geetagovind

geetagovind ki paandulipi (1550 E)

geetagovind (udiya: ଗaaୀaaତ ଗaaୋaaବaaିaaନaa୍aaଦ) jayadev ki kaavya rachana hai. geetagovind mein shreekrushn ki gopikaaon ke saath raasaleela, raadhaavishaad varnan, Krishna ke liye vyaakulata, upaalambh vachan, Krishna ki raadha ke liye utkantha, raadha ki sakhi dvaara raadha ke virh santaap ka varnan hai. jayadev ka janm Orissa mein bhuvaneshvar ke paas kendubilv naamak gram mein hua tha. ve Bengal ke senavansh ke antim naresh lakshmanasen ke aashrit mahaakavi the. lakshmanasen ke ek shilaalekh par 1116 i0 ki tithi hai at: jayadev ne isi samay mein geetagovind ki rachana ki hogi.

'shri geetagovind' saahitya jagat mein ek anupam kruti hai. iski manoram rachana shaili, bhaavapravanata, sumadhur raag-raagini, dhaarmik taatparyata tatha sumadhur komal-kaant-padaavali saahityik ras pipaasuon ko apoorv aanand pradaan karti hain. at: dau॰ e॰ bee॰ keeth ne apne 'sanskrut saahitya ke itihaas' mein ise 'apratim kaavya' maana hai. san 1784 mein William jons dvaara likhit (1799 mein prakaashit) 'on the myoojikl mods of the hindooj' (esiyaatik risrchej, khand-3) pustak mein geetagovind ko 'paastoral drama' arthaat 'gopanaatya' ke roop mein maana gaya hai. uske baad san 1837 mein French vidvaan edavin aaranold taarsan ne ise 'lirikl drama' ya 'geetinaatya' kaha hai. vaan shrodar ne 'yaatra prabandh' tatha pishaal levi ne 'melo drama', insaaiklopidiya britaanika (khand-5) mein geetagovind ko 'dharmanaatak' kaha gaya hai. isi tarah anek vidvaanon ne apne-apne dhang se iske sambandh mein vichaar vyakt kiya hai. jarman kavi gete mahodaya ne abhijnyaaanashaakuntalam aur meghadootam ke samaan hi geetagovind ki bhoori-bhoori prashansa ki hai.

geetagovind kaavya mein jayadev ne jagadeesh ka hi jagannaath, dashaavataari, hari, muraari, madhuripu, keshav, maadhav, Krishna ityaadi naamon se ullekh kiya hai. yeh 24 prabandh (12 sarg) tatha 72 shlokon (sarvaangasundari teeka mein 77 shlok) yukt paripoorn granth hai jismein raadha-Krishna ke milan-virh tatha punarmiln ko komal tatha laalityapoorn padon dvaara baaaindha gaya hai. kintu naagari prachaarini sabha dvaara prakaashit 'hastalikhit sanskrut granth soochi, bhaag-i' mein geetagovind ka 13vaaain sarg bhi upalabdh hai. parantu yeh maatruka arvaacheen prateet hoti hai.

geetagovind vaishnav sampradaaya mein atyadhik aadrut hai. at: 13veen shataabdi ke madhya se hi shri jagannaath mandir mein ise nitya seva ke roop mein angeekaar kiya jaata raha hai. is geetikaavya ke pratyek prabandh mein kavi ne kaavyafal svaroop sukhad, yashasvi, punyaroop, mokshad aadi shabdon ka prayog karke iske dhaarmik tatha daarshanik kaavya hone ka bhi parichay diya hai. shrungaar ras varnan mein jayadev kaalidaas ki parampara mein aate hain. geetagovind ka raas varnan shreemadbhaagavat ke varnan se saamya rakhata hai; tatha shreemadbhaagavat ke skandh 10, adhyaaya 40 mein (10-40-17/22) akroor stuti mein jo dashaavataar ka varnan hai, geetagovind ke pratham sarg ke stuti varnan se saamya rakhata hai.

aage chalakar geetagovind ke anek 'anukruti' kaavya rache gaye. at: jayadev ne swayam 12vein sarg mein likha hai -

yadgaandharvakalaasu kaushalamanudhyaanan ch yadvaishnavan
yachhrungaaravivek tattvarachana kaavyeshu leelaayitm.
tatsarvan jayadev panditkave: krushnaikataanaatman:
saanandaa: parishodhayantu sudhiy: shreegeetagovindat:.10.

kumbhakarn praneet 'rasikpriya' teeka aadi mein iski pushti ki gayi hai.

