ganga nadi

ganga
nadi
Ganges India.jpg
Varanasi mein ganga
desh Bhaarat, Nepal, Bangladesh
upanadiyaaain
- baaeain mahaakaali, karanaali, kosi, gandak, ghaaghara
- daaeain yamuna, son, mahaananda
shahar haridvaar, muraadaabaad, Rampur, Kanpur, Allahabad, Varanasi, Patna, raajashaahi
srot gangotri himnad
- sthaan uttaraakhand, Bhaarat
- ooainchaai 3,892 mi. (12,769 feet)
- nirdeshaank 30°a59′aN 78°a55′aE / 30.983°aN 78.917°aE / 30.983; 78.917
muhaana sundaravan
- sthaan Bengal ki khaadi, Bangladesh
- ooainchaai 0 mi. (0 feet)
- nirdeshaank 22°a05′aN 90°a50′aE / 22.083°aN 90.833°aE / 22.083; 90.833
lanbaai 2,525 ki.mi. (1,569 meal)
besin 9,07,000 ki.mi.² (3,50,195 varg meal)
pravaah for mukh
- ausat 12,015 mi.³/se. (4,24,306 ghan feet/se.)
गंगा नदी के मार्ग एवं उसकी विभिन्न उपनदियाँ
ganga nadi ke maarg evam usaki vibhinn upanadiyaaain

Bhaarat ki sabse mahattvapoorn nadi ganga (baangla: গaaঙaa্aaগaaা; sanskrut: gaङaga), jo Bhaarat aur Bangladesh mein milaakar 2,510 kimi ki doori tay karti hui uttaraanchal mein himaalaya se lekar Bengal ki khaadi ke sundaravan tak vishaal bhoo bhaag ko seenchati hai, desh ki praakrutik sanpada hi naheen, jan jan ki bhaavanaatmak aastha ka aadhaar bhi hai. 2,071 ki.mi tak Bhaarat tatha uske baad Bangladesh mein apni lambi yaatra karte hue yeh sahaayak nadiyon ke saath das lakh varg kilometer kshetrafal ke ati vishaal upajaaoo maidaan ki rachana karti hai. saamaajik, saahityik, saanskrutik aur aarthik drushti se atyant mahattvapoorn ganga ka yeh maidaan apni ghani janasankhya ke kaaran bhi jaana jaata hai. 100 feet (31 mi) ki adhiktam gaharaai waali yeh nadi Bhaarat mein pavitra maani jaati hai tatha iski upaasana maaain aur devi ke roop mein ki jaati hai. bhaarateeya puraan aur saahitya mein apne saundarya aur mahatva ke kaaran baar-baar aadar ke saath vandit ganga nadi ke prati videshi saahitya mein bhi prashansa aur bhaavukataapoorn varnan kiye gaye hain.

is nadi mein machhaliyon tatha sarpon ki anek prajaatiyaaain to pai hi jaati hain meethe paani vaale durlabh daalafin bhi paae jaate hain. yeh krushi, paryatan, saahasik khelon tatha udyogon ke vikaas mein mahattvapoorn yogadaan deti hai tatha apne tat par base shaharon ki jalaapoorti bhi karti hai. iske tat par viksit dhaarmik sthal aur teerth bhaarateeya saamaajik vyavastha ke vishesh ang hain. iske oopar bane pul, baaaindh aur nadi pariyojanaaeain Bhaarat ki bijli, paani aur krushi se sambandhit jrooraton ko poora karti hain. vaigyaanik maanate hain[krupaya uddharan jodein] ki is nadi ke jal mein baikteeriyofej naamak vishaanu hote hain, jo jeevaanuon va anya haanikaarak sookshmajeevon ko jeevit naheen rahane dete hain. ganga ki is aseemit shuddheekaran kshamata aur saamaajik shraddha ke baavajood iska pradooshan roka naheen ja saka hai. fir bhi iske prayatn jaari hain aur safaai ki anek pariyojanaaon ke kram mein November,2008 mein Bhaarat sarkaar dvaara ise Bhaarat ki raashtreeya nadi[1][2] tatha Allahabad aur haldiya ke beech (1600 kilometer) ganga nadi jalamaarg- ko raashtreeya jalamaarg ghoshit kiya hai.[3]

anukram

udgam

ganga nadi ki pradhaan shaakha bhaageerathi hai jo kumaayooain mein himaalaya ke gomukh naamak sthaan par gangotri himnad se niklati hai.[4] ganga ke is udgam sthal ki ooainchaai 3140 meter hai. yahaaain ganga ji ko samarpit ek mandir bhi hai. gangotri teerth, shahar se 19 ki॰mi॰ uttar ki or 3892 mi.(12,770 fi.) ki ooainchaai par is himnad ka mukh hai. yeh himnad 25 ki॰mi॰ lamba va 4 ki॰mi॰ chauda aur lagbhag 40 mi. ooaincha hai. isi gleshiyr se bhaageerathi ek chhote se gufaanuma mukh par avatarit hoti hai. iska jal srot 5000 mi. ooainchaai par sthit ek besin hai. is besin ka mool pashchimi dhalaan ki santopanth ki chotiyon mein hai. gaumukh ke raaste mein 3600 mi. ooainche chirbaasa gram se vishaal gomukh himnad ke darshan hote hain.[5] is himnad mein nanda devi, kaamat parvat evam trishool parvat ka him pighl kar aata hai. yadyapi ganga ke aakaar lene mein anek chhoti dhaaraaon ka yogadaan hai lekin 6 badi aur unki sahaayak 5 chhoti dhaaraaon ka bhaugolik aur saanskrutik mahattv adhik hai. alakananda ki sahaayak nadi dhauli, vishnu ganga tatha mandaakini hai. dhauli ganga ka alakananda se vishnu prayaag mein sangam hota hai. yeh 1372 mi. ki ooainchaai par sthit hai. fir 2805 mi. ooainche nand prayaag mein alakananda ka nandaakini nadi se sangam hota hai. iske baad karn prayaag mein alakananda ka karn ganga ya pindar nadi se sangam hota hai. fir rishikesh se 139 ki॰mee॰ door sthit rudr prayaag mein alakananda mandaakini se milti hai. iske baad bhaageerathi va alakananda 1500 feet par sthit Dave prayaag mein sangam karti hain yahaaain se yeh sammilit jal-dhaara ganga nadi ke naam se aage pravaahit hoti hai. in paanch prayaagon ko sammilit roop se panch prayaag kaha jaata hai.[4] is prakaar 200 ki॰mee॰ ka sankara pahaadi raasta tay karke ganga nadi rishikesh hote hue pratham baar maidaanon ka sparsh haridvaar mein karti hai.

