gaureedatt

pandit gaureedatt (1936 - 8 fravari 1906), devanaagari ke pratham prachaarak va ananya bhakt the. bachchon ko naagari lipi sikhaane ke alaava aap gali-gali mein ghoomkar urdoo, faarasi aur angreji ki jagah hindi aur devanaagari lipi ke prayog ki prerana diya karte the. kuchh din baad aapne Meerut mein 'naagari prachaarini sabha' ki sthaapana bhi ki aur san 1894 mein usaki or se sarkaar ko is aashay ka ek gyaapan diya ki adaalaton mein naagari-lipi ko sthaan milna chaahiye. hindi bhaasha aur saahitya ke vikaas mein pandit gaureedatt ji ne jo ullekhaneeya kaarya kiya tha usase unki dhyeyanishtha aur kaarya-kushalata ka parichay milta hai.

naagari lipi parishad ne unke sammaan mein unke naam par 'gaureedatt naagari sevi sammaan' aarambh kiya hai.

anukram

jeevani

pandit gaureedatt ka janm Punjab pradesh ke ludhiyaana naamak nagar mein san 1836 mein hua tha. aapke pita pandit naathoo mishr prasiddh taantrik aur saarasvat braahman the. aapki praarambhik shiksha saadhaaran hi hui thi. keval panditaai ka kaarya karne tak hi vah seemit thi. jab aapki aayu keval 5 varsh ki hi thi tab aapke ghar ek sannyaasi aaya aur aapke pitaaji ko usane aisa gyaan diya ki ve sab maaya-moh tyaagakar ghar se nikal gaye. aapki maataaji apne donon bachchon ko lekar Meerut chali I theen. Meerut aakar gaureedatt ji ne apne adhyayan ko aage badhaaya. roodki ke engineering kaalej se beejaganit, rekhaaganit, sarveing, draaing aur shilp aadi ki shiksha praapt karne ke uparaant aapne faarasi aur angreji ka bhi vidhivt gyaan arjit kiya. vaidyak aur hakeemi ki disha mein bhi aapne apni yogyata se ullekhaneeya safalta praapt ki thi.

jab aap Meerut ke mission school mein adhyaapak the tab maharshi svaami dayaanand sarasvati Meerut padhaare the. munshi lekharaaj ke bageeche mein svaameeji ne apne bhaashanon mein ekaadhik baar is baat ke liye bahut khed vyakt kiya tha ki deshavaasi hindi aur devanaagari ko tyaagakar urdoo-faarasi aur angreji ke das hote ja rahe hain. svaami ji ke in bhaashanon ka yuvak gaureedatt par bahut adhik prabhaav pada aur aapne usi samay se devanaagari ke prachaar aur prasaar ka sankalp kar liya. svaami dayaanand sarasvati kyonki apne bhaashanon mein raashtreeyata ka prachaar bhi kiya karte the, at: angrej sarkaar aapko raajadrohi maanati thi. jab mission school ke adhikaariyon ko yeh pata chala ki gaureedatt ji svaami ji ke bhaashanon ko tanmayataapoorvak sunate hain aur unke prati shraddha bhi pradarshit karte hain to unhonne gaureedatt ji se is par apni naaraajagi prakat ki. yuvak gaureedatt par school ke adhikaariyon ki is ghatna ka yeh prabhaav pada ki aapne apne svaabhimaan ki raksha karte hue school se turant tyaagapatr de diya aur doosare hi din Meerut 'vaidavaada' naamak muhalle ke ek chabootare par 'devanaagari paathashaala' ki sthaapana kar di. aapki ye hi paathashaala kaalaantar mein 'devanaagari kaalej' ka roop dhaaran kar gayi.

aapka nidhan 8 fravari san 1906 ko hua tha.

