ghanaanand

ghanaanand ki kaavya rachanaaon ka angreji anuvaad

ghanaanand (1673- 1760) reetikaal ki teen pramukh kaavyadhaaraaon- reetibddh, reetisiddh aur reetimukt ke antim kaavyadhaara ke agrani kavi hain. ye 'aanandaghan' naam s bhi prasiddh hain. aachaarya raamachandr shukl ne reetimukt ghanaanand ka samay san. 1746 tak maana hai. is prakaar aalochya ghanaanand vrundaavan ke aanandaghan hain. shukl ji ke vichaar mein ye naadirshaah ke aakraman ke samay maare gaye. shri hajaareeprasaad Dwivedi ka mat bhi inse milta hai. lagta hai, kavi ka mool naam aanandaghan hi raha hoga, parantu chhandaatmak laya-vidhaan ityaadi ke kaaran ye swayam hi aanandaghan se ghanaanand ho gaye. adhikaansh vidvaan ghanaanand ka janm Delhi aur uske aas-paas ka hona maanate hain.

anukram

jeevan parichay

anumaan se inka janmakaal samvat 1730 ke aaspaas hai. inke janmasthaan aur janak ke naam agyaat hain. aaranbhik jeevan Delhi tatha uttar jeevan vrundaavan mein beeta. jaati ke kaayasth the. saahitya aur sangeet donon mein inki asaadhaaran gati thi.

kaha jaata hai ki ye shaahanshaah muhammadashaah raingeele ke darbaar mein meeramunshi the aur 'sujaan' naamak nartaki par aasakt the. ek din darabaariyon ne baadshah se kah diya ki munshi ji gaate bahut achha hain. usane inka gaana sanane ki hath pakad li. par ye gaana sunaane mein apni ashakti ka hi nivedan karte rahe. ant mein baadshah se kaha gaya tha ki yadi sujaan bulaai jaaya to ye gaana sunaaeainge. vah bulaai gayi aur inhonne usaki or unmukh hokar sachmuch gaaya aur aisa gaaya ki saara darbaar mantramugdh ho gaya. baadshah ne aajnyaa ki avhelna ke aparaadh mein inhein Delhi se nishkaasit kar diya. sujaan ne inka saath naheen diya. vahaaain se ve vrundaavan chale gaye aur ninbaark sanpradaayaachaarya shreevrundaavanadev se deeksha grahan ki. inka sakheebhaavasoochak naam 'bahuguni' tha.

bhagavaan Krishna ke prati anurakt hokar vrundaavan mein unhonne nimbaark sanpradaaya mein deeksha li aur apne parivaar ka moh bhi inhonne us bhakti ke kaaran tyaag diya. marate dam tak ve raadha-Krishna sambandhi geet, kavitt-savaiye likhte rahe. kavi ghanaanand Delhi ke baadshah muhammad shaah ke meer munshi the. kehte hain ki sujaan naam ki ek stri se unka atoot prem tha. usi ke prem ke kaaran ghanaanand baadshah ke darbaar mein be-adabi kar baithe, jisse naaraaj hokar baadshah ne unhein darbaar se nikaal diya. saath hi ghanaanand ko sujaan ki bevafaai ne bhi niraash aur dukhi kiya. ve vrundaavan chale gaye aur ninbaark sanpradaaya mein Dixit hokar bhakt ke roop mein jeevan-nirvaah karne lage. parantu ve sujaan ko bhool naheen paae aur apni rachanaaon mein sujaan ke naam ka prateekaatmak prayog karte hue kaavya-rachana karte rahe. ghanaanand moolat: prem ki peeda ke kavi hain. viyog varnan mein unka man adhik rama hai.

ye premasaadhana ka atyadhik path paar kar bade bade saadhakon ki koti mein pahuainch gaye the. yamuna ke kachhaaron aur braj ki veethiyon mein bhraman karte samay ye kabhi aanandaatirek mein hainsane lagte aur kabhi bhaavaavesh mein ashru ki dhaara inke netron se pravaahit hone lagti. naagareedaas jaise shreshth mahaatma inka bada sanmaan karte the.

