ganna

ganna ki fasal
kata hua ganna

ganna (Sugarcane) ek pramukh fasal hai, jisse cheeni, gud aadi ka nirmaan hota hain.

anukram

ganne ke utpaadan ke liye bhaugolik kaarak

  • utpaadak katibndh - ushsh-aadr katibndh
  • taapamaan - 21 se 27 sein. gre.
  • varsha - 75 se 120 sein. mi.
  • mitti - gahari domat.

Bhaarat ke pramukh ganna anusandhaan kendra

  • bhaarateeya ganna anusandhaan sansthaan, Lucknow
  • raashtreeya sharkara sanstha, Kanpur
  • vasantadaada shugar insteetayoot, Pune
  • cheeni praudyogiki mission, nai Delhi
  • ganna prajanan sansthaan, koyambatoor Tamil Nadu

ganne ke utpaadan ka vishv vitran

SugarcaneYield.png

desh ganne ka utpaadan (tan)
braajeel 64,89,21,280
Bhaarat 34,81,87,900
cheen 12,49,17,502
shyaamadesh 7,35,01,610
Pakistan 6,39,20,000
Mexico 5,11,06,900
Columbia 3,85,00,000
Australia 3,39,73,000
arjenteena 2,99,50,000
sanyukt raajya 2,76,03,000

parichay

itihaas mein ek samay aisa bhi raha hai jab yaachak ke paani maangane par use mishreemishrit doodh diya jaata tha. tab desh mein doodh aur ghi ki nadiyaan bah rahi theen. hamaare apne dekhe kaal mein hi kisi ke paani maangane par use pehle gud ki dali bheint ki jaati thi aur baad mein paani. hamaara koi parv ya utsav aisa naheen hota jis par ham apne bandhu-baandhavon aur isht-mitron ka munh meetha naheen karaate. maangalik avsaron par laddoo, bataashe, gud aadi baantakar apni prasannata ko mil-baant lene ki parampara to hamaare desh mein lambe samay se rahi hai. sach to yeh hai ki meethe ki sabse adhik khapat hamaare desh mein hi hai.

mithaas bhara praacheen

aayurved ke granthon mein madhur ras ke padaarthon se bhojan ka shreeganesh karne ka paraamarsh diya gaya hai. "brahmaand puraan" mein bhojan ka samaapan bhi meethe padaarthon se hi karne ka sujhaav hai. ek granth mein to bhojan mein moong ki daal, shahad, ghi aur shakkar ka shaamil rahana anivaarya kaha gaya hai. `naamudrasoopana kshaudr na chaapya ghrut sharkaram.' greeshm ritu mein shaali chaavalon ke bhaat mein shakkar milaakar sevan karne ka sujhaav hai. shakti-kshaya par mishri mile doodh aur doodh ki mithaaiyon ke sevan karne ki baat kahi gayi hai.

sushrut ne bhojan ke chh: prakaar ginaae hain: chooshm, peya, lehya, bhojya, bhakshya aur charvyapaachan ki drushti se chooshya padaarth sabse adhik supaachya bataae gaye hain. fir kram se unki supaachyata kam hoti jaati hai aur charvya sabse kam supaachya hote hain. ikh ya ganne ko jo mithaas ka pramukh strot hai, pehle varg mein rakha gaya hai, ganne ka ras, sharabat, falon ke ras peya padaarthon mein hain. chatani-saunth-kadhi lehya daal-bhaat bhojya, laddoo-peda, barafi bhakshya aur chana-paraval, moongafali charvya hain.

mithaas ka doosra naam ganna

jab ham mithaas ki baat karte hain, visheshakar bhojan mein mithaas ki, to hamaara dhyaan barabas ganne ki or jaata hai. usase ham anek roopon mein mithaas pradaan karne vaale padaarth praapt karte hain, jaise-gud, raab, shakkar, khaand, boora, mishri,. cheeni aadi. yon mithaas praapt karne ke kuchh anya strot bhi hain. madhu ya shahad hamaare liye prakruti ka upahaar hain jise vah madhumakkhiyon dvaara falon ke ras se taiyaar karaati hai. dakshin Bhaarat mein taad se gud aur shakkar taiyaar ki jaati hai. pashchim Asia ke desh khajoor se yeh kaam lete hain. Europeeya desh chukandar se cheeni taiyaar karte hain. ab saikareen naam se krutrim cheeni bhi baajaar mein upalabdh hai, jo madhumeh ke rogiyon ke liye bhi niraapad bataai gayi hai.

