ghosala

tokareenuma ghosala

ghosala kisi jantu ki sharanasthali hai jismein vah apne ande deti hai evam bachchon ka paalanaposhan karti hai. jantu apna ghosala ghaas, tahaniyon evam patti aadi se banaate hain. ghosale mukhyat: chidiyon dvaara banaaye jaate hain kintu kuchh anya jantu (jaise gilhari, machhali, keet aadi) bhi ghosale banaate hain. praaya: alag-alag jaati ke praani alag-alag prakaar ka ghosala banaate hain.

anukram

uddeshya

neednirmaan ka mukhya uddeshya ande aur bachchon ko suraksha pradaan karna hai. is uddeshya ki poorti ke liye do baatein mukhya hain, pratham andon athva bachchon ka shatruon ki drushti se ojhal rahana aur doosare shatru ki pahuainch ke baahar hona. in donon baaton ki poorti bill ya kisi prakaar ke jhonjh mein ande dene se sugamata se ho jaati hai. jo pakshi ooainche pedon, imaaraton ya dhaaloo chattanon athva daladali sthaanon mein ande dete hain, unamein shatru ki pahuainch ke baahar honevaali baat to poori ho jaati hai, kintu jo chidiyaaain jameen par ande deti hain, unke ande aur bachche chhipne ke hi oopar nirbhar hote hain. yeh do prakaar se hota hai :

  • ande aur bachche kisi vanaspati ki jhonjh mein diye jaaya athva
  • unka rang aisa ho jo ird gird ki anya vastuon ke rang se milta julata ho.

need ke prakaar

ghosale mein shishu blue J (Blue Jay)

yadi ham maan lein ki chidiyon ke poorvaj vrukshavaasi the, isliye unka anda dene ka sthaan ped ke kisi kotar mein athva daaliyon par tha, to anek chidiyon ko aaj bhi yahi pasand hai. kintu fir bhi neednirmaan mein bahut hi vikaas hua hai aur vibhinn pakshiyon ke need mein bahut hi vividhta pai jaati hai. Bhaarat me pakshiyon ke mukhyat: nimn prakaar ke ghonsale milte hain :

saadhaaran ghaas paat ke tukadon (sniple scrapes) ka ghonsala

teetar, banamurgi aur anya shikaar ki chidiyaaain mitti mein, gaddhe banaakar ghaas, foos aur patte ityaadi bichha deti hain aur kurari tatha titibha (lapwing) to keval yon hi mitti ya baaloo hataakar gaddhe mein bina kuchh bichhaae hi ande deti hain. inke andon ko abhilepan rang (obliterative colouration) dvaara suraksha praapt hoti hain.

tahaniyon ke ghonsale

kaue, cheel, peduki, giddh, jalakaag bagule ityaadi pedon par, makaan ke oopar ya chattaanon mein lakdi ki, tahaniyon ka ek chabootaraanuma ghonsala, jiska madhya bhaag pyaalenuma hota hai, banaate hain aur is pyaale mein ghaas, fus, chithde, chidiyon ke par ityaadi ka mulaayaam bistar bichha dete hain.

vruksh ke kotaron mein ghonsale

kuchh chidiyon ke ghonsale hare ya sookhe vrukshon mein chhidr banaakar bane hote hain aur unamein ya to thoda mulaayam astar hota hai ya bina kisi astar (lining) ke hi hote hain. raamagangara, peelak, jangali chiri (yellow throated sparrow) kathafodva, vasanta (barbet), dhanesh, ulloo, kuchh maina aur adhikaansh sthaaneeya batakh is prakaar ke ghonsale banaate hain. kathafodva, sugge aur vasanta pehle pedon par khodar banaate hain aur baad mein usi mein ghonsala banaate hain. aage chalakar in khodaron ka upayog anya chidiyaaain bhi kar leti hai. sthaaneeya batakhon mein jal ke kinaare pedon ke praakrutik kotaron mein ande dene ki aadat hoti hai. ye dakshini - pashchimi monsoon ke samay ande deti hain. pedon par ande dene se inke andon ki suraksha rahati hai, kyonki barasaat mein jheel ya taalaab mein paani badhne par bhi ooainche par paani pahuainchane ka khatra naheen rahata aur bachche maaain baap dvaara keval ghonsale se dhakel diye jaane maatr se hi jal mein pahuainch jaate hain. jo chidiyaaain swayam kontar banaati hain unhein praakrutik khodar par nirbhar naheen rahana padta aur ve jahaaain bhi uchit samajhti hain, vahaaain ichhaanukool chhidr bana leti hain.

