gehooain

gehooain
Wheat field.jpg
vaigyaanik vargeekaran
jagat: paadap
(ashrenikrut) Angiosperms
(ashrenikrut) Monocots
(ashrenikrut) Commelinids
gan: Poales
kul: Poaceae
upakul: Pooideae
traaib: Triticeae
prajaati: Triticum
L.

References:
ITIS 42236 2002-09-22

gehooain

gehoon (Wheat ; vaigyaanik naam : Triticum spp.),[1] madhya poorv ke levaant kshetr se I ek ghaas hai jiski kheti duniya bhar mein ki jaati hai. vishv bhar mein, bhojan ke liye ugaai jaane waali dhaanya fasalon me makka ke baad gehoon doosari sabse jyaada ugaai jaane vaale fasal hai, dhaan ka sthaan gehoon ke theek baad teesare sthaan par aata hai.[2] gehoon ke daane aur daanon ko pees kar praapt hua aata roti, dabalaroti (bred), kukeej, cake, daliya, paasta, ras, sivin, noodals aadi banaane ke liye prayog kiya jaata hai.[3] gehoon ka kinvan kar biyr[4], sharaab, vodka[5] aur jaivaindhan[6] banaaya jaata hai. gehoon ki ek seemit maatra me pashuon ke chaare ke roop mein prayog kiya jaata hai aur iske bhoose ko pashuon ke chaare ya chhat/chhappar ke liye nirmaan saamagri ke roop mein istemaal kiya ja sakta hai.[7][8]

haalaanki duniya bhar me aahaar proteen aur khaadya aapoorti ka adhikaansh gehoon dvaara poora kiya jaata hai, lekin gehoon me paaye jaane vaale ek proteen glooten ke kaaran vishv ka 100 se 200 logon mein se ek vyakti pet ke rogon se grast hai jo shareer ki pratirksha pranaali ki is proteen ke prati hui pratikriya ka parinaam hai. (sanyukt raajya America ke aankadon ke aadhaar par)[9][10][11]

anukram

mahatva

gehooain (tritikm jaati) vishvavyaapi mahatva ki fasal hai. yeh fasal naanaavidh vaataavaranon mein ugaai jaati hai. yeh laakhon logon ka mukhya khaadya hai. vishv mein kul krushya bhoomi ke lagbhag chhathe bhaag par gehooain ki kheti ki jaati hai yadyapi Asia mein mukhya roop se dhaan ki kheti ki jaati hai, to bhi gehooain vishv ke sabhi praayadveepon mein ugaaya jaata hai. yeh vishv ki badhti janasankhya ke liye lagbhag 20 pratishat aahaar kailori ki poorti karta hai. varsh 2007-08 mein vishvavyaapi gehooain utpaadan 62.22 karod tan tak pahuainch gaya tha. cheen ke baad Bhaarat gehooain doosra vishaalatam utpaadak hai. gehooain khaadyaann fasalon ke beech vishisht sthaan rakhata hai. kaarbohaaidret aur proteen gehooain ke do mukhya ghatak hain. gehooain mein ausatan 11-12 pratishat proteen hota hain. gehooain mukhyat: vishv ke do mausamon, yaani sheet evam vasant rituon mein ugaaya jaata hai. sheetakaaleen gehooain thande deshon, jaise Europe, san॰ raa॰ America, Australia, roos raajya sangh aadi mein ugaaya jaata hai jabki vasantakaaleen gehooain Asia evam sanyukt raajya America ke ek hisse mein ugaaya jaata hai. vasantakaaleen gehooain 120-130 dinon mein paripakva ho jaata hai jabki sheetakaaleen gehooain pakane ke liye 240-300 din leta hai. is kaaran sheetakaaleen gehooain ki utpaadakata vansatakaaleen gehooain ki tulana mein adhik haati hai.

gunavatta ko dhyaan mein rakhakar gehooain ko do shreniyon mein vibhaajit kiya gaya hai: mrudu gehooain evam kathor gehooain.

tritikm aistivm (roti gehooain) mrudu gehooain hota hai aur tritikm dayooram kathor gehooain hota hai.

Bhaarat mein mukhya roop se tritikm ki teen jaatiyon jaise aistivm, dayooram evam daaikokam ki kheti ki jaati hai. in jaatiyon dvaara sannikt sasyagat kshetr kramash: 95, 4 evam 1 pratishat hai. tritikm aistivm ki kheti desh ke sabhi kshetron mein ki jaati hai jabki dayooram ki kheti Punjab evam madhya Bhaarat mein aur daaikokam ki kheti Karnataka mein ki jaati hai.

gehoon ki adhik upaj dene waali kismein

gehooain se nirmit vibhinn utpaad

achhi fasal lene ke liye gehoon ki kismon ka sahi chunaav bahut mahatvapoorn hai. vibhinn anukool kshetron mein samay par, tatha pratikool jalavaayu, va bhoomi ki paristhitiyon mein, pak kar taiyaar hone waali, adhik upaj dene waali va prakaashan prabhaavaheen kismein upalabdh hain. unamein se anek ratuaarodhi hain. yadyapi `kalyaan sona' lagaataar rog grahanasheel banta chala ja raha hai, lekin tab bhi samay par buaai aur sookhe vaale kshetron mein jahaan ki ratuaa naheen lagta, achhi prakaar ugaaya jaata hai. ab `sonaalika' aamtaur par ratuaa se mukt hai aur un sabhi kshetron ke liye upayogi hai, jahaan kisaan alpakaalik (ageti) kism ugaana pasand karte hain. dviguni bauni kism `arjun' sabhi ratuon ki rodhi hai aur madhyam upajaaoo bhoomi ki paristhitiyon mein samay par buaai ke liye atyant upayogi hai, parantu karanal banta ki beemaari ko sheegra grahan karne ke kaaran iski kheti, pahaadi pattiyon par naheen ki ja sakti. `janak' braaoon ratuaa rodhi kism hai. ise poorvi uttar pradesh aur Nepal mein bhi ugaane ki sifaarish ki gayi hai. `prataap' Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan aur pashchimi uttar pradesh ke varsha vaale kshetron mein madhyam upajaaoo bhoomi ki paristhitiyon mein achhi prakaar ugaaya jaata hai. `shera' ne madhya Bhaarat va kota aur Rajasthan ke Udaipur mandal mein pichheti, adhik upajaaoo bhoomi ki paristhitiyon mein, upaj ka achha pradarshan kiya hai.

