gandhakaaml

gandhakaaml
Sulfuric-acid-Givan-et-al-1999-3D-vdW.png
Sulfuric-acid-Givan-et-al-1999-3D-balls.png
Sulfuric-acid-2D-dimensions.svg
Sulphuric acid 96 percent extra pure.jpg
aaiyoopeeesi naam salfyurik aml (gandhakaaml)
anya naam 'Oil of vitrol' (Oil of vitriol)
pehchaan aaidentifaayars
si.A.S sankhya [7664-93-9][CAS]
EC sankhya 231-639-5
UN sankhya 1830
keijeeji D05963
raasa.E.bi.I 26836
RTECS number WS5600000
SMILES
InChI
kaimaspaaidar I.di 1086
gun
aanvik sootr H2SO4
molar dravyamaan 98.079 g/mol
dikhaavat Clear, colorless liquid
gandh odorless
ghanatv 1.84 g/cm3, liquid
galanaank

10 °aC, 283 K, 50 °aF

kvathanaank

337 °aC, 610 K, 639 °aF

jal mein ghulanasheelata miscible
vaashp dabaav 0.001 mmHg (20 °aC)[1]
amlata (pKa) −3, 1.99
shyaanata 26.7 cP (20 °aC)
Thermochemistry
faurmeshan ki maanak
enthaalpi
ΔfHo298
−814 kJ·aamol−1[2]
maanak moleeya
entraupi
So298
157 J·aamol−1·aK−1[2]
khatra
EU vargeekaran Corrosive C[3][4]
NFPA 704
NFPA 704.svg
0
3
2
R-fresej R35
S-fresej (S1/2) S26 saaaincha:S30 S45
sfuraank (flaish pauint) Non-flammable
you.S anujnyaeya avasthiti seema (pi.E.L) TWA 1 mg/m3[1]
eladi50 2140 mg/kg (rat, oral)[5]
jahaan diya hai vahaan ke alaava,
ye aankade padaarth ki maanak sthiti (25 °ase, 100 ki.pa ke anusaar hain.
jnyaaanasandook ke sandarbh

gandhakaaml (salfyurik esid) ek teevr akaarbanik aml hai. praaya: sabhi aadhunik udyogon mein gandhakaaml atyaavashyak hota hai. at: aisa maana jaata hai ki kisi desh dvaara gandhakaaml ka upabhog us desh ke audyogeekaran ka soochak hai. gandhakaaml ke vipul upabhogavaale desh adhik samruddh maane jaate hain.

shuddh gandhakaaml rangaheen, gandhaheen, tel jaisa bhaari taral padaarth hai jo jal mein har parimaan mein vileya hai. iska upayog prayogashaala mein pratikaarak ke roop mein tatha anek raasaayanik udyogon mein vibhinn raasaayanik padaarthon ke sanshleshan mein hota hai. bade paimaane par iska utpaadan karne ke liye sampark vidhi ka prayog kiya jaata hai jismein gandhak ko vaayu ki upasthiti mein jalaakar vibhinn pratikaarakon se kriya karaai jaati hai.

khanij amlon mein sabse adhik prayog kiya jaane wala yeh mahattvapoorn aml hai. praacheen kaal mein haraakasees (feras salfet) ke dvaara taiyaar gandhak dvijaarakik gas ko jal mein gholakar ise taiyaar kiya gaya. yeh tel jaisa chipchipa hota hai. inhi kaaranon se praacheen kaal mein iska naam 'aayainl of vitriaaainl' rakha gaya tha. haaidrojan, gandhak tatha jaarak teen tatvon ke paramaanuon dvaara gandhakaaml ke anu ka sanshleshan hota hai. aakseejan yukti hone ke kaaran is aml ko 'aaksi aml' kaha jaata hai. iska anusootr H2SO4 hai tatha anu bhaar 98 hai.