dhanesh chidiya jab chhidr mein anda deti hai, tab nar maada ko usamein bithaakar chhidr ka dwaar band kar deta hai, keval maada ki chonch nikalne bhar chhidr khula rahata hai, jiske dvaara nar maada ko bhojan pahuainchaata rahata hai.

mitti ke kagaaron mein bill khodakar nirmit need

jalavaasi chidiyon mein se kuchh nadi ke kinaare ke kagaaron ki mitti mein surang banaakar athva makaanon ya chattaanon ki daraaron ityaadi mein dhonsala banaati hai. udaaharanaarth patareenga, kilkila, hudahud (hoopoe) kagaaron ki mitti mein jaladhaara ke kshitij ke samaantar surang banaakar ghonsala banaati hai. bill khodane mein chidiya apni chonch ka sahaara leti hai. chidiya chonch se mitti khodati hai aur nikle mitti ko pairon se peechhe ki or feinkati jaati hai. surang ki lanbaai kuchh seinteemeetar se lekar kai meter tak hoti hai aur bill ka antim sira kuchh tedha aur bijli ke balb ki bhaaainti faila hota hai. isi lattoonuma bhaag mein ande diye jaate hain.

keechad ke ghonsale ya aise ghonsale jinmein keechad ka baahoolya hota hai

kasturika (whistling thrust), kastoora (black bird), abaabaleel, chataan abaabeel (martin) isi prakaar ke ghonsale banaati hain.

ghaas ke pyaalaanuma ghonsale tatha shaakhaaon ke footane ke sthaan (forks) par saadhaaranataya makadi ke jaale se plaastar kiya hua ghonsala

shaaubogi (iora), chakadeel (fanitail) aur anya patirang (flycatener), peelak, majjika, bulaal chashm (minivet), koojini (reed warbler), kokil, ledhora ya pachanak (shrikes) ityaadi uparyukt prakaar ke ghonsale banaati hain. chidiyaaain bhavananirmaan ki saamagri ko aapas mein kasakar baaaindh rakhane ke liye makadi ke jaale ka prayog karti hain. neednirmaan ke is saadhan ko ye chidiyaaain apni chonch mein lapetakar ikattha karti hain aur ghonsalein ko theek sthaan par drudh bane rahane aur idhar udhar digne aur avyavasthit hone se bachaane ke liye isko ghonsale ke chaaron taraf lapet deti hain.

tahaniyon, ghaas athva moolaromon (root-lets) ke gunbadanuma ya geindaakaar ghonsale

inke paashrv mein praveshadvaar hota hai muniya, raktodar gupil (rufous belied babbler) isi prakaar ke ghonsale ka nirmaan karti hain aur usamein chidiyon ke par ityaadi ka mulaayam bistar bichha deti hain.

latakata hua ghonsala

baya, shakarakhora, pushpaanveshi (flower pecker) isi prakaar ke ghonsale banaati hain.

aayataakaar batuaanuma (Loofah-like) ghonsalata

ye ghonsale ghaas ki lambi danthalon athva chhoti moti jhaadiyon se latake hote hain. fataki (wrenwarbler) isi prakaar ka ghonsala banaati hai.

pattiyon ke sile hue ghonsale

darjin chidiya (tailor bird), chikurakoojini (Franklin's wren warbler) tatha kaali fataki ya bhasm chikurakoojini (ashy wrenwarbler) pattiyon ko seekar ek keepanuma (funnel shaped) ghonsala bana leti hain.

uparyukt prakaar ke ghonsalon ke atirikt anya vividh prakaar ke ghonsale bhi chidiyaaain banaati hain. bhakshya-need durbalika bataasi (edible nest swiftlet) saamoohik roop se ek basti banaakar ande deti hai. iska ghonsala adrdh pyaalaanuma hota hai jiska aadha bhaag chattaan ke andhere kandare (grottos) athva samudri dveepon ki gufaaon ki deevaar se chipka hota hai. is prakaar ke ghonsale chidiyon ko laar aur paron ke sammishran se bane hote hain.

