ghoda

ghoda, ghodi aur usaka bachcha
ghode bhi khel mein istemaal kiya jaata hai.

ghoda ya ashv (Equus ferus caballus)[1][2] manushya se juda hua sansaar ka sabse praacheen paalatoo stanaposhi praani hai, jisne agyaat kaal se manushya ki kisi ne kisi roop mein seva ki hai. ghoda ikyoodi (Equidae) kutunb ka sadasya hai. is kutunb mein ghode ke atirikt vartamaan yug ka gadha, jebara, bhot-khar, tattoo, ghod-khar evam khachchar bhi hai. aadinootan yug (Eosin period) ke iyohippas (Eohippus) naamak ghode ke pratham poorvaj se lekar aaj tak ke saare poorvaj aur sadasya isi kutunb mein sammilit hain.

iska vaigyaanik naam ikvas (Equus) laitin shabd se liya gaya hai, jiska arth ghoda hai, parantu is kutunb ke doosare sadasya ikvas jaati ki hi doosaron chh: upajaatiyon mein vibhaajit hai. at: keval ikvas shabd se ghode ko abhihit karna uchit naheen hai. aaj ke ghode ka sahi naam ikvas kaibelas (Equus caballus) hai. iske paalatoo aur jangali sambandhi isi naam se jaane jaatein hai. jangali sanbandhiyon se bhi yaun sambandh sthaapati karne par baaainjh santaan naheen utpann hoti. kaha jaata hai, aaj ke yug ke saare jangali ghode unhi paalatoo ghodo ke poorvaj hain jo apne sabhya jeevan ke baad jungle ko chale gaye aur aaj jangali maane jaate hai. yadyapi kuchh log madhya Asia ke pashchimi mangoliya aur poorvi turkistaan mein milnevaale ikvas prajvelaski (Equus przwalski) naamak ghode ko vaastavik jangali ghoda maanate hai, tathaapi vastut: yeh isi paalatoo ghode ke poorvajo mein se hai. dakshin afrika ke jangalon mein aaj bhi ghode bruhat jhundo mein paae jaate hai. ek jhund mein ek nar or kai maadaaeain rahati hai. sabse adhik 1000 tak ghode ek saath jungle mein paae gaye hai. parantu ye sab ghode ikvas kaibelas ke hi jangali poorvaj hai aur ek ghode ko neta maankar usaki aajnyaa mein apna saamaajik jeevan vyateet karatee hai. ek gut ke ghode doosare gut ke jeevan aur shaanti ko bhang naheen karte hai. sankatakaal mein nar chaaron taraf se maadaao ko gher khade ho jaate hai aur aakramanakaari ka saamana karte hain. Asia mein kaafi sankhya mein inke thigne kad ke jangali sambandhi 50 se lekar kai sau tak ke jhundon mein milte hai. manushya apni aavashyakta ke anusaar unhe paalatoo banaata rahata hai.

anukram

paalatoo banaane ka itihaas

bheemabetaka ki shail chitrakaari mein aadmi ko ghode ki savaari karte chitrit kiya gaya hai.
daudte samay ghode ke ang-pratyangon ki gati

ghode ko paalatoo banaane ka vaastavik itihaas agyaat hai. kuchh logon ka mat hai ki 7000 varsh dakshini roos ke paas aaryo ne pratham baar ghode ko paala. bahut se vijnyaaanavettaaon aur lekhakon ne iske aarya itihaas ko bilkul gupt rakha aur iske paalatoo hone ka sthaan dakshini poorvi Asia mein kaha, parantu vaastavikta yeh hai ki anant kaal poorv hamaare aarya poorvajon ne hi ghode ko paalatoo banaaya, jo fir Asia se Europe, misr aur shanai:shanai: amareeka aadi deshon mein faila. sansaar ke itihaas mein ghode par likhi gayi pratham pustak shaalihotr hai, jise shaalihotr rishi ne mahaabhaarat kaal se bhi bahut samay poorv likha tha. kaha jaata hai ki shaalihotr dvaara ashvachikitsa par likhit pratham pustak hone ke kaaran praacheen Bhaarat mein pashuchikitsa vigyaan (Vetrerinary Science) ko shaalihotrashaastr naam diya gaya. mahaabhaarat yuddh ke samay raaja nal aur paandavo mein nakul ashvavidya ke prakaand pandit the aur unhone bhi shaalihotr shaastr par pustakein likhi thi. shaalihotr ka varnan aaj sansaar ki ashvachikitsa vigyaan par likhi gayi pustakon mein diya jaata hai. Bhaarat mein anishchit kaal se deshi ashvachikitsak 'shaalihotri' kaha jaata hai.

12veen-13veen shataabdi mein jayaaditya dvaara rachit ashvavaidyak mein ghode ki chikitsa mein afeem ke upayog ka sandarbh aaya hai.[3]

ashvajanan

iska uddeshya uttamottam ashvon ki vruddhi karna hai. yeh niyantrit roop ke keval chune hue uttam jaati ke ghode ghodiyon dvaara hi bachche utpann karke sanpaadit kiya jaata hai.

ashv puraatan kaal se hi itna teevragaami aur shaktishaali naheen tha jitna vah aaj hai. niyantrit suprajanan dvaara anek achhe ghode sambhav ho sake hain. ashvaprajanan (breeding) aanuvanshikta ke siddhaant par aadhaarit hai. desh-videsh ke ashvon mein apni apni visheshataaeain hoti hain. inheen gunavisheshon ko dhyaan mein rakhate hue ghode tatha ghodi ka joda banaaya jaata hai aur is prakaar inke bachchon mein maata aur pita donon ke vishesh gunon mein se kuchh gun aa jaate hain. yadi bachcha daudne mein tej nikla aur uske gun uske bachchon mein bhi aane lage to usaki santaan se ek naveen nasl aarambh ho jaati hai. England mein ashvaprajanan ki or pratham baar vishesh dhyaan henari ashtam ne diya. ashvon ki nasl sudhaarane ke liye usane raajaniya banaae. inke antargat aise ghodon ko, jo do varsh se oopar ki aayu par bhi ooainchaai mein 60 inch se kam rahate the, santaanotpatti se vanchit rakha jaata tha. peechhe door door deshon se uchch jaati ke ashv England mein laae gaye aur prajanan ki reetiyon se aur bhi achhe ghode utpann kiye gaye.

ashvajanan ke liye ghodon ka chayan unke uchch vansh, sudrudh shareerarachana; saumya svabhaav, atyaadhik saahas aur drudh nishchaya ki drushti se kiya jaata hai. garbhavati ghodi ko halka parantu paryaapt vyaayaam karaana aavashyak hai. ghode ka bachcha gyaarah maas tak garbh mein rahata hai. navajaat bachhade ko paryaapt maatra mein maan ka doodh milna chaahiye. iske liye ghodi ko achha aahaar dena aashyak hain. bachche ko paaainch chhah maas tak hi maan ka doodh pilaana chaahiye. peechhe uske aahaar aur dincharya par yathesht satarkata barati jaati hai.

sandarbh

inhein bhi dekhiye