fir bhi cheeni ya usaki shaakha-prashaakhaaon ko praapt karne ka sabse pramukh strot ganna hi hai. kehte hain, vishv mein jitne kshetr mein ganne ki kheti ki jaati hai, usaka lagbhag aadha hamaare desh mein hai. koi aashcharya naheen ki ganne ki fasal hamaare desh ki sabse mahatvapoorn vyaavasaayik fasalon mein se ek hai aur cheeni udyog hamaare desh ke pramukh udyogon mein hai. haalaanki is udyog ko bahut puraana naheen kaha ja sakta choonki chauthe dashak ke baad, ya doosare mahaayuddh ke dauraan hi iska teji se vikaas hua hai.

kintu shakkar, gud, mishri aadi ke baare mein yeh baat naheen kahi ja sakti. hajaaron varshon se yeh udyog yahaan sthaapit hain, balki ham ati praacheen kaal se hi vishv ke praaya: sabhi bhaagon ko inka niryaat karte rahe hain. praacheen rom, mistr, yoonaan, cheen, arab aadi sabhi deshon ko ye vastuen jaati rahi hain. kuchh varsh poorv tak hamaara desh cheeni ka niryaatak bhi raha hai. kuchh aantarik khapat mein vruddhi ke kaaran aur kuchh vibhinn kaaranon se utpaadan mein kami ke kaaran is varsh hamein videshon se cheeni ka aayaat karne ko baadhya hona pada hai.

sindh ke praacheen itihaas par prakaashit pustak "sindhu sauveer" mein taad dvaara likhit `Rajasthan' ke hindi anuvaad mein rai bahaadur gaureeshankar ojha ki ek atyant dilchasp tippani is prakaar di gayi hai:

ghagghar nadi ki ek shaakha ka naam saakada athva haakada tha, jo pehle Punjab se chalakar Bikaner aur Jodhpur raajyon mein se bahti sindh mein padti thi. parantu bahut samay se usaka pravaah band ho gaya hai, jiske baare mein bahut baatein prachalit hain. kintu uske band hone ka kaaran yeh hai ki is taraf (Rajasthan) ka kinaara ooncha hote-hote bilkul band ho gaya. abhi tak thodaathoda paani Bikaner raajya ke hanumaanagadh pradesh mein aata hai, jahaan usase gehoon aadi ki kheti hoti hai. use vahaan vaale kaggar nadi kehte hain. maaravaad mein haakada ke bahne ka yeh pramaan hai ki Jodhpur aur maalaani ke paraganon mein bahut se gaanvon ki seema ke andar ganna perane ke patthar ke kolhoo pade milte hain, jinke baare mein aisa kaha jaata hai ki pehle yahaan haakada (haakaro) nadi bahti thi, jiske kinaare ganne ki kheti hoti thi, jise in kolhuon mein perakar gud banaaya jaata tha. agar is nadi ka bahaav yahaan na hota to in reteele bhaagon mein aise kolhoo kaise sambhav hote (taad-`Rajasthan' pratham khand prushth 31).

ret mein ganne ke khet

Rajasthan mein patthar ke kolhuon ka milna ganne ki krushi ki praacheenata ka hi pramaan hai. yahaan jis dhagdhar ya kaggar nadi ka ullekh hai, use vaidikkaaleen sarasvati hone ka vishvaas kiya jaata hai. isa ki chhathi-saataveen shati tak is nadi mein paani tha aur uske tat par rangamahal jaise sampann nagar base hue the, jo ab astitv-shesh ho gaye hain. yadi ham praagaitihaas ki khoj mein jaae to yeh kshetr hadppaakaaleen sanskruti ka ek pramukh kendra raha hai.

