ganaraajya

ganaraajya (sanskrut se; "gan": janta, "raajya": riyaasat/desh) ek aisa desh hota hai jahaan ke shaasanatantr mein saiddhaantik roop se desh ka sarvochch pad par aam janta mein se koi bhi vyakti padaaseen ho sakta hai. is tarah ke shaasanatantr ko ganatantr(sanskrut; gan:poori janta, tantr:pranaali; janta dvaara niyantrit pranaali) kaha jaata hai. "lokatantr" ya "prajaatantr" isse alag hota hai. lokatantr vo shaasanatantr hota hai jahaaain vaastav mein saamaanya janta ya uske bahumat ki ichha se shaasan chalta hai. aaj vishv ke adhikaansh desh ganaraajya hain aur iske saath-saath lokataantrik bhi. Bhaarat svay: ek lokataantrik ganaraajya hai.

anukram

ganaraajya jo lokatantr naheen hain

har ganaraajya ka lokataantrik hona avashyak naheen hai. taanaashaahi, jaise hitlar ka naajeevaad, musoleeni ka faaseevaad, Pakistan aur kai anya deshon mein fauji taanaashaahi, cheen, soviyt sangh mein saamyavaadi taanaashaahi, ityaadi ganatantr hain, kyonki unka raashtraadhyaksh ek saamaanya vyakti hai ya the. lekin in raajyon mein lokataantrik chunaav naheen hote, janta aur vipaksh ko dabaaya jaata hai aur janta ki ichha se shaasan naheen chalta. aise kuchh desh hain :

lokatantr jo ganaraajya naheen hain

har lokatantr ka ganaraajya hona aavashyak naheen hai. samvaidhaanik raajatantr, jahaaain raashtraadhyaksh ek vanshaanugat raaja hota hai, lekin asli shaasan janta dvaara nirvaachit sansad chalaati hai, is shreni mein aate hain. aise kuchh desh hain :

itihaas

inhein bhi dekhein: ganasangh

bhaarateeya ganashaasan

praacheen kaal mein do prakaar ke raajya kahe gaye hain. ek raajaadheen aur doosare ganadheen. raajaadheen ko ekaadheen bhi kehte the. jahaaain gan ya anek vyaktiyon ka shaasan hota tha, ve hi ganaadheen raajya kahalaate the. is vishesh arth mein paanini ki vyaakhya spasht aur sunishchit hai. unhonne gan ko sangh ka paryaaya kaha hai (sanghoddhau ganaprashansayo :, ashtaadhyaayi 3,3,86). saahitya se gyaat hota hai ki paanini aur buddh ke kaal mein anek ganaraajya the. tirhut se lekar kapilvastu tak ganaraajyon ka ek chhota sa guchha ganga se taraai tak faila hua tha. buddh shaakyagan mein utpann hue the. lichhaviyon ka ganaraajya inmein sabse shaktishaali tha, usaki rajdhani vaishaali thi. kintu bhaaratavarsh mein ganaraajyon ka sabse adhik vistaar vaaheek (aadhunik Punjab) pradesh mein hua tha. uttar pashchim ke in ganaraajyon ko paanini ne aayudhajeevi sangh kaha hai. ve hi arthashaastr ke vaartaashastropajeevi sangh gyaat hote hain. ye log shaantikl mein vaarta ya krushi aadi par nirbhar rahate the kintu yuddhakaal mein apne samvidhaan ke anusaar yoddha bankar sangraam karte the. inka raajaneetik sanghatan bahut drudh tha aur ye apekshaakrut viksit the. inmein kshudrak aur maalav do ganaraajyon ka vishesh ullekh aata hai. unhonne yavan aakraanta sikandar se ghor yuddh kiya tha. vah maalavon ke baan se to ghaayal bhi ho gaya tha. in donon ki sanyukt sena ke liye paanini ne ganapaath mein kshaudrakamaalavi sanjnyaa ka ullekh kiya hai. Punjab ke uttarapashchim aur uttarapoorv mein bhi anek chhote mote ganaraajya the, unka ek shrunkhala trigrt (vartamaan kaaaingada) ke pahaadi pradesh mein vistaarit hua tha jinhein parvateeya sangh kehte the. doosra shrunkhala sindhu nadi ke donon taton par girighavaron mein basane vaale mahaabalashaali jaatiyon ka tha jinhein praacheenakaal mein graamaneeya sangh kehte the. ve hi vartamaan ke kabaayali hain. inke samvidhaan ka utana adhik vikaas naheen hua jitna anya ganaraajyon ka. ve praaya: utsedhajeevi ya lootamaar kar jeevika chalaanevaale the. inmein bhi jo kuchh viksit the unhein poog aur jo pichhde hue the unhein braat kaha jaata tha. sangh ya ganon ka ek teesara guchha Saurashtra mein vistaarit hua tha. unamein andhakavrushniyon ka sangh ya ganaraajya bahut prasiddh tha. Krishna isi sangh ke sadasya the ataev shaantipoorv mein unhein ardhabhokta raajanya kaha gaya hai. gyaat hota hai ki sindhu nadi ke donon taton par ganaraajyon ki yeh shrrunkhala oopar se neeche ko utarati Saurashtra tak fail gayi thi kyonki sindh naamak pradesh mein bhi is prakar ke kai ganon ka varnan milta hai. inmein muchakarn, braahmanak aur shoodrak mukhya the.