gandhakaaml praacheenakaal ke keemiyaagar evam rasavid aachaaryon ko gandhakaaml ke sambandh mein bahut samay se pata tha. us samay hare kasees ko garam karne se yeh aml praapt hota tha. baad mein fitkari ko tej aaainch par garam karne se bhi yeh aml praapt hone laga. praarambh mein gandhakaaml chooainki hare kasees se praapt hota tha, at: ise "kasees ka tel' kaha jaata tha. tel shabd ka prayog isliye hua ki is aml ka prakrut svaroop tel sa hai.

anukram

upayog

gandhakaaml ka prayog anek udyogon mein hota hai jinmein se nimnaankit pramukh hain :

(1) urvarak udyog mein, jaise suparafaasfet, amoniym salfet aadi ke nirmaan mein,

(2) petrolium tatha khanij tel ke parishkaar mein,

(3) visfotak padaarthon ke nirmaan mein,

(4) krutrim tantuon, jaise reyan tatha anya sooton, ke utpaadan mein,

(5) peint, varnak, ranjak ityaadi ke nirmaan mein,

(6) fausforas, haaidroklorik aml, naaitrik aml, dhaavan soda tatha anya rasaayanakon ke nirmaan mein,

(7) inaimal udyog, dhaatuon par jasta chadhaana tatha dhaatukarm udyogon mein,

(8) baitari banaane mein (led esid baitari)

(9) oshadhiyon ke nirmaan mein,

(10) lauh evam steel, plastic tatha anya raasaayanik udyogon mein.

(11) prayogashaalaaon mein gandhakaaml ka prayog vilaayakon, nirjaleekaarakon (desiccating agent) tatha vishleshik abhikrmakon ke roop mein hota hai.

gandhakaaml itne adhik evam vibhinn udyogon mein prayukt hota hai ki un sabhi ka ullekh yahaaain sambhav naheen hai.

gunadharm

bhautik gun

gandhakaaml ek prabal aml hai. iska anusootr (H2SO4) hai. yeh rangaheen tel sadrush gaadha drav hota hai. shuddh avastha mein 25° sein. taap par iska ghanatv 1.834 hai. iska himaank 10.5° sein. hai.

gandhakaaml ka sanrachana sootr saamaanyat: nimnaankit roop mein likha jaata hai :

gandhakaaml ke anu ka chatushfalaki aakaar

aadhunik vichaaradhaara ke anusaar gandhakaaml ke anu ki sanrachana chatushfalak (tetrahedron) hoti hai, jismein gandhak ka ek parmaanu kendra mein aur do haadrauksi samooh tatha do okseejan ke parmaanu chatushfalak ke konon par sthit hain. aml ke anu ki sanrachana mein gandhak-okseejan bandh ka antar 1.51 A (engsatraum ikaai) hota hai.

gred

Mass fraction
H2SO4
ghanatv
(kg/L)
saandrata
(mol/L)
saamaanya naam
10% 1.07 ~1 tanu gandhakaaml (dilute sulfuric acid)
29–32% 1.25–1.28 4.2–5 led esid baitariyon mein prayukt
62–70% 1.52–1.60 9.6–11.5 chamber acid
urvarak aml
78–80% 1.70–1.73 13.5–14 tower acid
glovar aml (Glover acid)
98% 1.83 ~18 saandr gandhakaaml

raasaayanik gun

gandhakaaml jal ke saath milkar anek haaidret banaata hai, jinmein salafyoorik monohaaidret apekshaakrut adhik sthaayi hota hai. is gun ke kaaran saandr gandhakaaml uttam shushkakaarak hota hai. yeh vaayu se hi jal ko naheen kheenchata varan‌ kaarbanik padaarthon se bhi jal ka ansh kheench leta hai. jal ke avashoshan mein atyadhik ooshma ka kshepan hota hai, jisse aml ka vilyan bahut garam ho jaata hai. saandr gandhakaaml prabal okseekaarak hota hai. okseejan ke nikal jaane se yeh salafyooras aml banta hai, jisse gandhak dvijaarakik niklata hai. anek dhaatuon par gandhakaaml ki kriya se gandhak dvijaarakik praapt hota hai.

gandhakaaml ka jal mein aayaneekaran hota hai. isse vilyan mein haaidrojan dhanaayan, baaisalfet tatha salfet rinaayan bante hain. raasaayanik vishleshan ki saamaanya reetiyon segandhakaaml mein gandhak, okseejan tatha haaidrojan ki upasthiti jaani ja sakti hai.

shat pratishat shuddh gandhakaaml ka ghanatv 15° sein. par 1.8384 gram prati mileeleetar hota hai. gandhakaaml ko garam karne se usase gandhak traaioksaaid ka vaashp nikalne lagta hai tatha aml ka 290° sein. se kvathan praarambh ho jaata hai. kvathanaank mein tab tak vruddhi hoti jaati hai, jab tak taap 317° sein. naheen pahunch jaata. is taap par gandhakaaml 98.54 pratishat rah jaata hai. uchch taap par gandhakaaml ka vightan shuru ho jaata hai aur jaise jaise taap oopar uthata hai vightan badhta jaata hai. saandr gandhakaaml jal ke saath gandhakaaml monohaaidret, galanaank 8.47° sein., gandhakaaml daaihaaidret, galanaank - 39.46° sein. tatha gandhakaaml tetraahaaidret, galanaank - 28.25° sein., banaata hai. jal ke saath kriya ke falasvaroop prati gram saandr aml 205 kailori ushm ka utpaadan karta hai. saandr aml kaarbanik padaarthon, lakdi tatha praaniyon ke ootakon se jal kheench leta hai, jiske falasvaroop kaarbanik padaarthon ka vightan ho jaata hai aur avashesh ke roop mein koyal rah jaata hai. gandhakaaml lavan banaata hai, jise salfet kehte hain. salfet saamaanya ya udaaseen lavan hote hain, jaise saamaanya sodiym salfet (Na2SO4) ya amleeya sodiym baaisalfet (NaHSO4). amleeya isliye ki ismein ab bhi ek haaidrojan rahata hai, jo kshaarakon se pratisthaapit ho sakta hai. dhaatuon, dhaatuon ke oksaaidon, haaidauksaaidon, kaarboneto ya anya lavanon par aml ki kriya se salfet bate hain. adhikaansh salfet jalavileya hote hain. keval kailsiym, beriym, straunshiym aur sees ke lavan jal mein avileya ya bahut kam vileya hote hain. anek lavan audyogik mahatva ke hain. beriym aur sees salfet varnak ke roop mein, sodiym salfet kaagaj nirmaan mein, kaupar salfet keetanaashak ke roop mein aur kailsiym salfet plaastar ov pairis ke roop mein prayukt hote hain. sees aur ispaat par saandr aml ki koi kriya naheen hoti. at: aml ke nirmaan mein tatha aml ko rakhane ke liye sees tatha ispaat ke paatr prayukt hote hain.

nirmaan

prayogashaala vidhiyaaain

prayogashaalaaon mein nimnaankit teen reetiyon se alp maatra mein gandhakaaml taiyaar kiya ja sakta hai :

(1) gandhak traaioksaaid ko jal mein ghulaane se,

(2) haaidrojan parauksaaid tatha salfar daaioksaaid ki seedhi kriya se-

(3) vaayu ke sansarg mein salfyooras aml ke vilyan ke mand okseekaran se.

audyogik utpaadan

varsh 2000 mein vishv mein gandhakaaml ke utpaadan ki sthiti

audyogik star par sees-kaksh-vidhi (lead chamber process) tatha sansparsh vidhi (contact process) se aml ka utpaadan hota hai. sansparsh vidhi mein gandhak athva aayaran salfaaid sadrush kisi salfaaid ke dahan se salfar daaioksaaid pehle banta hai aur vah plaitinm dhaatuyukt aisabestas utprerak ki upasthiti mein vaayu ke okseejan dvaara gandhak traaioksaaid mein parint ho jaata hai, jo jal mein ghulakar gandhakaaml banta hai.

sees kaksh vidhi

is vidhi mein jal ki upasthiti mein naaitrik aml dvaara salfar daaioksaaid ke okseekaran se aml banta hai. yeh kriya-bade bade sees kakshon (led chaimbars) mein sampann hoti hai at: iska naam 'sees-kaksh-vidhi' pada hai. is vidhi ka upayog bhaari maatra mein salfyurik aml banaane ke liye hota tha, kintu iski kuchh kamiyaaain hain jiske kaaran ab iska sthaan sansparsh prakram ne le liya hai.

bade paimaane par gandhakaaml ke nirmaan ka pehla kaarkhaana 1740 E. mein London ke sameep richmand mein ward naamak vaigyaanik dvaara sthaapit kiya gaya tha. nirmaan ke liye gandhak tatha shore ke mishran ko lohe ke paatr mein garam kiya jaata tha aur aml ke vaashp ko kaaainch ke paatron mein jinmein jal bhara rahata tha, ekatr kiya jaata tha. is prakaar se praapt tanu aml ko baalu ooshmak ke oopar kaaainch ke paatron mein saandr kiya jaata tha. kuchh samay pashchaat‌ sheegra tootanevaale kaaainch ke paatron ke sthaan par chhah foot chaude sees kakshon ka prayog hone laga. holker naamak vaigyaanik ke ayak parishram dvaara 1810 E. mein aadhunik seesakaksh vidhi ka prayog praarambh hua. 1818 E. se gandhak dvijaarakik ki praapti ke liye kachche maal gandhak ke sthaan par paairaaiteej naamak khanij ka prayog hone laga. 1827 E. mein gay-lupaik stambh tatha 1859 E. mein globrar stambh ke vikaas dvaara sees-kaksh-vidhi ka aadhunikeekaran hua. yahaaain naaitrojan ke oksaaid, gandhak dvijaarakik tatha vaayu ko kaksh mein pravesh karaaya jaata hai. aise gas mishran ko 25 foot ooainche glovar stambh mein neeche se pravesh karaaya jaata hai. is stambh mein oopar se gay-lusaik stambh ka gandhakaaml tatha naaitrosil gandhakaaml ka mishran tapakata hai. stambh se nikalkar gas mishran sees kaksh mein pravesh karta hai. saadhaaranataya sees kaksh teen rahate hain. yahaaain kaksh mein bhaap bhi pravesh karta hai. gas mishran aur bhaap ke beech kriya hokar, gandhakaaml bankar, kaksh ke peinde mein ikattha hota hai. avashisht gaise ab gay-lusaik stambh mein pravesh karti hain. inmein pradhaanataya naaitrojan ke oksaaid rahate hain. gay-lusaik stambh kok ya patthar ke tukadon se bhara rahata hai. usamein oopar se gandhakaaml tapakata hai aur rukaavat ke kaaran dheere-dheere girkar, naaitrojan ke oksaaidon ko avashoshit kar, naaitrosil gandhakaaml banta hai aur glovar stambh mein prayukt hota hai. is prakaar naaitrojan ke oksaaidon ki kshati bachaai jaati hai. sees kaksh se praapt aml ashuddh hota hai. ashuddhiyon mein aarsonik, naaitrojan ke oksaaid tatha kuchh lavan hote hain. aisa aml pradhaanataya urvarak ke nirmaan mein prayukt hota hai. iske liye shuddh aml aavashyak naheen hai. aisa aml sasta hota hai.

sansparsh vidhi

gandhak aml nirmaan ki doosare reeti sansparsh vidhi hai. is vidhi se praapt aml adhik shuddh aur saandr hota hai. iska vikaas 1889-90 E. mein naaitj naamak vaigyaanik ne kiya tha. Germany ki baidishche enilin end soda faibrik company ne is vidhi se sarvapratham aml taiyaar kiya, at: ise baidishche vidhi, athva baidishche prakram bhi kehte hain. sansaar ke adhikaansh gandhakaaml ka nirmaan aajkal sansparsh vidhi se hi hota hai. isse kisi bhi saandran ka aml praapt ho sakta hai. is vidhi mein gandhak ko jalaakar, athva paairaaiteej ko uttapt kar, gandhak dvijaarakik praapt hota hai. ise vaayu ke saath milaakar utprerak par le laaya jaata hai, jahaaain gandhak dvijaarakik vaayu ke okseejan se sanyukt hokar gandhak traaioksaaid banta hai. gandhak traaioksaaid ko saandr gandhakaaml mein avashoshit karaane se "oliym' praapt hota hai. oliym ki jal ke saath kriya se vaanchhit saandrata ke aml ko praapt kiya jaata hai.

utprerak ke roop mein pehle sookshm vibhaajit plaitinm prayukt hota tha. yeh bahut mahainga padta tha. jab plaitinm ke sthaan mein vainediym peintauksaaid prayukt hota hai, jo plaitinm ki apeksha bahut sasta hota hai. utprerak ki kriyaasheelata kam na ho jaae, iske liye aavashyak hai ki salfar daaioksaaid aarsenik, raakh tatha dhool kanon se bilkul mukt ho. at: gandhak dvijaarakik ke chhaanane ka prabandh rahata hai aur use aise padaarthon dvaara paarit kiya jaata hai jinmein aarsenik poornataya nikal jaae. yadi gas ko shuddh na kar liya jaae, to utprerak ki kaaryasheelata jald nasht ho sakti hai. utprerak kaksh mein jo gaisein pravesh karti hain unamein gandhak dvijaarakik, okseejan aur naaitrojan rahate hain. oordhvaadhar paatron mein utprerak rakha rahata hai. vahaaain kriya sampann kar niklati gas ko saandr gandhakaaml mein avashoshit karaaya jaata hai. isse oliym praapt hota hai. oliym mein shat prati shat gandhakaaml ke atirikt 40 pratishat tak adhik gandhak traaioksaaid avashoshit rah sakta hai. aavashyak maatra mein paani daalkar, isse vaanchhit saandrata ka aml praapt kar sakte hain. sansparsh vidhi se aml nirmaan ke anek sanyantr bane hain, jinse adhik shuddh aur kam kharch mein aml praapt ho sakta hai. aise sanyantr ab bane hain jinmein 24 ghante mein 600 tan aml taiyaar ho sake. inki dekhbhaal ke liye kuchh hi vyakti paryaapt hote hain. prati tan aml ke liye ek tan se adhik ooainchi daab waali sanprukt bhaap, ya ati tapt bhaap, ki aavashyakta padti hai. prati tan 100 aml ki praapti ke liye 35 kilovaat bijli aur 4,000 gailan thandhe jal ki aavashyakta padti hai.

sandarbh

  1. a aa saaaincha:PGCH
  2. a aa Zumdahl, Steven S. (2009). Chemical Principles 6th Ed.. Houghton Mifflin Company. pa॰ A23. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-618-94690-X.
  3. "NuGenTec Material Safety Datasheet-Sulfuric acid". http://www.msdsauthoring.com/sulfuric_acid_nugentec_ghs_msds.pdf.
  4. "Sulfuric acid IPCS". http://www.ilo.org/dyn/icsc/showcard.display?p_lang=en&p_card_id=0362. "The substance is harmful to aquatic organisms.(ENVIRONMENTAL DATA)"
  5. saaaincha:IDLH

inhein bhi dekhein