devanaagari ka prachaar-prasaar evam seva

aapne Meerut mein 'naagari prachaarini sabha' ki sthaapana bhi ki aur san 1894 mein usaki or se sarkaar ko ek gyaapan is aashay ka diya ki adaalaton mein naagari-lipi ko sthaan milna chaahiye. aapne gyaapan mein devanaagari lipi ki upaadeyata aur graahyata par is prakaar prakaash daala tha- 'devanaagari itni saral evam vaigyaanik lipi hai ki uske 36 akshar aur 12 maatraaen keval 3 din mein aasaani se seekhe ja sakte hain tatha 6 maheene mein to usaka poora abhyaas kiya ja sakta hai. anya kisi bhi lipi mein jaisa likha jaata hai vaisa hi padha jaata hai. padhne aur likhne mein kuchh bhi antar naheen rahata.' apne isi gyaapan mein aapne ant mein yeh bhi likha tha- 'urdoo aur faarasi ke shabdon ko yadi naagari lipi mein likhna shuroo kar diya jaae to ve bahut saral ho jaayeinge.' pandit ji iske liye dabaav daalte rahe. aapke is anvarat prayaas ke falasvaroop hi 18 April san 1900 ko sar entoni maikadaanal ne ek adhyaadesh jaari karke uttar pradesh ke schoolon aur paathashaalaaon mein hindi ke pathan-paathan ko sveekruti pradaan karke hindi ke prachaar tatha prasaar ka maarg prashast kiya tha.

pandit ji naagari aur hindi ke itne deevaane ban gaye the ki aapne apne angarakhe par jaya naagari shabd bhi ankit kara liya tha aur paaramparik abhivaadan ke samay 'jaya naagari' hi kaha karte the. unki samaadhi par isliye logon ne devanaagari prachaaraanand shabd ankit kiye the. devanaagari ke prachaar ke liye aapne jo ek geet banaaya tha usase aapki lagan aur nishtha ka parichay milta hai.

geet ka praarambh kuchh is prakaar thaa:

bhaju govind hare hare
bhaai bhaju govind hare hare.
devanaagari hit kuchh dhan do,
doodh na dega dhare-dhare.

aapke devanaagari-prem ka sabse adhik supusht pramaan isse adhik aur kya ho sakta hai ki apni mrutyu se poorv apne 1 June san 1903 ko jo apna vaseeyatanaama likha tha usamein apni poori sampatti (makaan aur saamaan tak) naagari ke prachaar ke liye arpit kar di thi. aapki yeh haardik aakaanksha thi ki aapki is nidhi se sthaan-sthaan par 'devanaagari paathashaalaaen' kholi jaaen. ek atyant saadhaaran sthiti vaale is vyakti ne iske alaava apni khoon-paseene ki kamaai se arjit 32 hajaar rupaye ki raashi devanaagari-prasaar ke kaarya mein svaaha kar di thi.

devanaagari patrikaaon ka aarambh, sampaadan evam prakaashan

pandit gaureedatt ne devanaagari ke prachaar ke liye jahaan sthaan-sthaan par anek paathashaalaaen sthaapit keen vaheen apni lekhani ko bhi is disha mein lagaaya. aapne 'naagari-sau akshar' 'akshar deepika', 'naagari ki gupt vaarta', 'lipi bodhini', 'devanaagari ke bhajan' aur 'Gauri naagari kosh', 'devanaagari gazette' tatha 'naagari patrika' naamak patra ka sampaadan tatha prakaashan bhi kiya tha. is kaarya ke liye aap praay: apne kshetr ke melon-khelon mein bhi jaaya karte the aur vahaan par naatak pradarshit karke aur bhaashan aadi dekar janta ko devanaagari ke mahatva se parichit karaaya karte the. apni is dhun ke kaaran janta aapko 'devanaagareeprachaaraanand' aur 'hindi ka sukaraat' tak kehti thi. yahaan yeh ullekhaneeya hai ki aapne 'kaashi naagari prachaarini sabha' ki sthaapana (16 July san 1893) se poorv hi san 1892 mein devanaagari prachaarak naamak patra ka sampaadak evam prakaashan karke hindi-prachaar ke itihaas mein ek mahatvapoorn bhoomika ada ki thi. yahaan tak ki aapke is kaarya mein Bihar ke shri ayodhyaaprasaad khatri ne bhi apna yogadaan diya tha.

hindi ke pratham upanyaas ke rachayita

pandit gaureedatt ne jahaan devanaagari lipi ke prachaar tatha prasaar ke liye itne granth likhe aur anek patra-patrikaaen sampaadit keen vahaan apne 'devaraani jethaani ki kahaani' naamak ek upanyaas bhi likha. yahaan yeh bhi jnyaaatavya hai ki bhaaratendu babu harishchandr ne hindi gadya-lekhan san 1873 mein praarambh kiya tha. pandit gaureedatt ke is upanyaas ka prakaashan san 1870 mein hua tha. isse poorv hindi-gadya mein Sayyed insha alla Khan ki 'raani ketaki ki kahaani' (san 1800 ke aas-paas) naamak pustak hi thi. isse yeh siddh ho jaata hai ki hindi ka pehla upanyaas 'devaraani jethaani ki kahaani' hi hai. yeh bade durbhaagya ki baat hai ki hindi ke itihaasakaaron ke agrani aachaarya raamachandr shukl tak ne iski upeksha karke pandit shraddhaaraam fillauri ki 'bhaagyavati' (prakaashan-varsh san 1877) laala shreenivaasadaas ki 'pareeksha guru' (prakaashan-varsh san 1882) naamak pustakon ko apne 'hindi saahitya ki itihaas' naamak granth mein kramash: 'hindi ka pehla saamaajik upanyaas' aur 'angreji dhang ka pehla hindi upanyaas' maana hai. is sambandh mein yeh bhi ullekhaneeya tathya hai ki is upanyaas ke prakaashan par uttar pradesh ke tatkaaleen Governor ne 'sau rupae' ka puraskaar bhi pradaan kiya tha. aapke dvaara anoodit 'girija' (1904) naamak ek aur upanyaas bhi ullekhaneeya hai.

pandit gaureedatt ji jahaan achhe gadya-lekhak the vahaan khadi boli kavita ke kshetr mein bhi aapki pratibha adbhut thi. iska supusht pramaan aapke 'devaraani jethaani ki kahaani' naamak upanyaas ki bhoomika ke ant mein diye gaye us padya se mil jaata hai jo aapne uttar pradesh ke tatkaaleen Governor dvaara puraskaar praapt hone par likha thaa:

daya unki mujh par adhik vitt se
jo meri kahaani padhe chitt se
rahi bhool mujhse jo ismein kaheen
bana apni pustak mein levein vaheen
daya se krupa se kshama reeti se
chhipaavein buron ko bhale preeti se

isse yeh svat: siddh ho jaata hai ki gadya-lekhan aur padya-lekhan donon hi kshetron mein pandit gaureedatt ka naam sarvatha agrani aur ananya hai. yeh prasannata ki baat hai ki hindi ke kuchh viveki adhyetaaon ka dhyaan gaureedatt ji ki is pratibha ki or gaya hai aur yeh bhram ab dheere-dheere door hota ja raha hai ki hindi ka pratham upanyaas 'bhaagyavati' aur 'pareeksha guru' na hokar 'devaraani-jethaani ki kahaani' hi hai. is upanyaas ka prakaashan sarvapratham san 1870 mein Meerut ke 'jiyaai chhaapekhaane' mein leetho-paddhati se hua tha aur iski prati ab bhi 'national laayabreri Calcutta' mein surakshit hai. is upanyaas ka punarprakaashan ab Patna vishvavidyaalaya ke praadhyaapak aur 'sameeksha' naamak shodh-patrika ke sampaadak dau॰ gopaal rai ne karke vaastav mein ek abhinndaneeya kaarya kiya hai.

inhein bhi dekhein