anukram

teekaaeain

geetagovind ki lokapriyta aur saushthav ke kaaran Bhaarat ki pratyek bhaasha mein gadya aur padya mein tatha aaingreji, laitin, French, jarman, arabi, faarasi aadi bhaashaaon mein iska anuvaad kiya gaya hai. iske alaava sanskrut bhaasha mein iske jo anuvaad, bhaashya, teeka aur tippani likhe gaye hain, vaisa kisi anya bhaasha mein milna asambhav hai. kisi teekaakaar ne iska shrungaar pradhaan kaavya ke roop mein varnan kiya hai to kisi ne bhakti sampradaaya ko mahattv dekar ise bhakti kaavya maana; to kisi ne sangeet ko pradhaanata dekar ise sangeet shaastr ka roop diya hai evam kisi-kisi teekaakaar ne shabdamaadhurya aur saushthav ko lekar iski shabd vyutpatyaatmak vyaakhya ki hai. isliye nissandeh geetagovind ek sarvatantr svatantr granth hai.

geetagovind ke pratham teekaakaar udayanaachaarya ne 'bhaavavibhaavini' teeka likhi hai. jagannaath puri ke atyant nikat praachi ke kinaare rahanevaale udayanaachaarya jadayadev ke priya mitr tatha prashansak the. san 1170 se 1198 ke madhya mein 'bhaavavibhaavini' teeka likhi gayi thi, jismein 100 shlok hain. iski teen maatrukaaeain Udaipur aur Nagpur mein upalabdh hain.

sanrachana

'geetagovind' kaavya mein baarah sarg hain, jinka chaubees prabandhon (khandon) mein vibhaajan hua hai. in prabandhon ka upavibhaajan padon athva geeton mein hua hai. pratyek pad athva geet mein aath padya hain. [1]geeton ke vakta Krishna, raadha athva raadha ki sakhi hain. atyant nairaashya aur nirvadhi-viyog ko chhodkar bhaarateeya prem ke shesh sabhi roopon - abhilaasha, irshya, pratyaasha, niraasha, kop, maan, punarmiln tatha harshollaas aadi—aka badi tanmayata aur kushalata ke saath varnan kiya gaya hai. prem ke in sabhi roopon ka varnan atyant rochak, saras aur sajeev hone ke atirikt itna sundar hai ki aisa prateet hota hai, maano kavi shaastr, arthaat chintan (kaamashaastr) ko bhaavana ka roop athva amoort ko moort roop dekar use kavita mein parinit kar raha hai.

dvaadash sarg

(1) samodadaamodar

(2) akleshakeshav

(3) mugdh madhusoodan

(4) snigdh madhusoodan

(5) saakaanksh pundareekaaksh

(6) kunthabaikunth

(7) naagaranaaraayan

(8) bilkshyalakshmeepati

(9) mandamakund

(10) chatur chaturbhuj

(11) saanand Damodar

(12) supreetipeetaambar

parichay

geetagovind 12vi shatavdi me likhi gayi ek aisi kaavya rachana hai jo hame Bhagwan Krishna aur raadhaaraani ke prem ke baare mai bataati hai. isame kul 12 adhyaaya hai. yeh kaavya Orissa raajya ke bhuvaneshvar aur puri shahar ke madhyavarti kendubilv ya kenduli shaasan naam ke gaanv me vaas karne vaale braahman jayadev ki kruti hai. jayadev ne unaki patni paadmaavati ke sahayata se is ko aisi rupaantar kiya ki tatkaalin utkal (Orissa k purv naam) ke raaja irsha karne lage. fir jab geetagovind ki praadhaanya jagannaath ji ne svapn me raaja ko bataayi tab se mandir ke devaadaasi raat ke ekaant seva aur subah ki seva me prabhu jagannaath ke saamane odishi nrutya rup mai pesh karne lage. pahele vidvaano k maanana tha ki jayadev Bengal ke raaja ke sabhaakavi hai. par shilaalekh evam pracheen mandir jo Orissa me maujood hai, unase pramaanit hua ki jayadev jagannaath ke bhakt the aur utkal raajya ke vaasi the. aaj bhi odishi nrutya ke maadhyam se geetagovind sarvajaneen priya ho raha hai. odishi nrutya hi jayadev ka Orissa praant k hona suchit karta hai. unaki geetagovind kaavya ki prachaar padoshi aandhr, Tamil Nadu tatha karnaatak me hua. fir uttarabhaarat mein khaastaur par Rajasthan mein meeraabaai ke dvaara hua. gurugranth saahib mein bhi bhagat jayadev ka naam likh hai jo geetagovind ke rachayita hain.