bhaarateeya ganashaasan ke sambandh mein bhi paryaapt saamagri upalabdh hai. gan ke nirmaan ki ikaai kul thi. pratyek kul ka ek ek vyakti ganasabha ka sadasya hota tha. use kulavruddh ya paanini ke anusaar gotr kehte the. usi ki sanjnyaa vanshya bhi thi. praaya: ye raajanya ya kshatriya jaati ke hi vyakti hote the. aise kulon ki sankhya pratyek gan mein parampara se niyat thi, jaise lichhavign ke sangathan mein 7707 kutunb ya kul sammilit the. unke pratyek kulavruddh ki sangheeya upaadhi raaja hoti thi. sabhaaparv mein ganaadheen aur raajaadheen shaasan ka vivechan karte hue spasht kaha hai ki saamraajya shaasan mein satta ek vyakti ke haath mein rahati hai. (saamraajyashabdon hi krutsnabhaak) kintu gan shaasan mein pratyek parivaar mein ek ek raaja hota hai. (gruhe gruhehi raajaan: svasya svasya priyankara:, sabhaaparv, 14,2). iske atirikt do baatein aur kahi gayi hain. ek yeh ki ganashaasan mein praja ka kalyaan door door tak vyaapt hota hai. doosare yeh ki yuddh se gan ki sthiti sakushal naheen rahati. ganon ke liye sham ya shaanti ki neeti hi thi. yeh bhi kaha hai ki gan mein paraanubhaav ya doosare ki vyaktitv garima ki bhi prashansa hoti hai aur gan mein sabko saath lekar chalanevaala hi prashansaneeya hota hai. gan shaasan ke liye hi paraameshthya yeh paaribhaashik sanjnyaa bhi prayukt hoti thi. sambhavat: yeh aavashyak maana jaata tha ki gan ke bheetar dalon ka sangathan ho. dal ke sadasyon ko vagrya, pakshya, gruhya bhi kehte the. dal ka neta paramavagrya kaha jaata tha.

ganasabha mein gan ke samast pratinidhiyon ko sammilit hone ka adhikaar tha kintu sadasyon ki sankhya kai sahasr tak hoti thi ataev vishesh avsaron ko chhodkar praaya: upasthiti parimit hi rahati thi. shaasan ke liye antarang adhikaari niyukt kiye jaate the. kintu niymanirmaan ka poora daayitv ganasabha par hi tha. ganasabha mein niymaanusaar prastaav (jnyaapti) rakha jaata tha. usaki teen vaachana hoti thi aur shalaakaaon dvaara matadaan kiya jaata tha. is sabha mein raajaneetik prashnon ke atirikt aur bhi anek prakaar ke saamaajik, vyaavahaarik aur dhaarmik prashn bhi vichaaraarth aate rahate the. us samay ki raajya sabhaaon ki praaya: aise hi lacheeli paddhati thi.