ganga ka maidaan

haridvaar se lagbhag 800 ki॰mee॰ maidaani yaatra karte hue gadhmukteshvar, soron, farrukhaabaad, kannauj, bithoor, Kanpur hote hue ganga Allahabad (prayaag) pahuainchati hai. yahaaain iska sangam yamuna nadi se hota hai. yeh sangam sthal hinduon ka ek mahattvapoorn teerth hai. ise teertharaaj prayaag kaha jaata hai. iske baad hindu dharm ki pramukh mokshadaayini nagari kaashi (Varanasi) mein ganga ek vakr leti hai, jisse yeh yahaaain uttaravaahini kahalaati hai. yahaaain se meerajaapur, Patna, Bhaagalpur hote hue paakur pahuainchati hai. is beech ismein bahut-si sahaayak nadiyaaain, jaise son, gandak, ghaaghara, kosi aadi mil jaati hain. Bhaagalpur mein raajamahal ki pahaadiyon se yeh dakshinvarti hoti hai. pashchim Bengal ke murshidaabaad jile ke giriya sthaan ke paas ganga nadi do shaakhaaon mein vibhaajit ho jaati hai-bhaageerathi aur padma. bhaageerathi nadi giriya se dakshin ki or bahne lagti hai jabki padma nadi dakshin-poorv ki or bahti farakka bairaaj (1974 nirmit) se chhanate hui bangala desh mein pravesh karti hai. yahaaain se ganga ka deltaai bhaag shuroo ho jaata hai. murshidaabaad shahar se hugali shahar tak ganga ka naam bhaageerathi nadi tatha hugali shahar se muhaane tak ganga ka naam hugali nadi hai. ganga ka yeh maidaan moolat: ek bhoo-abhinti gart hai jiska nirmaan mukhya roop se himaalaya parvatamaala nirmaan prakriya ke teesare charan mein lagbhag 3-4 karod varsh pehle hua tha. tab se ise himaalaya aur praayadveep se nikalne waali nadiyaaain apne saath laae hue avasaadon se paat rahi hain. in maidaanon mein jalodh ki ausat gaharaai 1000 se 2000 meter hai. is maidaan mein nadi ki praudhaavastha mein banane waali aparadani aur nikshepan sthalaakॄtiyaaain, jaise- baaloo-rodhaka, visrp, gokhur jheelein aur gunfit nadiyaaain pai jaati hain.[6]

ganga ki is ghaati mein ek aisi sabhyata ka udbhav aur vikaas hua jiska praacheen itihaas atyant gauravamayi aur vaibhavashaali hai. jahaaain gyaan, dharm, adhyaatm va sabhyata-sanskruti ki aisi kiran prasfutit hui jisse na keval Bhaarat balki samast sansaar aalokit hua. paashaan ya prastar yug ka janm aur vikaas yahaaain hone ke anek saakshya mile hain. isi ghaati mein raamaayan aur mahaabhaarat kaaleen yug ka udbhav aur vilay hua. shatapath braahman, panchavish braahman, gaupath braahman, aitareya aaranyak, kaushitki aaranyak, saankhyaayan aaranyak, vaajasaneyi sanhita aur mahaabhaarat ityaadi mein varnit ghatnaaon se uttar vaidikkaaleen ganga ghaati ki jaankaari milti hai. praacheen magadh mahaajanapad ka udbhav ganga ghaati mein hi hua jahaaain se ganaraajyon ki parampara vishv mein pehli baar praarambh hui. yaheen Bhaarat ka vah svarn yug viksit hua jab maurya aur gupt vansheeya raajaaon ne yahaaain shaasan kiya.[7]

sundaravan delta

sundaravan-vishv ka sabse bada delta-ganga ka muhaana-Bengal ki khaadi mein

hugali nadi Kolkata, haavada hote hue sundaravan ke bhaarateeya bhaag mein saagar se sangam karti hai. padma mein brahmaputr se nikli shaakha nadi jamuna nadi evam meghana nadi milti hain. antat: ye 350 ki॰mee॰ chaude sundaravan delta mein jaakar Bengal ki khaadi mein saagar-sangam karti hai. yeh delta ganga evam usaki sahaayak nadiyon dvaara laai gayi naveen jalodh se 1,000 varshon mein nirmit samatal evam nimn maidaan hai. yahaaain ganga aur Bengal ki khaadi ke sangam par ek prasiddh hindu teerth hai jise ganga-saagar-sangam kehte hain.[8] vishv ka sabse bada delta (sundaravan) bahut si prasiddh vanaspatiyon aur prasiddh Bengal taaigar ka nivaas sthaan hai.[8] yeh delta dheere-dheere saagar ki or badh raha hai. kuchh samay pehle Kolkata saagar tat par hi sthit tha aur saagar ka vistaar raajamahal tatha silhat tak tha, parantu ab yeh tat se 15-20 meal (24-32 kilometer) door sthit lagbhag 1,80,000 varg kilometer ke kshetr mein faila hua hai. jab delta ka saagar ki or nirntar vistaar hota hai to use pragatisheel delta kehte hain.[9] sundaravan delta mein bhoomi ka dhaal atyant kam hone ke kaaran yahaaain ganga atyant dheemi gati se bahti hai aur apne saath laai gayi mitti ko muhaane par jama kar deti hai jisse delta ka aakaar badhta jaata hai aur nadi ki kai dhaaraaeain evam upadhaaraaeain ban jaati hain. is prakaar bani hui ganga ki pramukh shaakha nadiyaaain jaalangi nadi, ichhaamati nadi, bhairav nadi, vidyaadhari nadi aur kaalindi nadi hain. nadiyon ke vakr gati se bahne ke kaaran dakshini bhaag mein kai dhanushaakaar jheelein ban gayi hain. dhaal uttar se dakshin hai, at: adhikaansh nadiyaaain uttar se dakshin ki or bahti hain. jvaar ke samay in nadiyon mein jvaar ka paani bhar jaane ke kaaran inhein jvaareeya nadiyaaain bhi kehte hain. delta ke sudoor dakshini bhaag mein samudra ka khaara paani pahuainchane ka kaaran yeh bhaag neecha, namakeen evam daladali hai tatha yahaaain aasaani se panapane vaale maingrov jaati ke vanon se bhara pada hai. yeh delta chaaval ki krushi ke liye adhik vikhyaat hai. yahaaain vishv mein sabse adhik kachche joot ka utpaadan hota hai. kataka abhayaaranya sundaravan ke un ilaakon mein se hai jahaaain ka raasta chhoti-chhoti naharon se hokar gujrata hai. yahaaain badi taadaad mein sundari ped milte hain jinke naam par hi in vanon ka naam sundaravan pada hai. iske alaava yahaaain par deva, kevada, tarmaja, aamalopi aur goraan vrukshon ki aisi prajaatiyaaain hain, jo sundaravan mein pai jaati hain. yahaaain ke vanon ki ek khaas baat yeh hai ki yahaaain vahi ped panapate ya bach sakte hain, jo meethe aur khaare paani ke mishran mein rah sakte hon.[10]