'geetagovind' kaavya ka rachana-kaushal is prakaar sarvatha naveen evam nitaant maulik hai ki uske kaavya-roop ka nirnaya karna hi dushkar ban gaya hai. kuchh paashchaatya vidvaan ise 'graamya-roopak' (Pastoral Drama) kehte hain, to anya sameekshak ise 'geetinaatak' (Lyric Drama) kehte hain, to kachh anyon ke mat mein yeh kaavya 'parishkrut yaatra' (Refined yatra) hai. pishel (Pichel) is kaavya ko 'sangeet roopak' (Melo Drama) sveekaar karte hain. levi (Levi) ise geet aur roopak ka madhyavarti athva samanvit roop (In Between Song and Drama) maanate hain, parantu jayadev ne apni is kruti ka sargon mein vibhaajan karke ise naatak ke sthaan par kaavya maanane ki apni dhaarana ki or hi sanket kiya hai. yahaan yeh ullekhaneeya hai ki is kaavya mein naatak ki bhaanti ank, prastaavana aadi kuchh bhi naheen hai. kuchh vidvaan ise 'shrungaar mahaakaavya' ki sanjnyaa bhi dete hain.

krushnaasvaami ayangaar ne apne granth 'a history of indiyn opera' (A History of Indian Opera) mein 'geetagovind' kaavya ko sangeetanaatak (Opera) ka ek poorvaroop maana hai aur usaka vikaas evam utkrusht paripaak solahaveen shataabdi ke shri teerthanaaraayan svaami ki rachana 'krushnaleela tarangini' mein sveekaar kiya hai. is sambandh mein aachaarya baladev upaadhyaaya ka anumaan par aadhrut kathan hai ki 'geetagovind' ke padon ke saath (sangeet aur nrutya sambandhi) raagon aur taalon ke diye gaye naamon se is tathya ka anumaan hota hai ki kavi ki drushti kadaachit un dinon Bengal mein prachalit yaatra mahotsavon ki or rahi ho, jismein nrutya aur sangeet ke saath geeton ka upayog kiya jaata tha. is aadhaar par is kaavya ko 'sangeetaroopak' bhi maana ja sakta hai.

maanaveeya saundarya ke chitran mein prakruti ko bada hi mahattvapoorn sthaan praapt hai. is sandarbh mein 'geetagovind' kaavya mein rituraaj vasant, chandr-jyotsna, surabhit sameer tatha yamuna tat ke mohak kunyajon ka bada hi sundar varnan dekhne ko milta hai. yahaan tak ki is kaavya mein pakshi tak prem ki shakti aur mahima ka gaan karte hue drushtigochar hote hain.

jayadev ne is kaavya mein vaidarbhi reeti—amaadhurya vyanyajak varnon waali shailee—aaka prayog kiya hai. kaavya mein kaheen-kaheen deergh samaason ka prayog avashya hua hai, parantu fir bhi durbodhata athva klishtata naheen aane paayi. vastut: kavi ne vishesh-vishesh utsavon par sarv-saadhaaran ke gaane ke liye hi to geeton ki rachana ki thi. at: unhein subodh rakhana aavashyak hi tha. geeton mein na keval asaadhaaran svaabhaavikta (akrutrimmata) hai, apitu unamein anupam maadhurya bhi hai. 'geetagovind' ki rachana-shaili ki prashansa mein maikadaunal ka kathan hai—''saundarya mein, sangeetamaya vachanopanyaas mein aur rachana ke saushthav mein sampoorn sanskrut saahitya mein 'geetagovind' kaavya shaili ki upama naheen milti. kaavya ke adhyayan se spasht ho jaata hai ki kavi mein kaheen laghu padon ki vegavati dhaara dvaara, to kaheen chaaturya ke saath rachit deergh samaason ki layapoorn gati dvaara apne paathakon-shrotaaon par yathesht prabhaav daalne ki adbhut kshamata hai. kavi naana chhandon ke prayog mein hi siddhahast naheen, apitu charanon ke madhya aur ant mein tukaatmakata laane mein bhi adviteeya hai.''

'geetagovind' kaavya mein jayadev ne paramparaagat rachana-pranaali ka anusaran na karke sarvatha naveen aur maulik shaili ko apnaaya hai. shlok, gadya aur geet ke mile-jule prayog dvaara kaavya mein anupam rachana-maadhurya ki srushti hui hai. kavi ne katha-sootr ke nirvaah ke liye apekshit drushyayojana athva avastha vishesh ke chitran jaise varnanaatmak prasangon mein shlokon ka prayog kiya hai. paatron ki manodasha ko soochit karne vaale sanvaadaatmak prasangon mein gadya ka prayog hua hai tatha bhaavaanubhooti ki abhivyanyajana padyon mein ki gayi hai. is prakaar 'geetagovind' mein apanaayi gayi Abhinav rachana-pranaali mein varn, samvaad aur geet paraspar is prakaar gunth gaye hain ki unase ek vilkshan aanand ki anubhooti hoti hai. is anupam rachana-shaili ke aavishkarta jayadev, apne upamaan aap hi hain.

raadha-Krishna ki keli-kathaaon tatha unki abhisaar-leelaaon ka rasamaya chitran 'geetagovind' ko aadhyaatmik shrungaar ka manoram granth bana deta hai. raadha-Krishna ke pranaya ke chitran mein prem ki vividh dashaaon—aaaasha, niraasha, utkantha, irshya, kop, maan, aakrosh, milnotsukata, sandesh-preshan tatha milan aadi—ka jaisa abhibhoot karne wala hrudayagraahi chitran is kaavya mein hua hai, vaisa anyatr dhoondhne par bhi kaheen naheen milta.

shreekrushn ke gopiyon ke saath raas-vilaas ko raadha na pasand karti hai aur na hi sahan kar paati hain. raadha apni sakhi ke maadhyam se shreekrushn ke prati apna aakroshamoolak upaalambh bhejati hai, parantu us ananya pranayini ko itne se santosh naheen hota, usaka prem nirbhar-hrudaya use apne priytam ke prati apne pragaadh anuraag ko vyaktigat roop se prakat karne ko vivsh kar deta hai. raadha ke aane par shreekrushn braj-sundariyon ka sang chhodkar usaki or unmukh hote hain. raadha ki sakhi shreekrushn se raadha ki aur raadha se shreekrushn ki ek-doosare mein gahan anurakti ka tatha ek-doosare se door rahane par anubhav ki ja rahi virhajanya vedana ka maarmik varnan karti hai. vah apne komal evam kamaneeya vachanon dvaara donon ko ek-doosare se milne ke liye prerit karti hai.

chandrodaya hone par pranaya-vyatha se adheer bani raadha apne uddeept anuraag par niyantran naheen rakh paati aur usaki abhivyakti ko vivsh ho jaati hai. shreekrushn ke aane par ati maan karti hui raadha upaalambh se bhare vachanon ke dvaara unke prati apna rosh-aakrosh prakat karti hai. idhar raadha ki sakhi raadha se maan ko chhodne ka anurodh karti hai udhar swayam shreekrushn raadha ke roop-saundarya ki prashansa ke vyaaj se usaki chaatukaarita karte hue use manaane evam apne anukool banaane ki cheshta karte hain. antat: raadha ka maan door ho jaata hai aur vah apne kaant se milne ke liye kadamb-kunyaj mein jaati hai. vahaan shreekrushn raadha se pranaya-yaachana karte hue usase lajja-sankoch ko chhodne ka anurodh tatha rati-bhog mein sahayog dene ka manuhaar karte hain. donon prasann man se rati kreeda mein pravrutt hote hain aur iske uparaant raadha pranayasikt vachanon se apne priytam shreekrushn se apna shrungaar karne ko kehti hai. apni praanapriya ke anurodh ko gaurav dete hue shreekrushn saharsh apne haathon se raadha ka shrungaar karte hain.

aaj ke kuchh aalochak jayadev par bhakti ke aalamban raadha-Krishna ko shrungaar ka aalamban banaane ka doshaaropan karte hain, parantu maadhurya bhaav ke upaasak kavi par yeh laanyahan anyaayapoorn hi naheen, apitu swayam unke apne avivek ka dyotak hai. vastut: daampatya pranaya mein upalabdh tanmayata athva talleenata ke charam utkarsh ki tatha bhed mein abhed ki kalpana ke choodaant nidrshan ki abhivyakti hi bhakti ke kshetr mein maadhurya bhaav ki srushti karti hai. madhur bhaav se bhajan karne vaale bhakton ke liye Bhagwan ki shrungaarik cheshtaaen, vilaas-leelaaen tatha prem-gaathaaen hi geya evam keertaneeya hain.

yahaan yeh ullekhaneeya hai ki vidvaanon ne is saare kaavya ko 'aprastut prashansa' maankar vaachyaarth mein chhipe vyangyaarth ko vyakt karne ka prayaas sveekaar kiya hai. (prastut ke maadhyam se aprastut ka athva aprastut ke maadhyam se prastut ka varnan aprastut prashansa alankaar kahalaata hai.) unke mat ke anusaar shreekrushn 'jeevon ki aatma' ke prateek hain. gopiyon ki kreeda anek prakaar ka vah prapanyach hai, jismein ajnyaaan-avastha mein fansi manushyon ki aatma bhatakati rahati hai. raadha brahmaanand ka prateek hai, jise praapt karne par hi jeevaatma ko charam sukh ki praapti hoti hai.

katipya vidvaanon ke anusaar jayadev raadha ka upaasak na hokar shreekrushn ke hi upaasak the. at: shreekrushn manushyon ki aatma ke prateek na hokar paramaatma ke prateek hain. is tathya ko vaani dete hue aachaarya baladev upaadhyaaya likhte hain—''shrungaar-shiromani shreekrushn bhagavat-tattv ke pratinidhi hain aur unki premi gopikaaen jeev ki prateek hain. raadha-Krishna ka milan jeev-brahm ka milan hai. is prakaar saadhana maarg ke anek tathyon ke rahasya ko yahaan sulajhaaya gaya hai.''

mahatva

'geetagovind' vastut: ek anupam evam adbhut granth hai, jiske uddaam-shrungaar ke antastal mein rahasyamayi maadhurya bhaavana ki nigoodh dhaara bah rahi hai. samagr sanskrut saahitya mein is koti ki madhur rachana doosari koi nahi. sanskrut bhaarati ke saundarya aur maadhurya ki paraakaashtha ka avlokan karna ho, to 'geetagovind' ka anusheelan karna chaahiye. iske shabdachitron se saundarya maano chhalakata hai. iske geeton ke pad-laalitya alaukik maadhurya ka sanyachaar karta hai. iske chhandon ka naad-saundarya apoorv aanand pradaan karta hai. shabd aur arth ka saamanyajasya aisa manomugdhakaari hai ki sanskrut se aparichit vyakti bhi usase prabhaavit hue bina naheen rah sakta. iski-si komalakaant padaavali sansaar ki kisi bhi bhaasha ke kaavya mein durlabh hai. is kaavya mein prayukt deergh samaason mein bhi vilkshan prasaadikta evam svar-maadhurya hai. anupraas ke prayog mein to kavi adviteeya hai. unke geeton mein anupraas ka prayog padon ke ant mein hi naheen, madhya mein bhi apni chhata bikherata hua chalta hai. lalit chhandon aur komalakaant padaavali ka aisa mani-kaanyachan sanyog hua hai ki geeton ke uchchaaran maatr se sahrudayon ke hrudaya mein tadanuroop ras ka aavirbhaav evam sanyachaar hone lagta hai. shrungaar ki vyanyajana ke liye yeh anoothi shaili badi hi saarthak siddh hui hai.

'geetagovind' ko badi hi prasiddhi aur lokapriyta mili. jayadev ne jis gram mein rahate hue 'geetagovind' ki rachana ki, us gaanv ka naam hi jayadevapur pad gaya. kavi ke samakaaleen udeesa ke shaasak raaja prataap rudradev ne apne raajya ke gaayakon, sangeetajnyaon aur nartakon ke liye 'geetagovind' ke padon ko gaane ka aadesh jaari kar diya. mahaaraaj ne jayadev ko is kaavya rachana ke liye 'kaviraajaraaj' ki upaadhi se vibhooshit kiya.

'geetagovind' jayadev ke jeevan kaal mein hi paryaapt roop se prachalit evam lokapriya ho gaya thaa—aaisake anek pramaan milte hain. dakshin mein to vah itna adhik prachalit ho gaya ki iske padyon ko tirupati Balaji ke mandir ki seedhiyon par dravin lipi mein khudavaaya gaya. shreevallabh sampradaaya mein to shreemadbhaagavat puraan ke samaan iski pratishtha hai. vaishnavon mein yeh vishvaas hai ki 'geetagovind' jahaan gaaya jaata hai, vahaan Bhagwan ka avashya hi praadurbhaav hota hai. isi se is sampradaaya mein ise ayogya sthaan par na gaaye jaane ka vidhaan kiya gaya hai, jiska kathorata se paalan kiya jaata hai.