bhaaratavarsh mein lagbhag ek sahasr varshon (600 sadi E. poo. se 4 thi sadi E.) tak ganaraajyon ke utaar chadhaav ka itihaas milta hai. unki antim jhalak gupt saamraajya ke udaya kaal tak dikhaai padti hai. samudragupt dvaara dharanibandh ke uddeshya se kiye hue sainik abhiyaan se ganaraajyon ka vilay ho gaya. arvaacheen puraatatv ke utkhanan mein ganaraajyon ke kuchh lekh, sikke aur mitti ki muharein praapt hui hain. visheshat: vijyashaali yaudheya ganaraajya ke sambandh ki kuchh pramaanik saamagri mili hai. (va. sh. a.)

bhaarateeya itihaas ke vaidik yug mein janon athva ganon ki pratinidhi sansthaaeain theen vidth, sabha aur samiti. aage unheen ka svaroopavarg, shreni poog aur jaanapad aadi mein badal gaya. ganatantraatmak aur raajatantraatmak paranparaaon ka sangharsh jaari raha. ganaraajya nruparaajya aur nruparaajya ganaraajya mein badalate rahe. aitareya braahman ke uttarakul aur uttaramadr naamak ve raajya----jo himaalaya ke paar chale gaye the-----Punjab mein kuru aur madr naamak raajatantravaadiyon ke roop mein rahate the. baad mein ye hi madr aur kuru tatha unheen ki tarah shivi, paanchaal, mall aur videh ganatantraatmak ho gaye.

mahaabhaarat yug mein andhakavrushniyon ka sangh ganatantraatmak tha. saamraajyon ki pratidvandvita mein bhaag lene mein samarth uske pradhaan Krishna mahaabhaarat ki raajaneeti ko mod dene lage. paanini (isa poorv paaainchaveen-saataveen sadi) ke samay saara vaaheek desh (Punjab aur sindh) ganaraajyon se bhara tha. mahaaveer aur buddh ne na keval jnyaaatrikon aur shaakyon ko amar kar diya varan bhaarateeya itihaas ki kaaya palat di. unke samay mein uttar poorvi Bhaarat ganaraajyon ka pradhaan kshetr tha aur lichhavi, videh, shaakya, mall, koliya, moriya, buli aur bhagg unke mukhya pratinidhi the. lichhavi apni shakti aur pratishtha se magadh ke udeeyamaan raajya ke shool bane. par ve apni raksha mein peechhe na rahe aur kabhi to mallon ke saath tatha kabhi aas paas ke anyaanya ganon ke saath unhonne sangh banaaya jo bajjisangh ke naam se vikhyaat hua. ajaatashatru ne apne mantri varshakaar ko bhejkar unhein jeetne ka upaaya buddh se jaanana chaaha. mantri ko, buddh ne aanand ko sambodhit kar apratyaksh uttar diya-----aanand! jab tak vajjiyon ke adhiveshan ek par ek aur sadasyon ki prachur upasthiti mein hote hain; jab tak ve adhiveshanon mein ek man se baithate, ek man se uthate aur ek man se sanghakaarya sampann karte hain; jab tak ve poorvapratishthit vyavastha ke virodh mein niymanirmaan naheen karte, poorvaniymit niyamon ke virodh mein navaniymon ki abhisrushti naheen karte aur jab tak ve ateet kaal mein prasthaapit vajjiyon ki sansthaaon aur unke siddhaanton ke anusaar kaarya karte hain; jab tak ve vajji arhaton aur guru janon ka sanmaan karte hain, unki mantrana ko bhaktipoorvak sunate hain; jab tak unki naariyaaain aur kanyaaeain shakti aur apachaar se vyavastha viruddh vyasan ka saadhan naheen banaai jaateen, jab tak ve vajjichaityon ke prati shraddha aur bhakti rakhate hain, jab tak ve apne arhaton ki raksha karte hain, us samay tak he aanand, vajjiyon ka utkarsh nishchit hai, apakarsh sambhav naheen. ganon athva sanghon ke hi aadarsh par sthaapit apne bauddh sangh ke liye bhi buddh ne isi prakaar ke niyam banaae. jab tak ganaraajyon ne un niyamon ka paalan kiya, ve bane rahe, par dheere dheere unhonne bhi raaj ki upaadhi apanaani sharoo kar di aur unki aapasi foot, kisi ki jyeshthata, madhyata tatha shishyatv na sveekaar karna, unke dosh ho gaye. sangh aapas mein hi ladne lage aur raajatantravaadayon ki ban I. tathaapi ganatantron ki parampara ka abhi naash naheen hua. Punjab aur sindh se lekar poorvi uttar pradesh aur Bihar tak ke saare pradesh mein unki sthiti bani rahi. chauthi sadi isavi poorv mein makdooniyaaain ke saamraajyavaadi aakramanakaar sikandar ko, apne vijay mein ek ek inch jameen ke liye keval ladna hi naheen pada, kabhi kabhi chhadm aur vishvaasaghaat ka bhi aashray lena pada. punjabi ganon ki veerata, sainyakushalata, raajyabhakti, deshaprem tatha aatmaahuti ke utsaah ka varnan karne mein yoonaani itihaasakaar bhi na chooke. apne desh ke ganaraajyon se unki tulana aur unke shaasanatantron ke bhedopabhed unhonne samajh bujhakar kiye. kath, assak, yaudheya, maalav, kshudrak, agrashreni kshatriya, saubhooti, muchukarn aur anbashth aadi anek ganon ke naranaariyon ne sikandar ke daaaint khatte kar diye aur maatrubhoomi ki raksha mein apne lahoo se pruthvi laal kar di. kathon aur saubhootiyon ka saundayaprem ativaadi tha aur svasth tatha sudanr bachche hi jeene diye jaate the. baalak raajya ka hota, maata pita ka naheen. sabhi naagrik sipaahi hote aur anekaanek ganaraajya aayudhajeevi. par sab vyarth tha, unki akelepan ki neeti ke kaaran. unamein mataikya ka abhaav aur unke chhote chhote pradesh unke vinaash ke kaaran bane. sikandar ne to unhein jeeta hi, unheen ganaraajyon mein se ek ke (moriyon ke) pratinidhi chandragupt tatha uske mantri chaanakya ne unke unmoolan ki neeti apnaai. parantu saamraajyavaad ki dhaara mein samaahit ho jaane ki baari keval unheen ganaraajyon ki thi jo chhote aur kamjor the. kulasangh to chandragupt aur chaanakya ko bhi durjaya jaan pade. yeh ganaraajyon ke sanghaatmak svaroop ki vijay thi. parantu ye sangh apavaad maatr the. ajaatashatru aur varshakaar ne jo neeti apnaai thi, vaheen chandragupt aur chaanakya ka aadarsh bani. saamraajyavaadi shaktiyon ka sarvaatmasaati svaroop saamane aaya aur adhikaansh ganatantr mauryon ke vishaal ekaatmak shaasan mein vileen ho gaye.