sahaayak nadiyaaain

devaprayaag mein bhaageerathi (baaeain) evam alakananda (daaeain) milkar ganga ka nirmaan karti huin

ganga mein uttar ki or se aakar milne waali pramukh sahaayak nadiyaaain yamuna, raamaganga, karanaali (ghaaghara), taapti, gandak, kosi aur kaakshi hain tatha dakshin ke pathaar se aakar ismein milne waali pramukh nadiyaaain chanbal, son, betava, ken, dakshini tos aadi hain. yamuna ganga ki sabse pramukh sahaayak nadi hai jo himaalaya ki bandarapooainchh choti ke aadhaar par yamunotri himkhand se nikli hai.[11][12] himaalaya ke oopari bhaag mein ismein tons[13] tatha baad mein laghu himaalaya mein aane par ismein giri aur aasan nadiyaaain milti hain. chambal, betava, shaarada aur ken yamuna ki sahaayak nadiyaaain hain. chambal itaava ke paas tatha betava hameerapur ke paas yamuna mein milti hain. yamuna Allahabad ke nikat baayeen or se ganga nadi mein ja milti hai. raamaganga mukhya himaalaya ke dakshini bhaag naineetaal ke nikat se nikalkar bijnaur jile se bahti hui kannauj ke paas ganga mein milti hai. karanaali nadi mapsaatung naamak himnad se nikalkar ayodhya, faijaabaad hoti hui baliya jile ke seema ke paas ganga mein mil jaati hai. is nadi ko parvateeya bhaag mein kauriyaala tatha maidaani bhaag mein ghaaghara kaha jaata hai. gandak himaalaya se nikalkar Nepal mein shaaleegraam naam se bahti hui maidaani bhaag mein naaraayani nadi ka naam paati hai. yeh kaali gandak aur trishool nadiyon ka jal lekar pravaahit hoti hui sonapur ke paas ganga mein milti hai. kosi ki mukhyadhaara Arun hai jo gosaai dhaam ke uttar se niklati hai. brahmaputr ke besin ke dakshin se sarpaakaar roop mein Arun nadi bahti hai jahaaain yaaroo naamak nadi isse milti hai. iske baad evarest ke kanchanajangha shikharon ke beech se bahti hui yeh dakshin ki or 90 kilometer bahti hai jahaaain pashchim se soonakosi tatha poorab se taamoor kosi naamak nadiyaaain ismein milti hain. iske baad kosi nadi ke naam se yeh shivaalik ko paar karke maidaan mein utarati hai tatha Bihar raajya se bahti hui ganga mein mil jaati hai. amarakantak pahaadi se nikalkar son nadi Patna ke paas ganga mein milti hai. madhya-pradesh ke maoo ke nikat janaayaab parvat se nikalkar chambal nadi itaava se 38 kilometer ki doori par yamuna nadi mein milti hai. betava nadi madhya pradesh mein Bhopal se nikalkar uttar hameerapur ke nikat yamuna mein milti hai. bhaageerathi nadi ke daayein kinaare se milne waali anek nadiyon mein baaainsalai, dvaaraka, mayooraakshi, roopanaaraayan, kansaavati aur rasoolapur pramukh hain. jalaangi aur maatha bhaaainga ya chooneen baayein kinaare se milti hain jo ateet kaal mein ganga ya padma ki shaakha nadiyaaain theen. kintu ye vartamaan samay mein ganga se pruthak hokar varshaakaaleen nadiyaaain ban gayi hain.

jeev-jantu

ganga nadi mein paae jaane vaale ghadiyaal
ganga nadi mein paai jaane waali daalafin machhali jise aam bolachaal ki bhaasha mein sons kehte hain

aitihaasik saakshyon se yeh gyaat hota hai ki 16veen tatha 17veen shataabdi tak ganga-yamuna pradesh ghane vanon se dhaka hua tha. in vanon mein jangali haathi, bhains, geinda, sher, baagh tatha gaval ka shikaar hota tha. ganga ka tatavarti kshetr apne shaant va anukool paryaavaran ke kaaran rang-birange pakshiyon ka sansaar apne aanchal mein sanjoe hue hai. ismein machhaliyon ki 140 prajaatiyaaain, 35 sareesrup tatha iske tat par 42 stanadhaari prajaatiyaaain pai jaati hain. yahaaain ki utkrusht paaristhitiki sanrachana mein kai prajaati ke vanya jeevon jaise- neelagaaya, saanbhar, kharagosh, nevala, chinkaara ke saath sareesrup-varg ke jeev-jantuon ko bhi aashray mila hua hai. is ilaake mein aise kai jeev-jantuon ki prajaatiyaaain hain jo durlabh hone ke kaaran sanrakshit ghoshit ki ja chuki hain. ganga ke parvateeya kinaaron par langoor, laal bandar, bhoore bhaaloo, lomadi, cheete, barfeele cheete, hiran, bhaunkane vaale hiran, saanbhar, kastoori mrug, sero, barad mrug, saahi, tahar aadi kaafi sankhya mein milte hain. vibhinn rangon ki titliyaan tatha keet bhi yahaaain paae jaate hain.[14] badhti hui janasankhya ke dabaav mein dheere-dheere vanon ka lop hone laga hai aur ganga ki ghaati mein sarvatr krushi hoti hai fir bhi ganga ke maidaani bhaag mein hiran, jangali sooar, jangali billiyaaain, bhediya, geedad, lomadi ki anek prajaatiyaaain kaafi sankhya mein paae jaate hain. daalafin ki do prajaatiyaaain ganga mein pai jaati hain. jinhein ganga daalafin aur iraavadi daalafin ke naam se jaana jaata hai. iske alaava ganga mein pai jaane vaale shaark ki vajah se bhi ganga ki prasiddhi hai jismein bahate huye paani mein pai jaanevaali shaark ke kaaran vishv ke vaigyaaniko ki kaafi ruchi hai. is nadi aur Bengal ki khaadi ke milan sthal par banane vaale muhaane ko sundaravan ke naam se jaana jaata hai jo vishv ki bahut-si prasiddh vanaspatiyon aur prasiddh Bengal taaigar ka gruhakshetr hai.

