gayaasuddeen tuglak

gayaasuddeen tuglak Delhi saltanat mein tuglak vansh ka shaasak tha. gaaji malik ya tuglak gaaji, gyaasuddeen tuglak (1320-1325 i॰) ke naam se 8 sitmbar 1320 ko Delhi ke sinhaasan par baitha. ise tuglak vansh ka sansthaapak bhi maana jaata hai. isne kul 29 baar mangol aakraman ko vifal kiya. sultaan banane se pehle vah kutubuddeen mubaarak khilji ke shaasan kaal mein uttar-pashchimi seemaant praant ka shaktishaali Governor niyukt hua tha. vah Delhi saltanat ka pehla sultaan tha, jisne apne naam ke saath 'gaaji' (kaafiron ka vadh karne wala) shabd joda tha.

anukram

aarthik sudhaar

sultaan ne aarthik sudhaar ke antargat apni aarthik neeti ka aadhaar sanyam, sakhti evam narami ke madhya santulan (rasm-A-miyaan) ko banaaya. usane lagaan ke roop mein upaj ka 1/10 ya 1/12 hissa hi lene ka aadesh jaari karaaya. gyaasuddeen ne madhyavarti jmeedaaron vishesh roop se mukaddam tatha khooton ko unke puraane adhikaar lauta diye, jisse unako vahi sthiti praapt ho gayi, jo balaban ke samay mein praapt thi. gyaasuddeen ne ameeron ki bhoomi pun: lauta di. usane sinchaai ke liye kuaine evam naharon ka nirmaan karavaaya. sambhavat: nahar ka nirmaan karavaane wala gyaasuddeen pratham sultaan tha. alaauddeen khilji ki kathor neeti ke viruddh usane udaarata ki neeti apanaayi, jise barani ne 'rasmemiyaan' athva 'madhyapanthi neeti' kaha hai.

udaar vyakti

gyaasuddeen tuglak ki daak vyavastha shreshth thi. nyaaya vyavastha ke antargat gyaasuddeen ne ek nyaaya vibhaag ka nirmaan karavaaya. usamein dhaarmik sahishnuta ka abhaav tha. usane alaauddeen khilji dvaara chalaai gayi daagne tatha chehara pratha ko prabhaavi tareeke se laagoo kiya. vah daani svabhaav ka hone ke saath janakalyaanakaari kaaryon ko karaane mein dilchaspi rakhata tha. barani ke anusaar sultaan apne sainikon ke saath putravat vyavahaar karta tha. usaki sena mein gij, turk, mangol, roomi, taajik, khuraasaani, mevaati evam doaab ke rajput sainik shaamil the. usaki mahattvapoorn vijay nimnalikhit theen-

  • Warangal va telangaana ki vijay (1324 i॰)
  • tirhuti vijay, mangol vijay (1324 i॰) aadi.

vijay abhiyaan

1321 E. mein gyaasuddeen ne Warangal par aakraman kiya, kintu vahaaain ke kaakateeya raaja prataap rudradev ko paraajit karne mein vah asafal raha. 1323 E. mein dviteeya abhiyaan ke antargat gyaasuddeen tuglak ne shaahajaade 'jauna khaaain' (muhammad bin tuglak) ko dakshin Bhaarat mein saltanat ke prabhutv ki pun:sthaapana ke liye bheja. jauna khaaain ne Warangal ke kaakateeya evam madura ke paandya raajyon ko vijit kar Delhi saltanat mein shaamil kar liya. is prakaar sarvapratham gyaasuddeen ke samay mein hi dakshin ke raajyon ko Delhi saltanat mein milaaya gaya. in raajyon mein sarvapratham Warangal tha. gyaasuddeen tuglak poornat: saamraajyavaadi tha. isne alaauddeen khilji ki dakshin neeti tyaagakar dakshini raajyon ko Delhi saltanat mein shaamil kar liya.

gyaasuddeen jab Bengal mein tha, tabhi soochana mili ki, joona khaaain (muhammad bin tuglak) nijaamuddeen auliya ka shishya ban gaya hai aur vah use raaja hone ki bhavishyavaani kar raha hai. nijaamuddeen auliya ko gyaasuddeen tuglak ne dhamaki di to, auliya ne uttar diya ki, "hunooj Delhi door ast, arthaat Delhi abhi bahut door hai. hindu janta ke prati gyaasuddeen tuglak ki neeti kathor thi. gyaasuddeen tuglak sangeet ka ghor virodhi tha. barani ke anusaar alaauddeen khilji ne shaasan sthaapit karne ke liye jahaaain raktapaat va atyaachaar ki neeti apnaai, vaheen gyaasuddeen ne chaar varshon mein hi use bina kisi kathorata ke sambhav banaaya.

raajasv sudhaar

apni satta sthaapit karne ke baad gyaasuddeen tuglak ne ameeron tatha janta ko protsaahit kiya. shuddh roop se Turkey mool ka hone ke kaaran is kaarya mein use koi vishesh kathinaai naheen hui. gyaasuddeen ne krushi ko protsaahan dene ke liye kisaanon ke hiton ki or dhyaan diya. usane ek varsh mein ikta ke raajasv mein 1/10 se 1/11 bhaag se adhik ki vruddhi naheen karne ka aadesh diya. usane sinchaai ke liye naharein khudavaayeen tatha baag banavaayein.

saarvajanik sudhaar

janta ki suvidha ke liye apne shaasan kaal mein gyaasuddeen ne kilon, pulon aur naharon ka nirmaan karaaya. saltanat kaal mein daak vyavastha ko sudrudh karne ka shreya gyaasuddeen tuglak ko hi jaata hai. 'barani' ne daak-vyavastha ka vistrut varnan kiya hai. shaareerik yaatana dvaara raajakeeya rin vasooli ko usane pratibandhit kar diya, lekin hindu janta ke prati usaki kathor neeti yathaavat bani rahi. usane hinduon ka dhan jama karne ki aajnyaa ka nishedh kiya.

dhaarmik kaarya

gyaasuddeen ek kattar sunni musalmaan tha. islaam dharm mein usaki gahari aastha aur uske siddhaanton ka vah saavadhaaneepoorvak paalan karta tha. usane musalmaan janta par islaam ke niyamon ka paalan karne ke liye dabaav daala. usane anya dharmon ke prati bhi sahishnuta ki neeti apnaai thi.

nirmaan kaarya

sthaapatya kala ke kshetr mein gyaasuddeen ne vishesh roop mein roochi li. apne shasan kaal mein usane tuglakaabaad naamak ek durg ki neenv rakhi.

mrutyu

jab gyaasuddeen tuglak Bengal abhiyaan se laut raha tha, tab lautate samay tuglakaabaad se 8 kilometer ki doori par sthit afgaanapur mein ek mahal (jise uske ladke joona khaaain ke nirdesh par Ahmad ayaaj ne lakadiyon se nirmit karavaaya tha) mein sultaan gyaasuddeen ke pravesh karte hi vah mahal gir gaya, jismein dabakar usaki March, 1325 E. ko mutyru ho gayi. is ghatna ke samay shekh rukanuddeen mahal mein maujood tha, jise uloog khaaain ne namaaj padhne ke bahaane us sthaan se hata diya tha. gyaasuddeen tuglak ka makbara tuglakaabaad mein sthit hai.


Delhi saltanat ke shaasak vansh
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