girmitiya

satrahaveen sadi mein aaye angarejon ne aam bhaarateeyon ko ek-ek roti tak ko mohataaj kar diya. fir unhonne gulaami ki shart par logon ko videsh bhejana praarambh kiya. in majdooron ko girmitiya kaha gaya. girmit shabd angareji ke `egreemeint' shabd ka apabhransh bataaya jaata hai. jis kaagaj par angoothe ka nishaan lagavaakar har saal hajaaron majdoor dakshin Africa ya anya deshon ko bheje jaate the, use majdoor aur maalik `girmit' kehte the. is dastaavej ke aadhaar par majdoor girmitiya kahalaate the. har saal 10 se 15 hajaar majdoor girmitiya banaakar fiji, british guyaana, dach guyaana, trineedaad, tobega, netaal (dakshin Africa) aadi ko le jaaye jaate the. yeh sab sarkaari niyam ke antargat tha. is tarah ka kaarobaar karanevaalon ko sarkaari sanrakshan praapt tha.

anukram

itihaas

girmitiya pratha angrejon dvaara san 1834 se aarambh hui aur san 1917 mein ise nishiddh ghoshit kiya gaya.

girmitiyon ki durdasha

gulaam paisa chukaane par bhi gulaami se mukt naheen ho sakta tha, lekin girmitiyon ke saath keval itni baadhyata thi ki ve paanch saal baad chhoot sakte the. girmitiye chhoot to sakte the, lekin unke paas vaapas Bhaarat lautane ko paise naheen hote the. unke paas uske alaava aur koi chaara naheen hota tha ki ya to apne hi maalik ke paas kaam karein ya kisi anya maalik ke girmitiye ho jaayein. ve bhi beche jaate the. kaam na karne, kaamachori karne par prataadit kiye ja sakte the. aamtaur par girmitiya chaahe aurat ho ya mard use vivaah karne ki chhoot naheen thi. yadi kuchh girmitiya vivaah karte bhi the to bhi un par gulaami vaale niyam laagoo hote the. jaise aurat kisi ko bechi ja sakti thi aur bachche kisi aur ko beche ja sakte the. girmitiyon (purushon) ke saath chaalees feesadi auratein jaati theen, yuva auraton ko maalik log rakhail banaakar rakhate the aur unka bharpoor yaunashoshan karte the. aakarshan khatm hone par yeh auratein majdooron ko saunp di jaati theen. girmitiyon ki santaanein maalikon ki sampatti hoti theen. maalik chaahe to bachchon se bada hone par apne yahaan kaam karaayein ya doosaron ko bech dein. girmitiyon ko keval jeevit rahane laayak bhojan, vastraadi diye jaate the. inhein shiksha, manoranjan aadi moolabhoot jrooraton se vanchit rakha jaata tha. yeh 12 se 18 ghante tak pratidin kamaratod mehnat karte the. amaanaveeya paristhitiyon mein kaam karte-karte saikadon majdoor har saal akaal maut marate the. maalikon ke julm ki kaheen sunavaai naheen thi.

girmitiya pratha ke viruddh totaaraam sanaadhaya ka abhiyaan

totaaraam sanaadhaya ka janm 1876 mein hirnagaaainv jila feerojaabaad utar pradesh mein hua tha . inko Hindustan se fiji girmitiya banaakar le jaaya gaya totaaraam sanaadhaya ne girmit par apne anubhav fiji dweep mein mere ikkees varsh pustak likhi .

girmitiya pratha ke virooddh mahaatma Gandhi ka sahayog

is amaanaveeya pratha ke viruddh mahaatma Gandhi ne dakshin Africa se abhiyaan praarambh kiya. Bhaarat mein gopaal Krishna gokhale ne inpeeriyl lejisletiv kaaunsil mein March 1912 mein girmitiya pratha samaapt karne ka prastaav rakha. kaaunsil ke 22 sadasyon ne tay kiya ki jab tak yeh amaanaveeya pratha khatm naheen ki jaati tab tak ve har saal yeh prastaav pesh karte raheinge. December 1916 mein Congress adhiveshan mein mahaatma Gandhi ne Bhaarat suraksha aur girmit pratha adhiniyam prastaav rakha. iske ek maah baad February 1917 mein Ahmedabad mein girmit pratha virodhi ek vishaal sabha aayojit ki gayi. is sabha mein seeef endrayooj aur henari polaak ne bhi pratha ke virodh mein bhaashan diya. iske baad girmit virodhi abhiyaan jor pakadta gaya. March 1917 mein girmit virodhiyon ne angarej sarkaar ko ek alteemetam diya ki May tak yeh pratha samaapt ki jaaye. logon ke badhte aakrosh ko dekhte hue antat: sarkaar ko gambheerta se sochana pada. 12 March ko hi sarkaar ne apne gazette mein yeh nishedhaagya prakaashit kar di ki Bhaarat se baahar ke deshon ko girmit pratha ke tahat majdoor na bheje jaayein.

baahari kadiyaaain