aarthik mahattv

ganga mein raifting bhi hoti hai.

ganga apni upatyakaaon mein Bhaarat aur Bangladesh ke krushi aadhaarit arth mein bhaari sahayog to karti hi hai, yeh apni sahaayak nadiyon sahit bahut bade kshetr ke liye sinchaai ke baarahamaasi srot bhi hain. in kshetron mein ugaai jaane waali pradhaan upaj mein mukhyat: dhaan, ganna, daal, tilhan, aaloo evam gehooain hain. jo Bhaarat ki krushi aaj ka mahattvapoorn srot hain. ganga ke tateeya kshetron mein daladal evam jheelon ke kaaran yahaaain legyoom, mirch, sarason, til, ganna aur joot ki achhi fasal hoti hai. nadi mein matsya udyog bhi bahut joron par chalta hai. ganga nadi pranaali Bhaarat ki sabse badi nadi pranaali hai. ismein lagbhag 375 matsya prajaatiyaaain upalabdh hain. vaigyaaniko dvaara uttar pradesh va Bihar mein 111 matsya prajaatiyon ki upalabdhata bataayi gayi hai.[15] farakka baandh ban jaane se ganga nadi mein hilsa machhali ke beejotpaadan mein sahaayata mili hai.[16] ganga ka mahattv paryatan par aadhaarit aay ke kaaran bhi hai. iske tat par aitihaasik drushti se mahattvapoorn tatha praakrutik saundarya se bharpoor kai paryatan sthal hai jo raashtreeya aay ka mahattvapoorn srot hain. ganga nadi par raifting ke shiviron ka aayojan kiya jaata hai. jo saahasik khelon aur paryaavaran dvaara Bhaarat ke aarthik sahayog mein sahayog karte hain. ganga tat ke teen bade shahar haridvaar, Allahabad evam Varanasi jo teerth sthalon mein vishesh sthaan rakhate hain. is kaaran yahaaain shraddhaaluon ki badi sankhya nirantar bani rahati hai aur dhaarmik paryatan mein mahattvapoorn yogadaan karti hai. garmi ke mausam mein jab pahaadon se barf pighlati hai, tab nadi mein paani ki maatra va bahaav achha hota hai, is samay uttaraakhand mein rishikesh - badreenaath maarg par kaudiyaala se rishikesh ke madhya raifting, kyaaking va kainoing ke shiviron ka aayojan kiya jaata hai, jo saahasik kholon ke shaukeenon aur paryatakon ko vishesh roop se aakarshit kar ke Bhaarat ke aarthik sahayog mein mahattvapoorn bhoomika nibhaata hai.[17]

baaaindh evam nadi pariyojanaaeain

ganga nadi par nirmit anek baaaindh bhaarateeya jan-jeevan tatha arth vyavastha ka mahattvapoorn ang hain. inmein pramukh hain frakka baaaindh, tihri baaaindh, tatha bheemagoda baaaindh. frakka baandh (bairaaj) Bhaarat ke pashchim Bengal praant mein sthit ganga nadi par banaaya gaya hai. is baaaindh ka nirmaan Kolkata bandargaah ko gaad (silt) se mukt karaane ke liye kiya gaya tha jo ki 1950 se 1960 tak is bandargaah ki pramukh samasya thi. Kolkata hugali nadi par sthit ek pramukh bandargaah hai. greeshm ritu mein hugali nadi ke bahaav ko nirantar banaaye rakhane ke liye ganga nadi ke jal ke ek bade hisse ko frakka baaaindh ke dvaara hugali nadi mein mod diya jaata hai. ganga par nirmit doosra pramukh baaaindh tihri baaaindh tihri vikaas pariyojana ka ek praathamik baaaindh hai jo uttaraakhand praant ke tihri jile mein sthit hai. yeh baaaindh ganga nadi ki pramukh sahayogi nadi bhaageerathi par banaaya gaya hai. tihri baaaindh ki ooainchaai 261 meter hai jo ise vishv ka paaainchavaaain sabse ooaincha baaaindh banaati hai. is baaaindh se 2400 megawatt vidyut utpaadan, 270,000 hektar kshetr ki sinchaai aur pratidin 102.20 karod liter peyajal Delhi, uttar-pradesh evam uttaraanchal ko upalabdh karaana prastaavit hai. teesara pramukh baaaindh bheemagoda baaaindh haridvaar mein sthit hai jisko san 1840 mein angrejon ne ganga nadi ke paani ko vibhaajit kar oopari ganga nahar mein modne ke liye banavaaya tha. yeh nahar haridvaar ke bheemagoda naamak s‍aathaan se ganga nadi ke daahine tat se niklati hai. praaram‍aabh mein is nahar mein jalaapoorti ganga nadi mein ek as‍aathaayi baaaindh banaakar ki jaati thi. varshaakaal praaram‍aabh hote hi as‍aathaayi baaaindh toot jaaya karta tha tatha monsoon avadhi mein nahar mein paani chalaaya jaata tha. is prakaar is nahar se keval rabi ki fasalon ki hi sinchaai ho paati thi. as‍aathaayi baaaindh nirmaan s‍aathal ke daaunas‍aatreem mein varsh 1978-1984 ki avadhi mein bheemagoda bairaaj ka nirmaan karavaaya gaya. iske ban jaane ke baad oopari ganga nahar pranaali se khareef ki fasal mein bhi paani diya jaane laga.[18]

pradooshan evam paryaavaran

gomukh par shuddh ganga

ganga nadi vishv bhar mein apni shuddheekaran kshamata ke kaaran jaani jaati hai. lambe samay se prachalit iski shuddheekaran ki maanyata ka vaigyaanik aadhaar bhi hai. vaigyaanik maanate hain ki is nadi ke jal mein baikteeriyofej naamak vishaanu hote hain, jo jeevaanuon va anya haanikaarak sookshmajeevon ko jeevit naheen rahane dete hain. nadi ke jal mein praanavaayu (okseejan) ki maatra ko banaae rakhane ki asaadhaaran kshamata hai. kintu iska kaaran abhi tak agyaat hai. ek raashtreeya saarvajanik radio kaaryakram ke anusaar is kaaran haija aur pechish jaisi beemaariyaaain hone ka khatra bahut hi kam ho jaata hai, jisse mahaamaariyaaain hone ki sambhaavana bade star par tal jaati hai.[19] lekin ganga ke tat par ghane base audyogik nagaron ke naalon ki gandagi seedhe ganga nadi mein milne se ganga ka pradooshan pichhle kai saalon se Bhaarat sarkaar aur janta ki chinta ka vishay bana hua hai. audyogik kachare ke saath-saath plastic kachare ki bahutaayat ne ganga jal ko bhi behad pradooshit kiya hai. vaigyaanik jaanch ke anusaar ganga ka baayolaajikl okseejan star 3 degree (saamaanya) se badhkar 6 degree ho chuka hai. ganga mein 2 karod 90 lakh liter pradooshit kachara pratidin gir raha hai. vishv bank report ke anusaar uttar-pradesh ki 12 pratishat beemaariyon ki vajah pradooshit ganga jal hai. yeh ghor chintaneeya hai ki ganga-jal na snaan ke yogya raha, na peene ke yogya raha aur na hi sinchaai ke yogya. ganga ke paraabhav ka arth hoga, hamaari samoochi sabhyata ka ant.[20] ganga mein badhte pradooshan par niyantran paane ke liye ghadiyaalon ki madad li ja rahi hai.[21] shahar ki gandagi ko saaf karne ke liye sanyantron ko lagaaya ja raha hai aur udyogon ke kacharon ko ismein girne se rokane ke liye kaanoon bane hain. isi kram mein ganga ko raashtreeya dharohar bhi ghoshit kar diya gaya hai aur ganga action plaan va raashtreeya nadi sanrakshan yojana laagoo ki gayi hain. haanlaanki iski safalta par prashnachihn bhi lagaae jaate rahe hain.[22] janta bhi is vishay mein jaagrut hui hai. iske saath hi dhaarmik bhaavanaaeain aahat na hon iske bhi prayatn kiye ja rahe hain.[23] itna sabkuchh hone ke baavajood ganga ke astitv par sankat ke baadal chhaae hue hain. 2007 ki ek sanyukt raashtra report ke anusaar himaalaya par sthit ganga ki jalaapoorti karne vaale himnad ki 2030 tak samaapt hone ki sambhaavana hai. iske baad nadi ka bahaav monsoon par aashrit hokar mausami hi rah jaaega.[24]

namaami gange

is nadi ki safaai ke liye kai baar pahal ki gayi lekin koi bhi santoshajanak sthiti tak naheen pahuainch paaya. [25]pradhaanamantri chune jaane ke baad Bhaarat ke pradhaanamantri Narendra Modi ne ganga nadi mein pradooshan par niyantran karne aur iski safaai ka abhiyaan chalaaya.[26] iske baad unhonne July 2014 mein Bhaarat ke aam bajat mein namaami ganga naamak ek pariyojana aarambh ki.[27] isi pariyojana ke hisse ke roop mein Bhaarat sarkaar ne ganga ke kinaare sthit 48 audyogik ikaaiyon ko band karne ka aadesh diya.[28]

dhaarmik mahattv

Varanasi ghaat par ganga ki aarti

Bhaarat ki anek dhaarmik avadhaaranaaon mein ganga nadi ko devi ke roop mein nirupit kiya gaya hai. bahut se pavitra teerthasthal ganga nadi ke kinaare par base huye hain jinmein Varanasi aur haridvaar sabse pramukh hain. ganga nadi ko Bhaarat ki pavitra nadiyon mein sabse pavitra maana jaata hai evam yeh maanyata hai ki ganga mein snaan karne se manushya ke saare paapon ka naash ho jaata hai. marne ke baad log ganga mein raakh visrjit karna moksh praapti ke liye aavashyak samajhte hain, yahaaain tak ki kuchh log ganga ke kinaare hi praan visrjan ya antim sanskaar ki ichha bhi rakhate hain. iske ghaaton par log pooja archana karte hain aur dhyaan lagaate hain. gangaajal ko pavitra samjha jaata hai tatha samast sanskaaron mein usaka hona aavashyak hai. panchaamrut mein bhi gangaajal ko ek amrut maana gaya hai. anek parvon aur utsavon ka ganga se seedha sambandh hai. udaaharan ke liye makar sankraanti, Kumbh aur ganga dashahara ke samay ganga mein nahaana ya keval darshan hi kar lena bahut mahattvapoorn samjha jaata hai. iske taton par anek prasiddh melon ka aayojan kiya jaata hai aur anek prasiddh mandir ganga ke tat par hi bane hue hain. mahaabhaarat ke anusaar maatr prayaag mein maagh maas mein ganga-yamuna ke sangam par teen karod das hajaar teerthon ka sangam hota hai. ye teerth sthal sampoorn Bhaarat mein saanskrutik ekta sthaapit karte hain.[29] ganga ko lakshya karke anek bhakti granth likhe gaye hain. jinmein shreegangaasahasranaamastotram[30] aur aarti[31] sabse lokapriya hain. anek log apne dainik jeevan mein shraddha ke saath inka prayog karte hain. gangotri tatha anya sthaanon par ganga ke mandir aur moortiyaaain bhi sthaapit hain jinke darshan kar shraddhaalu swayam ko krutaarth samajhte hain. uttaraakhand ke panch prayaag tatha prayaagaraaj jo Allahabad mein sthit hai ganga ke ve prasiddh sangam sthal hain jahaaain vah anya nadiyon se milti hain. ye sabhi sangam dhaarmik drushti se poojya maane gaye hain.