Mathura par ahamadashaah abdaali ke pratham aakraman ke samay, san. 1813 mein, ye maar daale gaye. vishvanaathaprasaad mishr ke mataanusaar unki mrutyu ahamadashaah abdaali ke Mathura par kiye gaye dviteeya aakraman mein hui thi.[1]

rachanaaeain

ghanaanand dvaara rachit granthon ki sankhya 41 bataai jaati hai-

sujaanahit, krupaakandanibandh, viyogabeli, ishkalata, yamunaayash, preetipaavas, premapatrika, premasarovar, vrajavilaas, rasavasant, anubhavachandrika, rangabadhaai, premapaddhati, vrushabhaanupur Sushma, gokulageet, naamamaadhuri, giripoojan, vichaarasaar, daanaghata, bhaavanaaprakaash, krushnakaumudi, ghaamachamatkaar, priyaaprasaad, vrundaavanamudra, vrajasvaroop, gokulacharitr, premapaheli, rasanaayash, gokulavinod, muralikaamod, manorathamanjari, vrajavyavahaar, girigaatha, vrajavarnan, chhandaashtak, tribhangi chhand, kabittasangrah, sfut padaavali aur paramahansavanshaavali.

inka 'vrajavarnan' yadi 'vrajasvaroop' hi hai to inki sabhi gyaat krutiyaaain upalabdh ho gayi hain. chhandaashtak, tribhangi chhand, kabittasangrah-sfut vastut: koi svatantr krutiyaaain naheen hain, futakal rachanaaon ke chhote chhote sangrah hai. inke samasaamayik vrajanaath ne inke 500 kavitt savaiyon ka sangrah kiya tha. inke kabitt ka yeh sabse praacheen sangrah hai. iske aarambh mein do tatha ant mein chhah kul aath chhand vrajanaath ne inki prashasti mein swayam likhe. poori 'daanaghata' 'ghanaaanand kabitt' mein sankhya 402 se 414 tak sangruheet hai. paramahansavanshaavali mein inhonne guruparanpara ka ullekh kiya hai. inki likhi ek faarasi masanavi bhi batalaai jaati hai par vah abhi tak upalabdh naheen hai.

ghanaanand granthaavali mein unki 16 rachanaaeain sankalit hain. ghanaanand ke naam se lagbhag chaar hajaar ki sankhya mein kavitt aur savaiye miltein hain . inki sarvaadhik lokapriya rachana 'sujaan hit' hai, jismein 507 pad hain . in mein sujaan ke prem, roop, virh aadi ka varnan hua hai. sujaan saagar, virh leela, krupaakand nibandh, rasakeli valli aadi pramukh hain. unki anek rachanaaon ka angreji anuvaad bhi ho chuka hai.

kaavyagat visheshataaeain

hindi ke madhyakaaleen svachhand pravaah ke pramukh kartaaon mein sabse adhik saahityashrut ghanaaanand hi prateet hote hai. inki rachana ke do prakaar hain : ek mein premasanvedana k abhivyakti hai, aur doosare mein bhaktisanvedana ki vyakti. inki rachana abhidha ke vaachya roop mein kam, lakshana ke lakshya aur vyanjana ke vyangya roop mein adhik hai. ye bhaashaapraveen bhi the aur vrajabhaashaapraveen bhi. inhonne vrajabhaasha ke prayogon ke aadhaar par nootan vaagyog sanghatit kiya hai.

unki rachanaaon mein prem ka atyant gambhir, nirmal, aavegamaya aur vyaakul kar dene wala udaatt roop vyakt hua hai, iseeliye ghanaanand ko 'saakshaat rasamoorti' kaha gaya hai. ghanaanand ke kaavya mein bhaav ki jaisi gaharaai hai, vaisi hi kala ki baareeki bhi. unki kavita mein laakshanikta, vakrokti, vaagvidgdhata ke saath alankaaron ka kushal prayog bhi milta hai. unki kaavya-kala mein sahajata ke saath vachan-vakrata ka adbhut mel hai. ghanaanand ki bhaasha parishkrut aur saahityik brajabhaasha hai. usamein komalata aur madhurata ka charam vikaas dikhaai deta hai. bhaasha ki vyanjakata badhaane mein ve atyant kushal the. vastut: ve brajabhaasha praveen hi naheen sarjanaatmak kaavyabhaasha ke praneta bhi the.

kalaapaksh

ghanaanand bhaasha ke dhani the. unhonne apne kaavya mein brajabhaasha ka prayog kiya hai. reetikaal ki yahi pramukh bhaasha thi . inki brajabhaasha arabi, faarasi, raajasthaani, khadi boli aadi ke shabdon se samruddh hai. unhonne saral-sahaj laakshanik vyanjanaapoorn bhaasha ka prayog kiya hai. ghanaanand ne lokoktiyon aur muhaavaron ke prayog se bhaasha saundarya ko chaar chaaaind laga diye hain. ghanaanand ne apne kaavya mein alankaaro ka prayog atyant sahaj dhang se kiya hai. unhonne kaavya mein anupraas, yamak, upama, roopak, utpreksha evam virodhaabhaas aadi alankaaro ka prayog bahulata ke saath hua hai. 'virodhaabhaas ' ghanaanand ka priya alankar hai . aachaarya vishvanaath ne unke baare mein likha hai-

virodhaabhaas ke adhik prayog se unki kavita bhari padi hai. jahaaain is prakaar ki kruti dikhaai de, use ni:sankoch inki kruti ghoshit kiya ja sakta hai .

chhand-vidhaan

chhand-vidhaan ki drushti se ghanaanand ne kavitt aur savaiye hi adhik likhe hain. vaise unhonne dohe aur chaupaaiyaan bhi likhi hain. ras ki drushti se ghanaanand ka kaavya mukhyat: shrrungaar ras pradhaan hai. inmein viyog shrrungaar ki pradhaanata hai. kaheen-kaheen shaant ras ka prayog bhi dekhte banta hai. ghanaanand ko bhaasha mein chitraatmakata aur vaagvidgdhata ka gun bhi aa gaya hai.

kavitt va savaiya

in padon mein sujaan ke prem roop virh aadi ka varnan hua hai

nahin aavani-audhi, na raavari aas,
ite pair ek si baat chahon .

ghanaanand naayika sujaan ka varnan atyant roochipoorvak karatein hain . ve us par apna sarvasv nyochhaavar kar detein hain

raavare roop ki reeti anoop nayo nayo laagat jyon jyon nihaariye .
tyon in aaainkhin baani anokhi aghaani kahoo nahin aani tihaariye .

ghanaanand prem ke maarg ko atyant saral bataate hain, in mein kaheen bhi vakrata naheen hai .

ati soodho saneh ko maarag hai, jahaaain neku sayaanap baank naheen .

kavi apni priya ko atyadhik chaturaai dikhaane ke liye ulaahana bhi deta hai .

tum kaun dhaun paati padhe hau kahau man lehoon pai dehoon chhataank naheen .

kavi apni priya ko prem patra bhi bhijvaata hai par us nishthur ne use padhkar dekha tak naheen .

jaan ajaan laun took kiyau par baaainchi na dekhyo .

roop saundarya ka varnan karne mein kavi ghanaanand ka koi saani naheen hai . vah kaali saadi mein apni naayika ko dekhkar unmatt sa ho jaatein hain . saavainri saadi ne sujaan ke gore sareer ko kitna kaantimaan bana diya hain .

syaam ghata lipti thir beej ki sauhain amaavas-ank ujayaari .
dhoom ke punj mein jvaal ki maal pai dvig-sheetalata-sukh-kaari .
kai chhabi chhaayau singaar nihaari sujaan-tiya-tan-deepati-tyaari .
kaisi fabi ghanaanand chopani son pahiri chuni saavainri saari .

ghanaanand ke kaavya ki ek pramukh visheshata hai- bhaav pravanata ke anuroop abhivyakti ki svaabhaavik vakrata . ghanaanand ka prem laukik prem ki bhaav bhoomi se upar uthakar aalaukik prem ki bulandiyon ko chhuta hua najar aata hai, tab kavi ki priyaasujaan hi parabrahm ka roop ban jaati hai . aisi dasha mein ghanaanand prem se upar uth kar bhakt ban jaate hain .

nehi sirmaur ek tum hi laun meri daur
nahi aur thaur, kaahi saankare samahaariye

kavitt

bahut dinaan ko avadhi aaspaas pare,
khare arabarani bhare hain uthi jaan ko .
kahi kahi aavan chhabeele manabhaavan ko,
gahi gahi raakhati hi dai dai sanamaan ko .
jhooti batiyaani ki patiyaani tein udaas haiv kai,
ab na ghirt ghan aanand nidaan ko .
adhar lage hain aani kari kai payaan praan,
chaahat chalan ye sandeson lai sujaan ko .[2]

sandarbh

baahari kadiyaaain