Bhaarat mein aayurved ke janak samajhe jaane vaale charak aur sushrut ko ganne ki vibhinn jaatiyon, usase banane vaale vibhinn padaarthon aur unke aushadheeya gunon ka gyaan tha. charak kanishk (kushaanavansh) ke samakaaleen samajhe jaate hain. kehte hain, unhonne kanishk ki ek raani ko bhi ek asaadhya rog se mukti dilaai thi. kanishk ka kaal isavi san ke praarambh se pehle ka samjha jaata hai, arthaat lagbhag do hajaar varsh poorv. ikshu, deerghachhad, bhoomirs, gudmool, asiptr, madhutrun-sanskrut mein ganne ke anek naam hain. aayurved ke praacheen granthon mein "ikshuvarg:" ka pruthak se ullekh hai. rooparang ke anusaar usaki anek jaatiyaan hain jaise paundrak, bheesak, vanshak, shataporak, karantaar taapaseksh, kaandeksh, soocheepatr, naipaal, deerghapatr, neelaapor, koshak aadi. paundrak se hi uttar pradesh ke pashchimi jilon mein ganne ka ek naam paunda bhi pad gaya hai. yeh safed ya kuchh peelaapan liye hue hota hai. paundrak aur bheeruk baat-pitt naashak, ras aur Pak mein madhur, sheetal aur balakartta bataae gaye hain. koshak bhaari, sheetal aur raktapitt tatha kshaya ko nasht karne wala hai. kaantaarekshu kaale rang ka hota hai aur bhaari kaf paida karne wala aur dastaavar hai. deerghapor kada aur vanshak kshaarayukt hota hai vanshak ko banbaiya ikh bhi kehte hain. shataporak mein gaanthon ki adhikta hoti hai aur gun mein vah bahut kuchh koshak ke samaan hai. vah ushn, kshaarayukt aur vaatanaashak hai. taapasekshu mrudu-madhur, kaf kupit karne wala, truptikaarak, ruchiprad aur balakaarak hai. kaandekshu mein taapasekshu jaise hi gun hote hain. kintu vaat kupit karta hai. soocheepatr ke patte bahut baareek hote hain. neelapor mein neele rang ki gaanthein hoti hain. naipaal Nepal desh mein hota hai aur deerghapaatr ke bade-bade patte hote hain. ye chaaron prakaar ke ganne baatakartta, kaf pittanaashak, kasaile aur daahakarta hain. manotrupta naamak ganna vaatanaashak, trushaarog naashak, sheetal, atyant madhur aur raktapitt nivaarak maana gaya hai. avasthaanusaar bhi ganne ke gunon mein antar aa jaata hai. baalyaavastha ka ganna kaf badhaane wala, meda badhaane wala aur prameh rog ko nasht karne wala hota hai. yuva ganna vaayunaashak, svaadu, kuchh-kuchh teekha aur pittanaashak hota hai. pakane par vah raktapitt ka naash karta hai, ghaavon ko bharta hai aur bal-veerya mein vruddhi karta hai. ganne ke jad ki or ka neeche ka bhaag atyant madhur, rasayukt aur madhya bhaag meetha hota hai. oopar ki granthi ya pangoli mein nunakhaara ras rahata hai. yadi kisi ganne ki jad aur agr bhaag ko jeev-jantuon ne kha liya ho, usaki gaanthon sahit piraai ki gayi ho, usamein mail mil gaya ho, to ras bigad jaata hai. adhik kaal tak rakhe rahane se bhi uske dooshit rahane ki sambhaavana rahati hai. tab vah svaad mein khatta, vaatanaashak, bhaari, pitt-kafakaarak, dastaavar aur baar-baar mootr laane wala ho jaata hai. aag par pakaaya hua ras bhaari, snigdh, teekha, vaatakafanaashak, golaanaashak aur kinchit pitt karne wala hota hai.

gud mein kitne gun

ganne ka ras perakar aur autaakar usase vibhinn padaarth taiyaar kiye jaate hain, jaise gud raab, shakkar, mishri, cheeni aadi. in padaarthon ke bhi gunon mein antar aa jaata hai. raab bhaari, kafakatrta aur veerya badhaane waali hai. yeh vaat, pitt, mootravikaar aadi ka nivaaran karti hai. mishri balakaarak halaki, vaat-pittanaashak, madhur aur raktadosh, nivaarak hoti hai. gud bhaari, snigdh, vaatanaashak, mootrashodhak, medaavardhak, kafakatrta, krumijnak aur balakarta hai. puraana gud halake pathya ka kaam deta hai. vah agnikaarak, baladaayak, pittanaashak, madhur, vaatanaashak aur rudhir ko svachh karne wala hai. naya gud agnikaarak hai. iske sevan se kaf shvaans, khaansi aur krumirog paida hote hain. nitya adarak ke ras mein gud milaakar khaane se kaf nasht hota hai. harad ke saath khaane se pittanaash hota hai. sonth ke saath khaane se sampoorn vaatavikaar nasht hote hain. is prakaar gud tridoshanaashak hai. khaand madhur, netron ko laabh pahunchaane waali, vaat-pittanaashak, snigdh, balakaarak aur vamananivaarak hai. cheeni madhur ruchikaari, baat-pittanaashak, rudhir dosh nivaarak, daahashaantikrta, sheetal aur veerya badhaane waali hai. isse moorha, vaman aur jvar mein laabh pahunchata hai. yahi gun gud se bani fool cheeni mein hai.

asal mein ham bhaarateeya sada se madhurapriya rahe hain. meetha khaao, meetha bolo, gud na do to gud ki si baat avashya karo, hamaare jeevan siddhaant rahe hain. shaayad yahi kaaran hai ki aayurved ke janakon ne Pak, praash, avaleh, aadi ke roop mein hamaare liye anek madhur aur balavardhak aushadhiyaan taiyaar ki hain. at: hamaare jeevan mein ganne ke mahatva ka anumaan sahaj hi lagaaya ja sakta hai.

Bhaarat mein ganne ki kheti lagbhag 32 lakh haiktar bhoomi par ki jaati hai jisse 1,800 lakh tan ganne ki upaj praapt hoti hai. is prakaar ganne ki ausat upaj lagbhag 57 tan prati haiktar hai jo utpaadan-kshamata se kaafi kam hai. yadi kisaan bhaai yeh jaan lein ki ganne mein kab aur kitni khaad di jaaye aur kab aur kaise sinchaai ki jaae to ganne ki upaj ko kaafi had tak badha sakte hain. hamaare desh mein ganne ke liye prayukt kshetr ko dekhte hue usaki upaj apekshaakrut kam hai. iska pramukh kaaran aavashyakataanusaar khaad-paani ki suvidha aur unka upayog uchit samay par na hona hai. desh mein kul boye gaye fasal-kshetr ke lagbhag 43 pratishat bhaag par sinchaai-suvidha upalabdh hai. yadi vibhinn fasalon ki sinchaai suvidha ki drushti se dekha jaaye to ganne ko keval 0. 5 pratishat paani hi mil paata hai. boye gaye ganne ke kul kshetr ka lagbhag 34. 6 pratishat bhoo-bhaag par poorn sinchaai suvidha upalabdh hai aur shesh bade bhaag (65. 4 pratishat) par seemit sichaai suvidha hai, ya kaheen-kaheen par naheen ke baraabar hai. yadi ham ganne ki upaj ka jaayaja lein to pata chalta hai ki sinchit kshetr mein ganne ki aushat upaj 67 tan/haio hai. seemit sinchaai vaale kshetron ki keval 41 tan/haio hai. ganne ki fasal ko vaise to hamesha nami ki aavashyakta hoti hai, lekin jamaav, kalle nikalne aur badhaav ke samay bhoomi mein paryaapt nami ka hona atyant aavashyak hai. paaya gaya hai ki uttari Bhaarat mein ganne ki fasal ke poore jeevan-kaal mein lagbhag 150-175 seinomeeo paani ki aavashyakta hoti hai. varsha dvaara ganne ki fasal ko lagbhag 100 seinomeeo paani ki aapoorti ho jaati hai aur shesh paani ki maatra ko sinchaai dvaara ganne ki vruddhi ko kraantik avasthaaon mein poora karna padta hai. ganne mein urvarakon ki maatra sambandhi sifaarishon ke aadhaar par lagbhag 4 lakh 50 hajaar tan naaitrojan, 1 lakh 50 hajaar tan faasforas tatha 1 lakh 50 hajaar tan potaash ki aavashyakta hai, jo hamaare desh mein iska 40-50 pratishat hi urvarak upalabdh ho paata hai. aisi sthiti mein ganne ki fasal se achhi upaj praapt karna hamaare krushi vaigyaaniko ke samaksh chunauti bhara prashn hai. yadyapi is or vaigyaaniko ne anvarat kathor prayaas kiye hain jinke falasvaroop ab aisi sambhaavnaaen ho gayi hain ki upalabdh sinchaai suvidha va urvarakon dvaara vaanchhit upaj praapti ki ja sakti hai. yadi kisaan bhaai sinchitsuvidha va khaad ki maatra tatha unke prayog karne ke uchit samay par aadhaarit naveen takaneeki ki jaankaari lekar ganne ki kheti karein to bhaari upaj praapt kar sakte hain.