pauraanik prasang

ganga aur shaantanu- raaja ravi varma ki kalaakruti

ganga nadi ke saath anek pauraanik kathaaeain judi hui hain. mithkon ke anusaar brahma ne vishnu ke pair ke paseene ki booaindon se ganga ka nirmaan kiya. trimoorti ke do sadasyon ke sparsh ke kaaran yeh pavitra samjha gaya. ek anya katha ke anusaar raaja sagar ne jaadui rup se saath hajaar putron ki praapti ki.[32] ek din raaja sagar ne devalok par vijay praapt karne ke liye ek yagya kiya. yagya ke liye ghoda aavashyak tha jo irshyaalu Indra ne chura liya tha. sagar ne apne saare putron ko ghode ki khoj mein bhej diya ant mein unhein ghoda paataal lok mein mila jo ek rishi ke sameep baindha tha. sagar ke putron ne yeh soch kar ki rishi hi ghode ke gaayab hone ki vajah hain unhonne rishi ka apamaan kiya. tapasya mein leen rishi ne hajaaron varsh baad apni aaainkhein kholi aur unke krodh se sagar ke sabhi saath hajaar putr jal kar vaheen bhasm ho gaye.[33] sagar ke putron ki aatmaaeain bhoot bankar vichrane lageen kyonki unka antim sanskaar naheen kiya gaya tha. sagar ke putr anshumaan ne aatmaaon ki mukti ka asafal prayaas kiya aur baad mein anshumaan ke putr dileep ne bhi. bhageerath raaja dileep ki doosari patni ke putr the. unhonne apne poorvajon ka antim sanskaar kiya. unhonne ganga ko pruthvi par laane ka pran kiya jisse unke antim sanskaar kar, raakh ko gangaajal mein pravaahit kiya ja sake aur bhatakati aatmaaen svarg mein ja sakein. bhageerath ne brahma ki ghor tapasya ki taaki ganga ko pruthvi par laaya ja sake. brahma prasann huye aur ganga ko pruthvi par bhejane ke liye taiyaar huye aur ganga ko pruthvi par aur uske baad paataal mein jaane ka aadesh diya taaki sagar ke putron ki aatmaaon ki mukti sambhav ho sake. tab ganga ne kaha ki main itni ooainchaai se jab pruthvi par girooaingi, to pruthvi itna veg kaise sah paaegi? tab bhageerath ne Bhagwan Shiv se nivedan kiya aur unhonne apni khuli jataaon mein ganga ke veg ko rok kar, ek lat khol di, jisse ganga ki avirl dhaara pruthvi par pravaahit hui. vah dhaara bhageerath ke peechhe-peechhe ganga saagar sangam tak gayi, jahaaain sagar-putron ka uddhaar hua. Shiv ke sparsh se ganga aur bhi paavan ho gayi aur pruthvi vaasiyon ke liye bahut hi shraddha ka kendra ban gayeen. puraanon ke anusaar svarg mein ganga ko mandaakini aur paataal mein bhaageerathi kehte hain. isi prakaar ek pauraanik katha raaja shaantanu aur ganga ke vivaah tatha unke saat putron ke janm ki hai.

saahityik ullekh

ganga avataran ek lokachitr

Bhaarat ki raashtra-nadi ganga jal hi naheen, apitu Bhaarat aur hindi saahitya ki maanaveeya chetna ko bhi pravaahit karti hai.[34] rigved, mahaabhaarat, raamaayan evam anek puraanon mein ganga ko punya salila, paap-naashini, moksh pradaayini, saritshreshtha evam mahaanadi kaha gaya hai. sanskrut kavi jagannaath rai ne ganga ki stuti mein 'shreegangaalahari' naamak kaavya ki rachana ki hai. hindi ke aadi mahaakaavya pruthveeraaj raaso[k] tatha veesaladev raas[kh] (narapati naalh) mein ganga ka ullekh hai. aadikaal ka sarvaadhik lok vishrut granth jaganik rachit aalhakhand[g] mein ganga, yamuna aur sarasvati ka ullekh hai. kavi ne prayaagaraaj ki is triveni ko paapanaashak batalaaya hai. shrungaari kavi vidyaapati[gh], kabeer vaani aur jaayasi ke padmaavat mein bhi ganga ka ullekh hai, kintu sooradaas[ङ] aur tulaseedaas ne bhakti bhaavana se ganga-maahaatmya ka varnan vistaar se kiya hai. Goswami tulaseedaas ne kavitaavali ke uttarakaand mein 'shri ganga maahaatmya' ka varnan teen chhandon mein kiya hai- in chhandon mein kavi ne ganga darshan, ganga snaan, ganga jal sevan, ganga tat par basane vaalon ke mahattv ko varnit kiya hai.[ch] reetikaal mein senaapati aur padmaakar ka ganga varnan shlaaghaneeya hai. padmaakar ne ganga ki mahima aur keerti ka varnan karne ke liye gangaalahari[35] naamak granth ki rachana ki hai. senaapati[chh] kavitt ratnaakar mein ganga maahaatmya ka varnan karte hue kehte hain ki paap ki naav ko nasht karne ke liye ganga ki punyadhaara talavaar si sushobhit hai. rasakhaan, raheem[j] aadi ne bhi ganga prabhaav ka sundar varnan kiya hai. aadhunik kaal ke kaviyon mein jagannaathadaas ratnaakar ke granth gangaavataran mein Kapil muni dvaara shaapit sagar ke saath hajaar putron ke uddhaar ke liye bhageerath ki 'bhageerath-tapasya' se ganga ke bhoomi par avatarit hone ki katha hai. sampoorn granth terah sargon mein vibhkt aur rola chhand mein nibddh hai. anya kaviyon mein bhaaratendu harishchandr, sumitraanandan pant aur shreedhar paathak aadi ne bhi yatr-tatr ganga ka varnan kiya hai.[29] chhaayaavaadi kaviyon ka prakruti varnan hindi saahitya mein ullekhaneeya hai. sumitraanandan pant ne 'nauka vihaar'[36] mein greeshm kaaleen taapas baala ganga ka jo chitr ukera hai, vah ati ramaneeya hai. unhonne ganga[37] naamak kavita bhi likhi hai. ganga nadi ke kai prateekaatmak arthon ka varnan Jawahar laal Nehru ne apni pustak Bhaarat ek khoj (diskavari of India) mein kiya hai.[jh] ganga ki pauraanik kahaaniyon ko Mahendra mittal apni kruti maaain ganga mein sanjoya hai.[38]

chitr deergha

teepa teepi

k. ^ indo kin andoliya ami A chakkeevan ganga sire. .................etane charitra te gang teere.
kh. ^ kai re himaalai maahin gilun. kai tau jhanfaghadan gang-duvaari...................bahin divaaooain raai ki. thaara byaah karaabun gang nai paari.
g. ^ praagaraaj so teerath dhyaavaun. jahain par gang maatu laharaaya.. / ek or se jamuna I. donon mileen bhuja failaaya.. / sarasvati neeche se nikli. tirbeni so teerth kahaaya..
gh. ^ kajjal roop tua kaali kahiae, ujjal roop tua baani. / ravimandal parachanda kahiae, ganga kahiae paani..
ङ. ^ sukadev kahyo sunau naranaah. ganga jyaun I jagamaaainh.. / kahaun so katha sunau chitlaai. sunai so bhavatari hari pur jaai..
ch. ^ devanadi kahain jo jan jaan kiye manasa kahuain koti udhaare. / dekhi chale jhagarain suranaari, sures banaai vimaan savaaainre.
pooja ko saaju viranchi rachain tulasi J mahaatam jaani tihaare. / ok ki lok pari hari lok vilokat gang tarang tihaare.. (kavitaavali-uttarakaand 145)
brahm jo vyaapak ved kahain, gamanaahin gira gun-gyaan-guni ko. / jo karta, bharta, harata, sur saahebu, saahebu deen dukhi ko.
soi bhayo drav roop sahi, jo hai naath viranchi mahes muni ko. / maani prateeti sada tulasi, jagu kaahe na sevat Dave dhuni ko.. (kavitaavali-uttarakaand 146)
baari tihaaro nihaari muraari bhaeain parasein pad paapu lahaungo. / is hvai sees dharaun pai daraun, prabhu ki samataaain bade dosh dahaungo.
baru baarahin baar sareer dharaun, raghubeer ko hvai tav teer rahaungo. / bhaageerathi binvaun kar jori, bahori na khori lagai so kahaungo.. (kavitaavali-uttarakaand 147)[39]
chh. ^ paavan adhik sab teerath tain jaaki dhaar, jahaaain mari paapi hot surapur pati hai. / dekhat hi jaakau bhalo ghaat pahachaaniyt, ek roop baani jaake paani ki rahati hai.
badi raj raakhai jaakaun mahaadheer tarasat, senaapati thaur-thaur neekeeyai bahati hai. / paap patavaari ke katal karibe ko ganga, punya ki aseel taravaari si lasati hai..--senaapati
j. ^ achyut charan tarangini, Shiv sir maalati maal. hari na banaayo surasari, keejau indav bhaal..--raheem
jh. ^ "The Ganga, especially, is the river of India, beloved of her people, round which are interwined her memories, her hopes and fears, her songs of triumph, her victories and her defeats. She has been a symbol of India's age long culture and civilization, ever changing , ever flowing, and yet ever the same Ganga." -javaaharalaal Nehru