Australia aur malaya praayadveep evam dveepasamoohon ki deerghacharan (megapode) naamak chidiya jameen ko kured kuredakar mitti ka ek dher laga deti hai, jo kuchh varshon mein bahut bada teela ban jaata hai. kabhi kabhi is teele ki ooainchaai 4.5 meter aur paridhi 27.28 meter tak pahuainch jaati hai. deerghacharan chidiya is teele ke kendra mein ek gahra bill banaakar, isi mein ande deti hai aur bill ko thodi mitti se dhaink deti hai. is chidiya ki kuchh jaatiyaaain teele naheen banaateen aur keval satah par hi gaddhein banaakar ande deti hain.

kuchh chidiyaaain khuli satah par ande deti hain aur kuchh paudhon athva jhaadiyon ke neeche, jameen par. jameen par need banaanevaali chidiyon ki soochi mein shikaar ki chidiyaaain, jaise batakh, gangachilli (gulls), kurari aur isi prakaar ki anya chidiyaaain hain. tittibh apne ande bilkul khuli jameen par deti hain.

kuchh chidiyaaain sookhi jameen par ande deti hain, to kuchh aisi bhi hain jo daladali sthaanon mein, athva chhichhle jalavaale pokhare ya jaladhaaraaon mein uge paudhon ke oopar, ande deti hain. panadubbi (gerbes) chidiya jal mein esa need nirmaan karti hai jo vaastav mein tairata rahata hai.

raajahans chidiya ka need keechad ka bana hota hai. is prakaar ka need nirmaan karanevaali chidiyon mein mukhyat: jal chidiyaaain hoti hain.

kiteevek dhomara (kittiwake gull), shoolakaak (gannet), rejarabil (razorbill) aur gilmaat (guillmot) samudra ke kinaare bhruguon (cliffs) mein neednirmaan karti hai aur ande deti hain. maada jalakaag apne ande samudra ke kinaare ke bhruguon ke aadhaar ya chhote dveepon ki chattaanon par ande deti hain. yahaaain bhi kuchh to gufaaon mein aur kuchh jaati ki chidiyaaain yon hi, khuli chattaanon par ande deti hain.

gauraiya, abaabeel, chataan abaabeel (martin), teelayak (starling), chorakauva (jackdaw), bataasi aur karail (barn owl) manushya dvaara nirmit imaaraton mein ande deti hain.

kuchh pakshi apna apna kshetr sthaapit kar, jode baaaindhakar, alag alag ghonsale banaate hain, jaise bhujanga, kintu kuchh pakshi samooh mein ghonsale banaate hain, jaise baya (weaverbird), abaabeel (cliff swallows), saadhaaran aur bhakshya-need-durbalika aur bagule ityaadi.

ghonsale ka dhaaaincha

pratyek jaati ki chidiyon ke ghonsale ka apna vishesh dhaaaincha hota hai. ghonsala banaane ka yeh kaarya pakshiyon mein janamajaat gun ya sahaj gyaan (instinctive) hota hai, kyonki prayogon dvaara dekha gaya hai ki jo chidiyaaain kisi prayogashaala mein paida ki gain, ve bhi nirdhaarit samay par apni jaati ke paranparaanusaar dhaaainche ka hi ghonsala banaati hain.

ek hi jaati ki chidiyaaain kabhi kabhi vibhinn prakaar ke sthaanon par bhi ande deti hai. is prakaar uparyukt sthaan ka chunaav sthaaneeya paristhitiyon par evam us sthaan mein neednirmaad ki upalabdh saamagri par nirbhar karta hai.

kabhi kabhi koi chidiya apni jaati ki parampara ke vipreet bilkul bhinn sthaan par neednirmaan karti hai, yatha neelasir (mallard) jaati ki chidiyaaain laakshanik roop se jameen par hi ande deti hain, kintu kabhi kabhi ye pedon par bhi ande de deti hain. fir bhi itna avashya hai ki pratyek jaati ki chidiyon ke neednirmaan ka ek vishesh dhang aur vishesh sthaan hota hai.

neednirmaan ka daayitv

adhikaansh pakshiyon mein neednirmaan ka sampoorn daayitv nar par hi hota hai, kintu kuchh aise pakshi bhi hai jinmein nar thoda bhaag leta hai athva bilkul hi bhaag naheen leta. kuchh jaati ke pakshi ek hi ghonsale ko dubaara kaam mein naheen laate, kintu kuchh apne puraane need ki hi marammat kar baar baar prayog mein laate hain. kuchh pakshi doosare pakshiyon dvaara tyakt need ka upayog karte hain.

pakshiyon mein kuchh to aise hote hain jinhein safaai ka bada dhyaan rahata hai, kintu kuchh aise hain jinhein hudahud ki tarah gandagi hi adhik priya hai. neednirmaan ke vishay mein unki prakruti ek jaisi naheen hoti. kuchh bade bedhaul ghonsale banaate hain, jaise kauve, kintu kuchh inke banaane mein badi kaareegari pradarshit karte hain, jaise jalamurgi.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain