geet

svar, pad aur taal se yukt jo gaan hota hai vah geet kahalaata hai.

geet, sahitya ki ek lokapriya vidha hai. ismein ek mukhada tatha kuchh antare hote hain. pratyek antare ke baad mukhade ko doharaaya jaata hai. geet ko gaaya bhi jaata hai.

anukram

itihaas

praacheen samay mein jis gaan mein saarthak shabdon ke sthaan par nirrthak ya shushkaaksharon ka prayog hota tha vah nirgeet ya bahirgeet kahalaata tha. tanom, tananan ya daada did did ya digle jhantun jhantun ityaadi nirrthak aksharavala gaan nirgeet kahalaata tha. aajkal ka taraana nirgeet ki koti mein aaega.

bharat ke samay mein geeti ke aadhaarbhoot niyat padasamooh ko dhruva kehte the. naatak mein prayog ke avsaron mein bhed hone ke kaaran paaainch prakaar ke dhruva hote the- praavanshiki, naishkraamiki, aakshepiki, praasadiki aur antara.

svar aur taal mein jo baindhe hue geet hote the ve lagbhag 9veen 10veen sadi se prabandh kahalaane lage. prabandh ka pratham bhaag, jisse geet ka praarambh hota tha, udgraah kahalaata tha, yeh geet ka vah ansh hota tha jise baar baar duharaate the aur jo chhoda naheen ja sakta tha. dhruv shabd ka arth hi hai 'nishchit, sthir'. is bhaag ko aajkal ki bhaasha mein tech kehte hain.

antim bhaag ko 'aabhog' kehte the. kabhi kabhi dhruv aur aabhog ke beech mein bhi pad hota tha jise antara kehte the. antara ka pad praaya: 'saalagasood' naamak prabandh mein hi hota tha. jayadev ka geetagovind prabandh mein likha gaya hai. prabandh kai prakaar ke hote the jinmein thoda thoda bhed hota tha. prabandh geet ka prachaar lagbhag chaar sau varsh tak raha. ab bhi kuchh mandiron mein kabhi kabhi puraane prabandh sunane ko mil jaate hain.

prabandh ke anantar dhruvapad geet ka kaal aaya. yeh prabandh ka hi roopaantar hai. dhruvapad mein udgraah ke sthaan par pehla pad sthaayi kahalaaya. ismein sthaayi ka hi ek tukada baar baar duharaaya jaata hai. doosare pad ko antara kehte hain, teesare ko sanchaari aur chauthe ko aabhog. kabhi kabhi do ya teen hi pad ke dhruvapad milte hain. gvaaliyr ke raaja Mansingh tomar (15veen sadi) ke dvaara dhruvapad ko bahut protsaahan mila. taanasen dhruvapad ke hi gaayak the. dhruvapad praaya: chautaal, aada chautaal, soolafaak, teevra, roopak ityaadi taalon mein gaaya jaata hai. dhamaar taal mein adhiktar hori gaai jaati hai.

14veen sadi mein ameer khusaro ne khayaal ya khyaal gaayaki ka praarambh kiya. 15veen sadi mein jaunapur ke sharki raajaaon ke samay mein khayaal ki gaayaki panapi, kintu 18veen sadi mein yeh muhammadashaah ke kaal mein pushpit hui. inke darbaar ke do gaayak adaarang aur sadaarang ne saikadon khayaalon ki rachana ki. khayaal mein do hi tuk hote hain-sthaayi aur antara. khayaal adhiktar ekataal, aada chautaal, jhoomara aur tilvaada mein gaaya jaata hai. isko alaap, taan, baalataan, layabaaaint ityaadi se sajaate hain. aajkal yeh gaayaki bahut lokapriya hai.

thumari

thumari mein adhiktar shrrungaar ke pad hote hain. yeh punjabi theka, deepachandi ityaadi taalon mein gaai jaati hai. thumari do prakaar ki hoti hai-ek bol aalaap ki thumari aur doosari bol baaaint ki thumari. pehle prakaar ki thumari mein bol ya kavita ki pradhaanata hoti hai. svar dvaara bol ke bhaav vyakt kiye jaate hain. bol baaaint thumari mein laya ki kaaaint chhaaaint ka adhik kaam rahata hai.

daadara

daadara geet adhiktar daadara taal mein gaaya jaata hai. kabhi kabhi yeh kaharava taal mein bhi gaaya jaata hai. ismein bhi sthaayi aur antara ye do hi tuk hote hain. tappa adhiktar punjabi bhaasha mein milta hai. ismein bhi sthaayi aur antara do tuk hote hain. iski taanein drut laya mein hoti hain aur ek vichitr kanp ke saath chalti hain. gitkiri aur jamajama tappe ki visheshata hai.

chaturang geet mein, jaisa ki iske naam se hi spasht hai, chaar ang hote hain-

(1) bol ya saahitya, (2) tarraana, (3) saragam, (4) mrudang ya tabale ke bol.

saakshar saragam ya saarth saragam

is geet mein shadj, rishabh, gaandhaar, madhyam, pancham, dhaivat, nishaad inke pratham saanketik akshar s, re, g, m p, dh, ni, is prakaar se baaaindhe jaate hain ki inka kuchh arth bhi niklata hai. jis raag ka saragam hota hai usi raag ke svar prayukt hote hain.

saragam athva svaraavart athva svarasaahitya athva svaramaalika

is prakaar ke geet mein kisi vishisht raag ka saragam taal mein nibddh hota hai. ismein keval svar ki bandish hoti hai. usaka koi arth naheen hota. tarraana ya tillaana-ismein t nom tanan tader daani ityaadi akshar kisi vishisht raag ya taal mein nibddh hote hain. kabhi kabhi ismein mrudang ya tabale ke bol bhi hote hain. athva faarasi ya sanskrut ka koi pad bhi sanmilit kar liya jaata hai is prakaar ke geet ko hindustaani sangeet mein praaya: tarraana kehte hain aur karnaatak sangeet mein tillaana.

saadara

dhruvapad ang se jo geet madhya ya drut laya mein jhapataal mein gaaya jaata hai us 'saadara' kehte hain.

raagamalika ya raagamaala ya raagasaagar

ek hi geet ke bhinn bhinn pad ya ansh jab bhinn bhinn raagon mein bandhe hote hain to use raagamalika ya raagamaala kehte hain. hindustaani sangeet mein ise praaya: raagasaagar kehte hain. ismein praaya: bhinn bhinn raaga ke naam bhi aa jaate hain. bandish is prakaar honi chaahiye ki geet bhinn bhinn anshon ka samuchchaya maatr na jaan pade, kintu ve paraspar sanhat ya sashlisht hon jisse saare geet se ek bhaav ya arth soochit hota ho.

keertan aur kruti

is prakaar ke geet karnaatak sangeet mein hote hain. iske pratham bhaag ko pallavi kehte hain jo hindustaani sangeet ke sthaayi jaisa hota hai, dviteeya bhaag ko anupallavi kehte hain jo hindustaani sangeet ke antara jaisa hota hai. anya bhaag ya pad charanam‌ kahalaate hain. kruti mein bhinn bhinn svarasangatiyaaain aati hain jabki keertan seedha saada hota hai. tyaagaraaj ne bahut si krutiyon ki rachana ki. is prakaar ke geeton ke aur prasiddh rachayita shyaam shaastri aur muthusvaami deekshitaar hue. deekshitaar ki rachanaaeain dhruvapad se milti julati hain.

Bengal ke keertan prabandh aur dhruvapad ke aadhaar par baindhe hue hote hain. unamein kuchh aise bhi taalon ka prayog hota hai jo hindustaani sangeet mein anyatr naheen milte, jaise dotuki, lofa, daasapyaari, dashakushi, chanpooput ityaadi. Bengal ke keertan ke saath khol bajata hai. yeh ek prakaar ka naatakeeya geet hai. geet shreekrushn aur raadha se sambaddh hote hain aur unamein roopaanuraag, abhisaar, milan, aatmanivedan ityaadi ka varnan hota hai.

Maharashtra mein keertanagaan dvaara katha kahi jaati hai aur bhajan gaae jaate hain. bhakton ke pad, jo tritaal, daadara, kaharava ityaadi saral taali mein baindhe hote hain, bhajan kahalaate hai. karnaatak shaili mein padm geet bilanbit laya mein baindha hota hai. ismein shrrungaar ras pradhaan hota hai. yeh praaya: nrutya ke saath gaaya jaata hai. jaavadi geet bhi karnaatak mein hi prachalit hai. ismein bhi shrrungaar ras hi pradhaan hota hai, kintu iski laya padm ki laya ki apeksha drut aur chanchal hoti hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh granth

  • bharat : naatyashaastr
  • shaarङa‌aagadev : sangeetaratnaakar;
  • bhaatakhande : hindustaani sangeetapaddhati, 4 bhaag;
  • saanbamoorti : south Indian myoojik, 5 bhaag