`raaj 911' madhya pradesh, Gujarat, uttar pradesh ke bundelakhand kshetr aur dakshin-poorvi Rajasthan mein saamaanya buaai va sinchit aur achhi upajaaoo bhoomi ki paristhiti mein ugaana uchit hai. `maalavika basanti' bauni kism Maharashtra, Karnataka, aandhr pradesh ki achhi sinchaai va upajaaoo bhoomi ki paristhitiyon ke liye achhi hai. `you pi 215' Maharashtra aur Delhi mein ugaai ja rahi hai. `moti' bhi lagaataar prachalan mein aa rahi hai. yadyapi doosare sthaanon par isko bhulaaya ja raha hai. pichhle kai varshon se `dabalyoo ji-357' ne bahut bade kshetr mein kalyaan sona va pi vi-18 ka sthaan le liya hai. bhinn-bhinn raajyon mein apni mahatvapoorn sthaaneeya kismein bhi upalabdh hain. achhi kismon ki ab kami naheen hain. kisaan apne anubhav ke aadhaar par, sthaaneeya prasaar kaaryakarta ki sahaayata se, achhi va adhik paidaavaar waali kismein chun leta hai. achhi paidaavaar ke liye achhe beej ki aavashyakta hoti hai aur is baare mein kisi bhi prakaar ka samjhauta naheen kiya ja sakta.

bhoomi ka chunaav: gehoon ki achhi paidaavaar ke liye matiyaar dumat bhoomi sabse achhi rahati hai, kintu yadi paudhon ko santulit maatra mein khuraak dene waali paryaapt khaad di jaae va sinchaai aadi ki vyavastha achhi ho to halaki bhoomi se bhi paidaavaar li ja sakti hai. kshaareeya evam khaari bhoomi gehoon ki kheti ke liye achhi naheen hoti hai. jis bhoomi mein paani bhar jaata ho, vahaan bhi gehoon ki kheti naheen karni chaahiye.

bhoomi ki taiyaari

khet ki mitti ko baareek aur bhurabhuri karne ke liye gahari jutaai karni chaahiye. buaai se pehle ki jaane waali paret (sinchaai) se poorv tavedaar hal (disk hairo) se jotakar patela chala kar, mitti ko samatal kar lena chaahiye. buaai se pehle 25 ki. gra. prati hekteyar ke hisaab se 10 pratishat bi. H. si. mila dene se fasal ko deemak aur gujhai ke aakraman se bachaaya ja sakta hai. yadi buaai se pehle khet mein nami naheen hai to ek samaan ankuran ke liye sinchaai aavashyak hai.

vibhinn deshon mein gehooain utpaadan

gehooain ki kataai karti hui ek mahila, raayasen jila, madhya pradesh
gehooain ke pramukh utpaadak
(million metrik tan ; 1 million = 10 lakh)
raink desh 2009 2010 2011 2012
1 Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg cheen 115 115 117 126
2 Flag of India.svg Bhaarat 80 80 86 95
3 Flag of the United States.svg sanyukt raajya America 60 60 54 62
4 Flag of France.svg France 38 40 38 40
5 Flag of Russia.svg roos 61 41 56 38
6 Flag of Australia.svg Australia 21 22 27 30
7 Flag of Canada.svg Canada 26 23 25 27
8 Flag of Pakistan.svg Pakistan 24 23 25 24
9 Flag of Germany.svg Germany 25 24 22 22
10 Flag of Turkey.svg Turkey 20 19 21 20
11 Flag of Ukraine.svg Ukraine 20 16 22 16
12 Flag of Iran.svg Iran 13 13 13 14
13 Flag of Kazakhstan.svg kajaakistaan 17 9 22 13
14 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg sanyukt raajashaahi 14 14 15 13
15 Flag of Argentina.svg Argentina 9 15 14 11
World 686 651 704 675
srot: sanyukt raashtra khaadya evam krushi sangathan[12]

yeh bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain

sandarbh

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  2. U. S. Department of Agriculture (2003), Annual World Production Summary, Grains, http://www.usda.gov/wps/portal/!ut/p/_s.7_0_A/7_0_1OB?parentnav=AGRICULTURE&navid=CROP_PRODUCTION&navtype=RT, abhigman tithi: 2007-09-04
  3. Cauvain, Stanley P. & Cauvain P. Cauvain. (2003) Bread Making. CRC Press. p. 540. ISBN 1-85573-553-9.
  4. Palmer, John J. (2001) How to Brew. Defenestrative Pub Co. p. 233. ISBN 0-9710579-0-7.
  5. Neill, Richard. (2002) Booze: The Drinks Bible for the 21st Century. Octopus Publishing Group - Cassell Illustrated. p. 112. ISBN 1-84188-196-1.
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