ganitjnya

liyonaard yoolar ko hamesha se ek prasiddh ganitjnya maana gaya hai

ek ganitjnya vah vyakti hota hai jiske adhyayan aur anusandhaan ka praathamik kshetr ganit hi rahata hai.

anukram

ganit ki samasyaayein

ganit ke kshetr mein nayi khojon ka prakaashan bahut ooainchi dar par saikado vaigyaanik patrikaao (scientific journal) mein jaari hai. haal hi mein hua ek romaanchak vikaas hai, Andrew vils (proof) ke dvaara frmat ki aakhiri prameya (Fermat's Last Theorem) ka pramaanit hona (Andrew Wiles), 350 varshon se medhaavi ganitjnya is samasya ko sulajhaane ka prayaas kar rahe hain.

ganit mein kai prasiddh khuli samasyaaeain hain, sainkadon naheen to pichhle kuchh dashakon mein to hain hi. kuchh udaaharanon mein shaamil hain riyemann parikalpana (Riemann hypothesis) (1859) aur goldabach ka anumaan (Goldbach's conjecture) (1742) .sahasraabdi puraskaar samasyaaeain (Millennium Prize Problems) ganit ki puraani aur mahatvapoorn samasyaaon par prakaash daalata hai aur inmein se kisi bhi samasya ko sulajhaane ke liye 1,000, 000 Amreeki dollar ka puraskaar deta hai. inmein se ek samasya thi, roosi ganitjnya Grigori perelamaan (Grigori Perelman) ke dvaara siddh ponkaare anumaan (Poincaré conjecture) (1904), jo 2003 mein ek pepar mein jaari ki gayi, samakaksh samooh ke dvaara sameeksha 2006 mein poori hui aur pramaan ko maani sveekrut kiya gaya.[1]

prerana

ganitjnya aamtaur par ganit ke paitarn ke vivran va khoj mein aur prameya ke pramaan dhooaindhane mein roochi rakhate hain .adhiktar prameya aur samasyaaeain swayam ganit se hi aate hain ya fir saiddhaantik bhautiki se prerit hotein hain (theoretical physics). kuchh had tak, ganit ki samasyaaen arthashaastr, khel aur sanganak vigyaan se aayi hain.kuchh kathin prashn keval isliye diye jaatein hain taaki use hal karne mein chunauti jaisa anubhav ho I yadyapi bahut si ganit tunrat upayogi naheen hai, lekin itihaas se pata chalta hai ki ganit ke anuprayog baad mein pata chal jaate hain. udahaaran ke liye, aisa lagta hai ki sankhya siddhaant (number theory) ka vaastavik duniya mein koi uddeshya naheen hai, lekin computer ke vikaas ke baad algoridm aur beej-lekhan mein iske mahatvapoorn anuprayog ka pata chala.

ganitjnyaon ko Nobel puraskaar naheen diya jaata hai IFields padak (Fields Medal) ganit ke kshetr mein diya jaane wala sarvashreshth v pratishthit puraskaar hai Iyah padak jise kabhi - kabhi ganit ka " Nobel puraskaar " bhi kaha jaata hai, pratyek chaar varsh mein ek baar chaar javaan ganitjnyaon ko (40 varsh se kam), jo pratibhaashaali hain, diya jaata hai. anya pramukh puraskaar hain abel puraskaar (Abel Prize), nemars puraskaar (Nemmers Prize), vulf puraskaar (Wolf Prize), Schock puraskaar (Schock Prize) aur nevaanalina puraskaar (Nevanlinna Prize).