vaishnav sampradaaya mein jayadev kavi ko is sampradaaya ki madhyaavastha ka mukhya mahaanubhaav maana gaya hai. sampradaaya mein prachalit nimnokt padya ke anusaar jis vaishnav sampradaaya ke pravartan vishnu svaami ne kiya aur jiska sanvarddhan mahaaprabhu vallabhaachaarya ne kiya, us sampradaaya ko in donon mahaanubhavon ke madhya mein bhakt kavi jayadev ne sanrakshan diya. is prakaar vaishnav sampradaaya mein jayadev bhi guru ke roop mein vandaneeya hain—

vishnu svaami samaarambhaan jayadevaadi-madhyagaam.
shreemadvallabh-paryantaan stumo guru-paramparaam..

jayadev ne 'geetagovind' ki rachana karke sanskrut mein ek naveen rachana-pranaali ka aavishkaar kiya. 'geetagovind' ke anukaran par sanskrut mein 'Abhinav geetagovind', 'geetaraaghav', 'geetagangaadhar' tatha 'krushnageet' jaise anek geet kaavyon ki rachana hui, parantu koi bhi kavi apne kaavya mein 'geetagovind' jaisi utkrushtata laane mein safal naheen hua. idhar hindi mein bhaaratendu harishchandr ne brajabhaasha mein iske anuvaad ka prayaas kiya, parantu 'sachchi kavita' ka anuvaad to ho hi naheen sakataa—aayah ukti 'geetagovind' ke sambandh mein aksharash: satya siddh hui hai. anuvaad mein mool rachana ke ras-bhaav ki avataarana asambhav naheen, to kathin avashya hai. sar William jons dvaara aangl bhaasha mein kiye gaye 'geetagovind' kaavya ke anuvaad par jarman kavi gete ki tippani badi hi sateek hai. 'A Real Poetry is that, which cannot be translated.'' arthaat utkrusht kavita ki pehchaan ka aadhaar (kasauti) hi yahi hai ki usaka doosari bhaasha mein anuvaad naheen ho sakta. 'geetagovind' ke marm ko samajhne tatha sahrudayon tak uske saundarya ko sampreshya banaane ke liye paintees vidvaanon ke prayaas (teekaaen) upalabdh hain, parantu yeh kaavya to vah agaadh saagar hai ki ismein jo jitni gahari dubaki lagaata hai. uske haath mein utane hi durlabh evam bahumoolya ratn aa jaate hain. katipya kaviyon dvaara is kaavya ke anukaran par kaavya-rachana karna jayadev ki keerti-kaumudi ki ujjvalata tatha utkrushtata ki sveekruti ka hi parichaayak hai.

bhakti, shrungaar aur kavitv ki triveneeroop 'geetagovind' kaavya ka Krishna-bhakti saahitya mein ek anya drushti se bhi ullekhaneeya mahattv hai. yeh sarvajan vidit tathya hai ki is kaavya se poorv shreekrushn ki preyasi athva patni ke roop mein rukmini tatha satyabhaama aadi ka naam hi liya jaata tha. raadha naam ki kisi stri ka koi astitv naheen tha. shreemadbhaagavat puraan mein 'anaayaradhito noonam' shreekrushn ki aaraadhana karne waali kisi ek gopi ka ullekh avashya hua hai, parantu Krishna-kaavya mein Krishna ke saath judne waali Krishna ke hi samakaksh (kaheen-kaheen to unase bhi adhik) mahattv praapt karne waali shreekrushn ki premika-patni raadha ka ullekh kaheen naheen hua. raadha ko is uchch sthaana—ashreekrushn ki ananya sahachari evam unase abhinn tatha unki nityashaktiroopaa—aapar pratishthit karne ke shreya 'geetagovindakaar' jayadev ko hi praapt hai. is granth mein chitrit raadha-Krishna ke nitya-vilaas ke aadhaar par hi brahmavaivart puraan mein raadha-Krishna ki shrungaar-cheshtaaon tatha kaam-kreedaaon ka varnan hua hai, parantu yeh ek kathor satya hai ki puraanakaar na to 'geetagovind' kaavya ke varnan jaisi maryaada aur shaaleenata ka nirvaah kar saka hai aur na hi varnan ko vaisa saras, rochak evam hrudayagraahya bana saka hai. is kshetr mein bhi jayadev apne upamaan aap hi hain. is aadhaar par hi kadaachit Krishna-bhakti saahitya mein 'geetagovind' kaavya ko dharmagranth ka gaurav praapt hai.

sandarbh

  1. Learn the lingo. The Hindu. 14 September 2007

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