gaudpaad

gaudpaadaachaarya

Adi Guru Shri Gauḍaapāadāachāarya
darshan Advaita Vedanta school of Hindu philosophy
khitaab/sammaan founder of Shri Gaudapadacharya Math

advait vedaant ki parampara mein gaudpaadaachaarya ko aadi shankaraachaarya ke paramaguru arthaat shankar ke guru govindapaad ke guru ke roop mein smaran kiya jaata hai. Narayan, vishnu, brahma, vasishth aur shuk ye advait vedaant ke aachaarya gaudpaad se pehle ho gaye hain. yadi pauraanik parampara ko hi pramaan maane to shuk dvaapar yug ke ant mein hue the aur unhonne paandavaputr pareekshit ko shreemadbhaagavat ke roop mein advait brahmatatv ka upadesh diya tha.

parichay

shuk ka shishya hone ke naate gaudpaad ki bhi usi samay sthiti maani jaani chaahiye. yadi yeh sveekaar kar liya jaaya to isa ki aathaveen shataabdi mein utpann shankar ke guru govindapaad ke guru ke roop mein gaudpaad ko kaise sveekrut kiya ja sakta hai? yadyapi pauraanik log is dosh ka maarjan karne ke liye kehte hain ki gaudpaad himaalaya mein samaadhimgn the aur govind ko "nirmaanachitt" mein upasthit hokar advaitatatv ka upadesh diya tha. "nirmaanachitt" ki baat saadhana ke kshetr mein vishvaason ka koi sthaan naheen hai. haaain, isse yeh to siddh ho jaata hai ki ya to gaudpaad shuk ke saakshaat shishya naheen the ya fir ve govindapaad ke saakshaat guru naheen the.

gaudpaad shuk ke saakshaat shishya the ya naheen iska nirnaya karna asambhav hai. praacheenatar puraanon mein gaudpaad ki aitihaasikta siddh karna uchit naheen jaan padta. yadi govindapaad ko godpaad ka saakshaat shishya bhi maan lein to bhi kai kathinaaiyaaain hain. shankaraachaarya ka samay praaya: 8 veen shataabdi isavi ka uttaraardh maana jaata hai. yadi un dinon ke saamaanya jeevanakaal ko 100 varsh ka bhi maan lein to gaudpaad ko saataveen shataabdi mein maanana padega. parantu chhathi shataabdi ke ek bauddh aachaarya bhaavavivek ya bhavya ne apne granth maadhyamikhruya mein vedaant darshan ka vivechan karte hue gaudpaad ki ek kaarika uddhrut ki hai. isse yeh gyaat hota hai ki bhavya ke pehle hi gaudpaad vedaant ke aachaarya ke roop mein pratishthit ho chuke the. at: gaudpaad ka samay 500 E. ke aaspaas hona chaahiye. yadi yeh sahi hai to gaudpaad govindapaad ke saakshaat guru naheen ho sakte.

shankaraachaarya ne gaudpaad ko "vedaantavidvabhiraachaayain:" kehkar smaran kiya hai. pro॰ vaalesar ne likha hai ki "gaudpaad" shabd mein prayukt "gaud" shabd deshaparak hai, yeh vyaktivishesh ka naam naheen hai. advait vedaant ke do prasthaan the - pehla gaud prasthaan jo uttar Bhaarat mein prachalit tha aur doosra draavid prasthaan, jiski sthaapana swayam shankar ne ki. vaalesar ke anusaar "gaudpaad" shabd ka arth hai - gaud desh me prachalit vedaantashaastraparak paadashtushtayaatmak granth. parantu is prakaar ki dooraaroodh kalpana ke liye koi drudh aadhaar naheen hai. vidhushekhar Bhattacharya ne theek hi kaha hai ki yadi hamein ek granth praapt hota hai to us granth ka koi ne koi lekhak hona chaahiye. antarang pareeksha ke aadhaar par yeh drudhtaapoorvak kaha ja sakta hai ki gaudpaad ke is granth ke chaaro prakaran ek hi lekhak ke hain. parampara is granth ke lekhak ko gaudpaad naamak vyakti vishesh ko hi granth ka lekhak maanana padega.

17 veen shataabdi ke baalakrushnaanand sarasvati ne "shaareerak meemaansa bhaashya vaartik" naamak granth mein likha hai ki kurukshetr mein hirnayavati nadi ke tat par kuchh gaud log rahate the. gaudpaad unheen mein se ek the. parantu dvaapar ke aarambh se hi samaadhisth rahane ke kaaran unka asli naam logon ko gyaat na ho saka. is anushruti ki aadhaar par gaudpaad ko kurukshetr ke aaspaas ka hona chaahiye. 'agadguru ratnamaalaastav' naamak granth ke anusaar gaudpaad ka greek logon ke saath sampark tha. aachaarya ne inki pooja ki aur nishaakasiddh apaloonya (apoloniys ov tyaana) inka shishya tha. apoloniys Bhaarat aaya tha ya naheen iske baare mein greek itihaasajnyaon mein bada vivaad hai aur adhikaansh vidvaan maanate hain ki apoloniys kabhi Bhaarat aaya hi naheen tha. inheen suni sunaai baaton ke aadhaar par hi Bhaarat ka varnan kar diya tha. iske alaava greek granthon aur apoloniys ke bhaaratavarnan mein gaudpaad ka koi ullekh bhi naheen milta.

gaudpaad ke vyaktitv ke baare mein iske alaava ki ve ek yogi aur siddh purush the tatha gaudpaadeeya kaarikaaon ke karta the, kuchh bhi naheen kaha ja. gaudpaadakrut kaarikaaeain hamaare saamane hain. in kaarikaaon ko chaar prakaranon mein vibhaajit kiya gaya hai aur ye ek hi vyakti ki kruti hain. iska pehla prakaran aagam prakaran kaha jaata hai. iska kaaran yeh hai ki is prakaran mein maandookya upanishd ka kaarikaamaya vyaakhyaan upasthit kiya gaya hai. aagam arthaat upanishd ke oopar aadhaarit hone ke kaaran isko aagam prakaran kehte hain. kuchh aachaarya is prakaran ki kaarikaaon ko "aagam" kehte hain aur inko gaudpaad ki kruti naheen maanate. kabhi-kabhi to in kaarikaaon ko maandookya upanishd ke saath jod liya jaata hai. vidhushekhar Bhattacharya ka to kehna hai ki ye kaarikaaeain pehle likhi gain theen aur baad mein inheen ke aadhaar par maandookya upanishd ki rachana hui. par yeh mat tarkasangat naheen hai. iska pramaan is prakaran ki kaarikaaon se hi milta hai. ye kaarikaaeain vyaakhyaanaatmak hain. at: maandookya upanishd hi inse pehle ka maaloom padta hai. doosare prakaran mein sansaar ki vitthata ya mithyaatv siddh kiya gaya hai, at: usaka naam vaitathya prakaran hai. advait tatv ka pratipaadan hone ke kaaran teesara prakaran advait prakaran kahalaata hai. saare mithya vivaadon ki shaanti ka pratipaadan karne ke kaaran alaatashaanti kaha gaya hai.

vidhushekhar Bhattacharya ka mat hai ki ye chaaro prakaran chaar svatantr rachanaaeain hain, kisi ek granth ke chaar adhyaaya naheen, kyonki ye paraspar sambandhit naheen hain. saath hi chaturth prakaran ke aarambh mein "tan vande dvipdaanbaram" kehkar buddh ki stuti ke roop mein mangalaacharan kiya gaya hai. mangalaacharan granth ke aarambh mein kiya jaata hai, beech mein prakaran ke aarambh mein mangalaacharan naheen dekha gaya hai. at: chaturthaprakaran ek svatantr granth hai. yeh mat kuchh theek naheen lagta kyonki pehli baat to yeh hai ki chaaron prakaran ek doosare se sambandhit hain. pratham prakaran mein upanishd ke aadhaar par sthool roop se kuchh siddhaant upasthit kiye gaye hain aur doosare tatha teesare prakaranon mein kramash: sansaar ka mithyaatv tatha ek advaya tatv ki sthiti ka pratipaadan kiya gaya hai. chautha prakaran upasanhaaraatmak hai jismein poorvokt teen prakaranon mein kahe gaye upanishd anumodit siddhaanton ka buddh dvaara upadisht siddhaanton se avirodh dikhlaaya gaya hai. is prakaran ke aadhaar par hi Bhattacharya ne gaudpaad ko bauddh kaha hai parantu yadi ek prakaran ke aadhaar par hi unako bauddh kaha ja sakta hai to pehle teen prakaranon ke aadhaar par unhein mahaavedaanti bhi ghoshit kiya ja sakta hai.

yeh sahi hai ki gaudpaad ke siddhaant bauddhon ke nikat hain. unka ajaativaad maadhyamik paddhati par aadhaarit hai. inke dvaara pratipaadit aatma ka svaroop yogaachaaraanumat vigyaan (aalaya) ki anukruti sa maaloom padta hai. unki tarkapaddhati vahi hai jo maadhyamik shoonyavaadiyon ki hai. unhonne buddh ka bada aadar kiya hai. yeh sab hote hue bhi gaudpaad shuddh vedaanti hain, kyonki -

(1) unka aagam mein poorn vishvaas hai. bahut se sthaanon par unhonne bruhadaaranyak aadi praacheen upanishdon ko pramaan roop mein udghrut kiya hai.

(2) bauddhasanpradaaya mein nitya aatma ka ghor virodh kiya gaya hai aur unhonne apne mat ko "aanaatmavaad" ki sanjnyaa di hai. parantu gaudpaad ka kehna hai ki ek aatma hi jaagrat, svapn aur sushupti in teenon avasthaaon mein avasthi rahakar bhi shuddhat: tureeyaavastha (chaturth avastha) mein sthit hai, jahaaain vah na to swayam kisi kaaran se utpann hai aur na kisi kaarya ko utpann karti hai. aatma ka yeh nityatv nishchaya hi bauddhon ki sveekaarya naheen ho sakta.

(3) yahi kaaran hai ki bhaavavivek, shaantarakshit, kamalasheel aadi bauddh aachaaryon ne gaudpaad ka khandan kiya hai. kisi bhi bauddhagranth mein gaudpaad ka anumodan naheen milta. yeh siddh karta hai ki sadyapi gaudpaad ne bauddhon ki tarkapaddhati apnaai parantu us paddhati ke aadhaar par unhonne aatma ki advaitata siddh ki jo upanishdon mein pratipaadit ki gayi hai.

is prasang mein yeh dhyaan dena avashyak hai ki gaudpaad na to keval maadhyamik siddhaaton ke anuyaayi hain aur na shuddhat: yogaachaar darshan ke. jahaaain unako tarkasagant baat mili, unhonne use grahan kiya. unhonne sarvada yeh dikhaane ka prayatn kiya ki bauddh vichaaradhaara aur aupanishdik vichaaradhaara mein tatvat: koi virodh naheen hai. jo virodh kiya jaata hai vah ajnyaaanamoolak hai. gaudpaad ki bhaarateeya darshan ko den hai. shankaraachaarya ne isi samanvaya ke maarg ko apnaakar apna advait mat pratishthaapit kiya par unka mool gaudpaadeeya darshan raha. isi kaaran gaudpaad apna avirodh darshan pratishthaapit karne ke liye hi buddh ko namaskaar karte hain at: yeh namaskaar mangalaacharan ke roop mein naheen granth ke pratipaadya vishay ke roop mein sveekrut kiya jaana chaahiye.

aisa prateet hota hai ki is darshan mein tark ko utana sthaan naheen diya gaya hai jitna saakshaatkaar aur anubhav ko. yog ka maarg hi pramukh maarg hai at: us maarg mein tarkajanya virodh ko koi sthaan naheen hona chaahiye. jaise siddhon- gunduripa, sarahapa aadi- ke naamon ke ant mein "paad" shabd aata hai usi prakaar gaudpaad ke naamaant mein bhi paad shabd ka prayog gaudpaad ke siddhon ke sath sambandh ki or ingit karta hai. sarahapaad ke dohon tatha gaudpaad ki kaarikaaon mein samaanata bhi darshaneeya hai. ho sakta hai gaudpaad bauddh aur bauddhetar rtakasanpradaayon ke beech ki kadi hon.

is kaarikaagranth ke atirikt saankhyakaarika ke oopar bhaashya bhi gaudpaad ka maana jaata hai. uttarageetaabhaashya, nrusinhataapini upanishd tatha durgaasaptashati ki teeka, subhagodaya tatha shreevidyaaratnasootr bhi inki rachanaaeain kahi jaati hain.


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