sandarbh

  1. "ganga ko Bhaarat ki raashtreeya nadi" (echateeem). Bihar tude. http://www.bihartodayonline.com/2008/11/jagran-yahoo-report_04.html. abhigman tithi: 2008.
  2. "ganga -Bhaarat ki raashtreeya nadi" (echateeem). vauyas of America. http://www.voanews.com/hindi/archive/2008-11/2008-11-04-voa24.cfm. abhigman tithi: 2008.
  3. samakaaleen Bhaarat. nai Delhi: raashtreeya shaikshik anusandhaan aur prashikshan parishad. April 2003. pa॰ 247-248.
  4. a aa "uttaraanchal-ek parichay" (echateeem). teedeeaaiel. http://tdil.mit.gov.in/coilnet/ignca/utrn0078.htm. abhigman tithi: 2008.
  5. "gangotri" (echateeem). uttaraakhand sarkaar. http://210.212.78.56/50cities/gangotri/hindi/home.asp. abhigman tithi: 2009.
  6. "Bhaarat ki bhautik sanrachana". paryaavaran ke vibhinn ghatak. http://vimi.wordpress.com/2009/02/22/bharat_sanrachana/. abhigman tithi: 2009.
  7. "Bihar ka itihaas (praacheen Bihar)" (jeesapi). mithilaavihaar. http://www.mithilavihar.com/mithilaStatic/bihar-prAcIn_itihAs1.jsp. abhigman tithi: 2009.
  8. a aa "ganga rivr" (angreji mein) (echateeem). indiya net jon. http://www.indianetzone.com/2/ganga_river.htm. abhigman tithi: 2009.
  9. sihan, savindr (July 2002). bhautik bhoogol. Gorakhpur: vasundhara prakaashan. pa॰ 247-248.
  10. "sundaravan ke muhaane par" (echateeem). BBC. http://hindi.webdunia.com/samayik/bbchindi/bbchindi/0711/07/1071107081_1.htm. abhigman tithi: 2009.
  11. "Bhaarat ke baare mein jaano". Bhaarat sarkaar. http://bharat.gov.in/knowindia/rivers.php. abhigman tithi: 2009.
  12. "Bhaarat ki pramukh nadiyaaain". Bhaarat bhraman. http://bharatbhraman.agoodplace4all.com/Bhaarat-ki-pramukh-nadiyaaain/. abhigman tithi: 2009.
  13. "uttaraakhand ki pramukh nadiyaaain". India vaatar portal. http://hindi.indiawaterportal.org/?q=content/uttaraakhand-ki-pramukh-nadiyaaain. abhigman tithi: 2009.
  14. "paryaavaran" (eesapi). gangotri. http://210.212.78.56/50cities/gangotri/hindi/profile_environment.asp. abhigman tithi: 2009.
  15. "prashikshan evam prasaar sambandhi mainual" (echateeem). matsya vibhaag, uttar pradesh. 2007. http://fisheries.up.nic.in/manual.htm.
  16. "hilsa breeding end hilsaah haicheri" (angreji mein). si.I.ef.aar.I.. http://www.cifri.ernet.in/technology.html.
  17. "raafting" (echateeemael). uttaraakhand portal. 2007. http://www.uttara.in/hindi/gmvn/tourist/adv_sports/rafting.html. abhigman tithi: 2009.
  18. "sinchaai ka itihaas va pradesh ki mukh‍aaya nahar pranaaliyon ka sinhaavalokan". uttar pradesh sinchaai vibhaag. http://idup.gov.in/wps/portal/!ut/p/c0/04_SB8K8xLLM9MSSzPy8xBz9CP0os3hTS1MnnwBHAwP3IH83AyNzoxCTQFMzQxNfU_2CbEdFANeB8hE!. abhigman tithi: 2009.
  19. baikteeriyofej ka sv-shuddhikran prabhaav, okseejan ritenshan rahasya: mistri faiktar givs gainjes A clean repyuteshan jooliyn krainda-2 haullik. national pablik radio.
  20. "khatre mein ganga ka astitv" (eesapeeeks). patrika. http://www.patrika.com/article.aspx?id=10912. abhigman tithi: 2009.
  21. "ganga ko pradooshan se bachaaenge 71 ghadiyaal". navabhaarat times. http://navbharattimes.indiatimes.com/articleshow/4126070.cms. abhigman tithi: 2009.
  22. "ab ganga pradooshan maamala raajya sarkaar jimmevaar". lokamanch. http://www.lokmanch.com/cms/index.php/culture/4089-ganga-pollution-state-government-responsible. abhigman tithi: 2009.
  23. "ab moorti visrjan se naheen hogi ganga maili". josh. http://josh18.in.com/hindi/-moneylife/319321/0. abhigman tithi: 2009.
  24. Boston.com par dekhein- vaishvik ooshmeekaran ka u.pr. ki ganga par prabhaav.
  25. "Ganga, Yamuna banks cleaned [ganga yamuna ke kinaare par safaai]" (angreji mein). the times of indiya. 12 November 2013. http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2013-11-12/allahabad/43979274_1_yamuna-banks-ganga-and-yamuna-holy-river. abhigman tithi: 3 June 2015.
  26. "Why Narendra Modi decided to contest from Varanasi [Narendra Modi ne Varanasi se chunaav ladne ka nirnaya kyon liya]" (angreji mein). the economic times. 17 March 2014. http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/2014-03-17/news/48297677_1_narendra-modi-nilanjan-mukhopadhyay-prime-ministerial-candidate. abhigman tithi: 3 June 2015.
  27. "Namami Ganga development Project gets 2037 crores [namaami ganga vikaas pariyojana ko 2037 karod mile]" (angreji mein). Bihar prabha. 10 July 2014. http://news.biharprabha.com/2014/07/namami-ganga-development-project-gets-2037-crores/. abhigman tithi: 3 June 2015.
  28. "nikhrega ganga ka roop, 48 faiktriyon ko band karne ka aadesh jaari hua". patrika samaachaar samooh. 15 July 2014. http://archive.patrika.com/news/48-industrial-units-polluting-ganga-asked-to-close-down/1017955. abhigman tithi: 3 June 2015.
  29. a aa Singh, dau॰ Rajkumar (July). vichaar vimarsh. Mathura: saagar prakaashan. pa॰ 13-23.
  30. "shreegangaasahastranaamastotram". bhaarateeya saahitya sangrah. http://www.pustak.org/bs/home.php?bookid=6127. abhigman tithi: 2009.
  31. "shreegangaaji ki aarti". vebadunaya. http://bhavishyawani.mywebdunia.com/2009/02/25/gangaji_ki_aarti.html. abhigman tithi: 2009.
  32. "ganga - India vaatar portal". India vaatar portal. http://hindi.indiawaterportal.org/?q=content/ganga. abhigman tithi: 2009.
  33. "bhageerath aur ganga" (echateeemael). spirichual indiya. 14. http://forum.spiritualindia.org/%E0%A4%AD%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%97%E0%A5%80%E0%A4%B0%E0%A4%A5-%E0%A4%94%E0%A4%B0-%E0%A4%97%E0%A4%82%E0%A4%97%E0%A4%BE-t16004.0.html.
  34. "hindi kaavya mein ganga nadi". abhivyakti. http://www.abhivyakti-hindi.org/snibandh/2009/hindikavyameganganadii.htm. abhigman tithi: 2009.
  35. "bundeli kaavya ka aitihaasik sandarbh". teedeeaaiel. http://tdil.mit.gov.in/CoilNet/IGNCA/bund0016.htm. abhigman tithi: 2009.
  36. "nauka-vihaar / sumitraanandan pant". kavitaakosh. http://www.kavitakosh.org/kk/index.php?title=%E0%A4%A8%E0%A5%8C%E0%A4%95%E0%A4%BE-%E0%A4%B5%E0%A4%BF%E0%A4%B9%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%B0_/_%E0%A4%B8%E0%A5%81%E0%A4%AE%E0%A4%BF%E0%A4%A4%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B0%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%A8%E0%A4%82%E0%A4%A6%E0%A4%A8_%E0%A4%AA%E0%A4%82%E0%A4%A4. abhigman tithi: 2009.
  37. "ganga". anubhooti. http://www.anubhuti-hindi.org/gauravgram/snp/ganga.htm. abhigman tithi: 2009.
  38. "maaain ganga". bhaarateeya saahitya sangrah. http://www.pustak.org/bs/home.php?bookid=3944. abhigman tithi: 2009.
  39. tulaseedaas (samvat 2058). kavitaavali. Gorakhpur: geetaapres. pa॰ 136 se 137.

inhein bhi dekhein