pyaase ganne ko paani dein

prayogon dvaara yeh gyaat hua hai ki bhoomi ki jaladhaarita ke anusaar ausatan 60 pratishat kshetr kshamata (field kaipesiti) ganne ki achhi upaj ke liye ati uttam hai. is kshamata se adhik paani dene par urvarak tatvon ke bah jaane ka bhaya rahata hai. sinchaai ki uchit vyavastha hone par varsha ke pehle basantakaaleen ganne mein chaar-paanch, sharadakaaleen ganne mein saat-aath pichheti buaai ki dasha mein teen-chaar tatha pedi mein chaar-paanch sinchaaiyaan karne ki aavashyakta hoti hai. varsha ritu ke baad ki aavashyakataanusaar ya do sinchaaiyaan karna upaj ki drushti se laabhaprad paaya gaya hai. garmiyon mein ganne ki sinchaai 15 din aur jaade mein 20-25 din par karna chaahiye. kisaanon ke paas sinchaai ke liye seemit paani hai to us paani ka upayog kis samay kiya jaaya ki adhiktam laabh uthaaya ja sake is or sansthaan ne mahatvapoorn kaarya kiya hai. pareekshanon ke aadhaar par yadi ek sinchaai suvidha hai to use May ke ant ya June, teen sinchaaiyon ko April, May, June aur chaar sinchaaiyon ko ganne ke jamaav poora hone par March, April, May aur June mein karna chaahiye. kisaanon ki suvidha ke anusaar paani lagaane ki chaaron avasthaaon ka vargeekaran jamaav poora hone, pehla, doosra tatha teesara vyaant nikalne ke aadhaar par karna chaahiye. ganne ki sinchaai aamtaur par poore khet mein sapaat vidhi dvaara ya chhoti-chhoti kyaariyaan banaakar ki jaati hain. is vidhi dvaara sinchaai karne se adhik paani ki aavashyakta hoti hai.== ganne ka vaanaspatik vargeekaran == saikeram vansh ki paaainch mahatvapoorn jaatiyaaain hain jo nimnalikhit hain:

saikeram aafisineram

  • yeh mool krusht jaatiyon mein se ek hai. yeh sukros se bharpoor hota hai.
  • iske vrunt kam resha ansh ke saath ojapoorn evam lambe hote hain. holaind vaasi vaigyaanik inhein utkrusht ganna kehte hain. yeh 2x = 80 gunasootr rakhata hai. is samay inhein choosane ke prayog se ugaaya jaata hai.

saikeram saainens

  • ise cheeni ganna ke roop mein jaana jaata hai. iska udabhav sthaan madhya evam dakshin poorv cheen hai.
  • yeh lambi poriyon se yukt patala vrunt aur lambi evam sankuchit pattiyon se yukt ganna hai.
  • ismein sukros ansh evam shudhdata kam hoti hai aur resha evam staarch adhik hota hai.
  • gunasootr sankhya 2x = 111 se 120 hai. is jaati ke antargat ek ullekhaneeya prajaati ooba hai jiski kheti kai deshon mein ki jaati hai.
  • is samay is jaati ko vyaapaarik kheti ke liye anuparyukt maana jaata hai.

saikeram baarberi

  • yeh jaati uposhn katibandheeya Bhaarat ka mool ganna hai.
  • ise 'bhaarateeya jaati' maana jaata hai.
  • uposhn katibandheeya Bhaarat mein gud evam khaadsaari cheeni ka nirmaan karne ke liye iski bade paimaane par kheti ki jaati hai.
  • yeh adhik majaboot evam rog pratirodhi jaati hai aur iske gannon mein adhik sharkara evam resha ansh hota hai. ve patale vrunt vaale hote hain.
  • is jaati ke klon uchch evam nimn taapamaanon, samasya grast mrudaaon aur jalaakraant dashaaon ke liye adhik sahishnu hai.

saikeram robastam

  • yeh jaati new gini dweep samooh mein khoji gayi thi. is jaati ke gannon ke vrunt lambe, mote evam badhne mein ojapoorn hote hain.
  • yeh resha se bharpoor hai aur aparyaapt sharkara ansh rakhati hai. gunasootr sankhya 2x = 60 evam 80 hai.
  • yeh jangali jaati hai aur krushi utpaadan ke liye anupayukt hai.

saikeram spaanteniym

  • ise bhi 'jangali ganne' ke roop mein jaana jaata hai. iski prajaatiyaaain gunasootron ki parivrtanasheel sankhya (2x = 40 se 128) rakhati hai. is jaati ki aakaariki mein paryaapt parivrtanasheelata dekhi gayi hai.
  • saamaanyat: iska vrunt patala evam chhota hota hai. aur pattiyaaain sankuchit (tang) evam kathor hoti hain.
  • paudha adhik majaboot aur adhikaansh rogon ka pratirodhi hota hai.
  • yeh jaati sharkara (cheeni) utpaadan ke liye upayogi naheen hai kyonki sharkara ansh bahut kam hota hai.
  • yeh jaati vishesh roop se rog evam pratibl pratirodhi praroop praapt karne ke liye sankar prajaatiyaaain viksit karne ke liye upayogi hai.

keet evam rog

paairila (Pyrilla) naamak keet se ganne ko bahut kshati pahuainchati hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain