bitveen entidprajeints end suicide ataimps: N enaalisis of di vetarans hailth edaministreshan data sets
  22. black box vaurning linkd too suicide spaaik
  23. Des antidéaapresseurs en lien avec le suicide: encore?
  24. "Committee staff report to the chairman and ranking member. Committee on Finance United States Senate. The intimidation of Dr John Buse and the diabetes drug Avandia. November 2007." (PDF). United States Congressional committee. Archived from the original on 2007-12-28. http://web.archive.org/web/20071228160046/http://www.senate.gov/~finance/press/Bpress/2007press/prb111507a.pdf. abhigman tithi: 2008-01-22.
  25. "Speakers at Carolina". http://www.unc.edu/depts/uncspeak/busejohn.html. abhigman tithi: 2008-01-22.
  26. "About the American Diabetes Association". American Diabetes Association. http://www.diabetes.org/aboutus.jsp?WTLPromo=HEADER_aboutus.
  27. Clark, Andrew (November 22, 2007). "GSK accused of trying to intimidate critic". London: The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/business/2007/nov/22/pharmaceuticals.glaxosmithklinebusiness. abhigman tithi: May 3, 2010.
  28. "Attorney General Lockyer Announces $14 Million National Settlement with GlaxoSmithKline to Resolve Patent Fraud, Antitrust Allegations". California Attorney General. http://www.ag.ca.gov/newsalerts/release.php?id=1279.
  29. BBC - "glaikso 'vudanaut bi draaiven out of UK"'. 17 May 2006
  30. traayals of eplaavirok helted in treetameint-netiv pesheintas journal vauch 15 sitmbar 2005
  31. glaikso vil kat eds drag price for pooar nations kemikl end engineering news. 1 June 2006
  32. glaikso cheef: aavar drags doo not vark on most pesheints - di indipeindeint, 8 December 2003
  33. cheptar 18, side effects: A praustikyootar, A visilbloar, end A bestaseling enteeprajeints on trial, 2008
  34. 13129-2353321,00.html jeeesabi (GSK) laarjest teks dispyoot in history for $3.1bn$ times UK online 12 sitmbar 2006
  35. 2012485,00.html gaarjiyn analimited fravari 14, 2007
  36. "Judge: Paxil ads can't say it isn't habit-forming". USA Today. August 20, 2002. http://www.usatoday.com/news/health/2002-08-20-paxil-ads_x.htm. abhigman tithi: May 3, 2010.
  37. anti-diprajeint edikshan vaurning BBC samaachaar, 11 June 2001
  38. a aa viddraul fraum peroksetin kain bi sevarar, vaurns efadeee - tonks 324 (7332): 260 - beeemaje
  39. pediyetrik setalameint paaksil pediyetrik setalameint web site
  40. paaksil protest site
  41. serokst seekrets
  42. Paxil Protest
  43. serokst seekrets website
  44. hyoog James solicitor serokst news
  45. 'suicide' pils firm slemd
  46. paaksil (peroksetin haaidrokloraaid) preskribing informeshan
  47. judge ordars ribna too face ap
  48. Nissen SE (April 2010). "The rise and fall of rosiglitazone". Eur. Heart J. 31 (7): 773–6. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehq016. PMID 20154334.
  49. Lüascher TF, Landmesser U, Ruschitzka F (May 2010). "Standing firm--the European Heart Journal, scientific controversies and the industry". Eur. Heart J. 31 (10): 1157–8. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehq127. PMID 20418345. Archived from the original on 2010-05-09. http://web.archive.org/web/20100509072248/http://freepdfhosting.com/4f161330ef.pdf.
  50. Max Baucus; Chuck Grassley (2010-07-12), "Finance Committee Letter to the FDA Regarding Avandia", Finance Committee, http://finance.senate.gov/newsroom/chairman/download/?id=a5c07780-6351-4905-8c63-52e4a7a7a66b, abhigman tithi: 2010-08-24
  51. drag gent glaiksosmithklaain plej cheep medisin for varlds pooar, the gaarjiyn, 2009-02-13
  52. yoonited (UNITAID) stetameint on jeeesake (GSK) peteint pool for neglekted dijeej, 2009-02-16
  53. jeeesake (GSK) ekses too medisins: di gud, di baid, end di iloosari proof. brook ke. bekar, svaasthya jeeepi, 2009-02-15
  54. emaesaef respauns too jeeesake (GSK) peteint pool prapojl, medisins sons frantiyrs, 2009-02-16
  55. yoonited (UNITAID) stetameint on jeeesake (GSK) peteint pool for neglekted dijeej, 2009-02-16
  56. jeeesake (GSK) ekses too medisins: di gud, di baid, end di iloosari proof. brook ke. bekar, svaasthya jeeepi, 2009-02-15
  57. yoonited (UNITAID) stetameint on jeeesake (GSK) peteint pool for neglekted dijeej, 2009-02-16
  58. jeeesake (GSK) ekses too medisins: di gud, di baid, end di iloosari proof. brook ke. bekar, svaasthya jeeepi, 2009-02-15
  59. emaesaef respauns too jeeesake (GSK) peteint pool prapojl, medisins sons frantiyrs, 2009-02-16

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