antar

ganit praakrutik vigyaan se bhinn hai, kyon ki vigyaan mein bhautik siddhaanton ko prayogon ke dvaara jaancha jaata hai, jabki ganiteeya tathyon ko satyaapit kiya jaata hai, yeh kaarya ganitjnyaon ko dvaara kiya jaata hai. yadi kisi nishchit tathya ko ganitjnya ke dvaara satyaapit kar diya jaata hai, (praaroopik roop se kyon ki vishesh maamalon mein kuchh had tak satyaapan kiya gaya hai) lekin ise siddh ya asiddh naheen kiya gaya hai, to yeh anumaan (conjecture) kahalaata hai: iske virodhaabhaas mein ek siddh tathya prameya kahalaata hai. bhautik siddhaanton ke badalne ki ummeed ki ja sakti hai jab kabhi is bhautik sansaar ke baare mein koi nai jaankaari praapt hoti hai. ganit ek alag tareeke se badalti hai: nae vichaar puraane vichaaron ko jhooth saabit naheen kar sakte lekin ye kisi bhi poorv gyaat tathya ko vyaapak banaane mein kaam aate hain. udaaharan ke liye ek char kalan, bahu char kalan (multivariable calculus) mein vyaapak ho jaata hai, jo vishleshan par bahu gunit (manifold) ho jaata hai.beejeeya rekhaaganit (algebraic geometry) ka apne paaramparik roop se aadhunik roop mein vikaas is baat ka ek achha udahaaran hai ki ganit ka kshetr molik roop se badal jaata hai, lekin yeh is baat ko saabit naheen karta ki pehle satyaapit kiya gaya tathya kisi bhi prakaar se glat hai. haalaanki ek prameya, jab ek baar siddh ho jaati hai, hamesha ke liye sach ban jaati hai, prameya ka vaastavik arth hamein gaharaai se tab samajh mein aata hai, jab prameya ke chaaron taraf ki ganit badhati hai. ek ganitjnya mahasoos karta hai ki ek prameya ko jyaada behtar roop se samjha ja sakta hai jab yeh poorv gyaat tathya par vistrut roop se laagoo ki jaati hai. udaaharan ke liye nonzero integers modulo a prime ke liye farmet ka little prameya (Fermat's little theorem), yular ki prameya (Euler's theorem) ke roop mein vyaapak ho jaati hai, jo invertible numbers modulo any nonzero integer, ke liye hai. yahi vyaapak hokar parimit samoohon ke liye laagreing ki prameya (Lagrange's theorem) ban jaati hai.

janaankik

Amy nother

haalaanki adhikaansh ganitjnya purush hain, vaheen dviteeya vishv yuddh se kuchh janaankikeeya parivartan bhi aaya hain. kuchh pramukh ganitjnya auratein hain : Ada Lovelace (Ada Lovelace) (1815 - 1852), Maria Gaetana Agnesi (Maria Gaetana Agnesi) (1718-1799), Emmy Noether (Emmy Noether) (1882 - 1935), Sophie Germain (Sophie Germain) (1776 - 1831), Sofia Kovalevskaya (Sofia Kovalevskaya) (1850 - 1891), Róazsa Péater (Róazsa Péater) (1905 - 1977), Julia Robinson (Julia Robinson) (1919 - 1985), Olga Taussky-Todd (Olga Taussky-Todd) (1906 - 1995), Éaamilie du Châatelet (Éaamilie du Châatelet) (1706 – 1749), Mary Cartwright (Mary Cartwright) (1900 - 1998), and Hypatia of Alexandria (Hypatia of Alexandria) (ca.400 E.) .ai M S aur anya ganiteeya samaaj bhavishya mein ganit mein auraton ke pratinidhitv ko badhne ke liye kai puraskaaron ki ghoshana karte hai.

sanyukt raajya America mein ganitjnyaon ke liye aaainkadon ki dauktaret ki degree

pichhle 35 varsh se sanyukt raajya America mein har saal ganit ke kshetr mein 750 se lekar 1230 dauktaret digreeyaan di jaati hain.[2] sattar ke shuroo mein, degree puraskaar apne charam par the, uske baad poore sattar ke doraan giraavat I, assi mein kuchh vruddhi hui aur nabbe mein ye fir se charam par pahuainch gaya. nae dauktaret praaptakartaaon ke liye berojgaari 1994 mein 10.7 % apne charam par thi lekin 2000 tak 3.3% tak pahuainch gayi. mahila dauktaret ka pratishat 1980 mein 15 % se badhkar 2000 mein 30 % pahuainch gaya.

2000 mein sanyukt raajya America mein collegeon aur vishvavidyaalayon mein ganit sankaaya ke padon par lagbhag 21000 ful taaim log lage hue the. in padon mein lagbhag 36% sansthaanon mein hain jinhein ganit mein snaatak ki degree praapt hai. sansthaanon mein 23 % ko master degree praapt hai aur 41% ko dauktaret ki upaadhi praapt hai.

dauktaret praapti ki madhyam aayu 1999-2000 mein 30 thi aur ausat aayu 31.7 thi.

ganitjnyaon ke baare mein ya ganitjnyaon ke dvaara uddharan

ganitjnyaon ke baare mein ya ganitjnyaon ke dvaara uddharan nimnalikhit hain.

ek ganitjnya ek aisi machine hai jo kaafi ko prameyon mein badal deta hai.
Alfréad Réanyi (Alfréad Réanyi)[3] aur paul Erdőas (Paul Erdőas) donon ko iska shreya.,
Die Mathematiker sind eine Art Franzosen; redet man mit ihnen, so üaabersetzen sie es in ihre Sprache, und dann ist es alsobald ganz etwas anderes.(ganitjnya ek prakaar ka French main hai; agar aap unase baat karein, vo ise apni bhaasha mein anuvaadit kar dete hain aur tab tunrat kuchh alag ho jaata hai.)
--johaan volfagaing faan gete
kuchh manushya ganitjnya hain, anya naheen hain .
--jen Goodall (Jane Goodall) (1971) manushya ki chhaaya mein
har peedhi mein kuchh mahaan ganitjnya hote hain..... aur [anyon ka] anusandhaan kisi ko nuksaan naheen pahunchata hai.
--alfred edalar (Alfred Adler), " ganit aur rachanaatmakata "[4]
theek prakaar se dekha jaae to, ganitjnya ke paas na keval satya hai, balki sarvochch sondarya hai- ek sheetal aur saadi sundarata, jis prakaar ek moortikla hamaari kamjor prakruti ko prabhaavit kiye bina naheen rahati, chitrakaari ya sangeet hamein jakad leta hai, isi prakaar alokik shuddh saksham poornata ek mahaan kala ke dvaara hi prardashit ki ja sakti hai.
--bartreind Russel, ganit ka adhyayan
ek chitrakaar ya kavi ke samaan ek ganitjnya, pratiroopon ka nirmaata hai. yadi uske pratiroop doosaron se adhik sthaayi hain, to iska taatparya yeh hai ki ve vichaaron ke saath banaaye gaye hain.
--ji H. haardi (G. H. Hardy), ek ganitjnya ki maafi
ek aur chhat, ek aur saboot hain .
--paul Erdőas (Paul Erdőas)
aap mein se kuchh ganitjnyaon se mile ho sakte hain aur aapko unhein dekhkar jaroor aashcharya hua hoga.
--Tom Lehrer (Tom Lehrer)
aatma se ek kavi bane bina ek ganitjnya banana asambhav hai.
--sofiya Kovalevskaya (Sofia Kovalevskaya)

yeh bhi dekhiye


nots

sandarbh

  • ek ganitjnya ki maafi (A Mathematician's Apology), ji ke dvaara. H. haardi (G. H. Hardy).sansmaran, C ke dvaara praakkathan. pi. barf (C. P. Snow).
    • punarmudrit sanskaran hai, Cambridge university press, 1992, ISBN 0-521-42706-1
    • pratham sanskaran, 1940
  • Dunham, William . ganiteeya srushti .John Wiley 1994 .
  • paul Halmos (Paul Halmos). main ek ganitjnya banana chaahata hooain .Springer - Verlag 1985 .

baahari sambandh


sandarbh

  1. mushkil pramaan, mushkil kahaavatein : ek nai ganiteeya rahasya
  2. Alfréad Réanyi ki baayograafi
  3. alfred edalar, " ganit aur srujanasheelata, " is new yorkar ne 1972 mein Timothy Ferris, ed.mein pun: prakaashit kiya. , vishv ka khajaana bhautiki, khagol vigyaan aur ganit, bek be pustakein, punarmudran, 30 June 1993, p, 435.