ghaas

ghaas ka maidaan
ghaas

ghaas (grass) ek ekabeejapatri hara paudha hai. iske pratyek gaaainth se rekheeya pattiyaaain niklati hui dikhaai deti hain. saadhaaranat: yeh kamjor, shaakhaayukt, reinganevaala paudha hai. baaains, makka tatha dhaan ke paudhe bhi ghaas hi hain.

anukram

parichay

ghaas shabd ka arth bahut vyaapak hai. saadhaaranataya ghaason mein ve sab vanaspatiyaaain sammilit ki jaati hain jo gaaya, bhains, bhed, bakari aadi paalatoo pashuon ke chaare ke roop mein kaam aati hain, parantu aadhunik yug mein vaanaspatik vargeekaran ke anusaar keval ghaas kul (gremini kul, Gramineae family) ke paudhe hi iske antargat maane jaate hain. lagbhag do lakh foolane aur falane vaale paudhon mein se paaainch hajaar is kul ke antargat aate hain. charaagaah evam khel ke maidaan aise sthaanon mein hone vaale paudhe, jaise haathi ghaas (nepiyr graas, Napier grass), soodaan ghaas (Sudan grass), doob aadi ko to ghaas kehte hi hain hamaare bhojan ke adhikaansh anaaj, jaise gehooain, dhaan, makka, jvaar, baajara aadi bhi ghaas kul mein hi parignit hain. inke atirikt ikh, baaains aadi bhi isi kul mein sammilit hain.

visheshataaeain

ghaason ke aakaar evam ooainchaai mein bhinnata hoti hai. kuchh paudhe keval kuchh inch lambe haate hain, jaise khel ke maidaan evam laan (lawn) ki ghaasein; kuchh madhyam varg ke hote hain, jaise gehooain, makka aadi tatha kuchh bahut hi ooainche hote hain, jaise ikh, baaains aadi. kuchh pakar ke paudhon mein fool alag alag tatha kuchh mein guchhon mein hote hain. anaajavaale paudhe adhiktar vaarshik hote hai, kintu baaains, kaaains aadi 30-40 varsh, ya isse bhi adhik, jeevit rahate hain. kuchh ghaasein paani mein ugati hain ya praaya: nadi, taalaab aur samudra ke kinaare pai jaati hain. iske vipreet kuchh prakaar ki ghaasein keval kam varshaavaale sthaanon tatha marusthalon mein hi jeevit rahati hain.

ghaason ki jadein praaya: reshedaar hoti hain. tane thos tatha sandhiyukt hote hain. sandhiyon ke beech ke bhaagon ko por ya pori (internodes) kehte hain. pattiyaaain nukeeli aur tane ke jodon par ek ke baad doosari or mudi rahati hain. pattiyaaain sadaiv samaantaramukhi (parallel viewed) hoti hain. aur do spasht bhaagon, mutaan (sheath) evam falak (blade), mein vibhaajit hoti hain. pattiyaaain tane ke jod se niklati hain aur mutaan pori ko ghere rahati hain. mutaan mein falak ke mool ke kuchh oopar se vishesh prakaar ke astar (linings) nikalte hain. inhein chhoti jeebh (Little tongue) kehte hain. kuchh ghaason ki pattiyon ke neeche falak ke mool par ek vishesh prakaar ke vruddhi upaang (growth appendages) hote hain, jinhein karnaabh (Auricles) kehte hain. is prakaar ghaas ki pattiyon ki banaavat vishesh prakaar ki hoti hai tatha pattiyon dvaara hi is kul ke paudhon ko pahachaana jaata hai. kuchh ghaason mein neeche ki or ki kuchh poriyaaain kuchh adhik lambi aur upavartul (Subglobular) hokar paudhe ke liye bhojan tatv ikattha karne ka sthaan bana leti hain. is pakaar ke paudhe kandeeya (bulbus) kahalaate hain.

jis prakaar patti ki banaavat se graimini kul ke paudhe pahachaane jaate hain usi prakaar foolon aur beejon dvaara jaatiyaaain pahachaani ja sakti hain. foolon ke guchhe vibhinn prakaar ke hote hain. fool akele ya samooh mein fool denevaali anushookiyon (spikelets) par lage hote hain.

punkesar (stamens) aur streekesar (pistils) praaya: saath-saath hote hain, kintu makka jaise paudhon mein alag-alag bhi hote hain. fool ke atirikt anushooki mein do ya adhik niptr (bracts) hote hain, jinhe tushaniptr ( glumes) kehte hain. inmein foolon ke neechevaale tushaniptr ko baahya pushpakavach (lema, Lemmas) aur unke ooparavaalon ko ant: pushpakavach (peliya, palea) kehte hain. kabhi kabhi baahya pushpakavach mein nukeeli tatha kaaainte ki tarah vruddhi hoti hai, jise seekur (Awn) kehte hain, jaise gehooain, jau ityaadi mein. foolon mein aakarshit karanevaala koi rang ya sungadh naheen hoti. paraagan praaya: hava dvaara hota hai. kuchh foolon mein swayam paraagan (self pollination) bhi hota hai. kailiks (calyx) aur painkhadiyon (petals) ke sthaan par do ya teen patale paarabhaasak shalk hote hain, jinhein paripushpak (Lodicules) kehte hain. jab foolon ke khilne ka samay aata hai tab paripushpak ek prakar ke ras se bhar jaate hain aur baahmapushpakavach tatha ant:pushpakavach par dabaav padta hai, jisse fool khil jaate hain. is avastha mein vaayu dvaara paraagan hota hai.

sabhi paudhon ka fal ek beej wala hota hai, jismein beejaavaran (seed coat), ya beejakavach (Testa), falakavach (fruit coat) falaavaran (pericarp) se chipka rahata hai. ghaason ke beej bahut chhote hote hain tatha bahut adhik maatra mein paida hote hain. ye bahut dinon tak jeevit rah sakte hain aur vibhinn prakaar ki jalavaayu aur mitti mein ugaae ja sate hain. beejon ka vikirn (dispersal) unki banavaat ke anusaar vibhinn prakaar se hota hai, parantu mukhya roop se hava, paani manushyon aur pashuon dvaara hota hai.

mitti aur ghaas

mitti aur usapar uganevaali vanaspati mein paraspar bahut ghanishth sambandh hota hai. sansaar ki kuchh prakaar ki mittiyaaain ghaason ke prakaar aur upaj se vishesh roop se sambandhit hain. jin pradeshon mein badi-badi ghaasein ugati hain, vahaaain ki mitti adhik upajaaoo hoti hai. bahut adhik ghaas upajaane vaale sthalon (grass lands) ko praaya: bred baaskets (Bread Baskets) kaha jaata hai. udaaharan ke liye sanyukt raajya amareeka, tatha Canada ke prerij (prairies), arjeintaaina ke panpaaj (pampas), Australia ki gren belt (Grain belt) aur yooreshiya mein steps ke bahut se bhaag, visheshakar Ukraine pradesh mein sthit bhaag aajkal sansaar ke mukhya mukhya bred baaskets hain.

mahatva

kuchh prakaar ki ghaasein, jinmein prasaaran (propagation), virohak (stolon) tatha prakand (rhizone) se hota hai, kam varsha vaale pradeshon mein bahut ugati hain. inmein doob pradhaan ghaas hai. ise dharmagranthon mein raashtrarakshak (Preserver of nations) evam 'Bhaarat ki dhaal' (Shield of India) kaha gaya hai. mitti ke bheetar in ghaason ki jadon ka ghana jaal rahata hai, jisse varshaajal se mitti ka kataav ya bahaav kam hota hai. bhoomi ke oopar ghani pattiyaaain hone se vaayu dvaara mitti ka kataav naheen hota. hava aur paani se kataav rokakar bhoomisanrakshan karne mein ghaasein badi sahaayak hoti hain.

iske atirikt ghaason ki jadon mein aashray paane vaale upayogi jeevaanu vahaaain se naaitrojan sanchit kar mitti ki urvara shakti badhaate hain tatha unki jadon dvaara mitti ka vinyaas (texture) atyadhik uttam ho jaata hai. is prakaar ghaason dvaara pathareeli ya kam upajaaoo bhoomi bhi adhik upajaaoo banaai ja sakti hai.