parantu ganaraajyon ki aatma naheen dabi. sikandar ki talavaar, mauryon ki maar athva baakhtri yavanon aur shak kushaanon ki aakramanakaari baadh unamein se kamajoron hi baha saki. apni svatantrata ka har moolya chukaane ko taiyaar malloi (maalava), yaudheya, madr aur shivi Punjab se neeche utarakar rajputana mein pravesh kar gaye aur shataabdiyon tak aage bhi unke ganaraajya bane rahe. unhonne shaakal aadi apne praacheen nagaron ka moh chhod maadhyamika tatha ujjayini jaise nae nagar basaae, apne sikke chalaae aur apne ganon ki vijyakaamana ki. maalav ganatantr ke pramukh vikramaaditya ne shakon se morcha liya, unapar vijay praapt ki, shakaari upaadhi dhaaran ki aur smrutisvaroop 57-56 i0 poo0 mein ek naya sanvat chalaaya jo kramash:krutamaalav aur vikram sanvat ke naam se prasiddh hua aur jo aaj bhi bhaarateeya gananaapaddhati mein mukhya sthaan rakhata hai. tathaapi svaatantryabhaavana ki yeh antim lau maatr thi. gupton ke saamraajyavaad ne un sabko samaapt kar daala. bhaarateeya ganon ke sirmauron mein se ek-lichhaviyon-ke hi dauhitr samudragupt ne unka naamonishaan mita diya aur maalav, aarjunaayan, yaudheya, kaak, kharaparik, aabheer, praarjun evam sanakaaneek aadi ko pranaam, aagaman aur aajnyaaakaran ke liye baadhya kiya. unhonne swayam apne ko mahaaraaj kehna shuroo kar diya aur vikramaaditya upaadhidhaari chandragupt ne un sabko apne vishaal saamraajya ka shaasit pradesh bana liya. bhaarateeya ganaraajyon ke bhaagyachakr ki yeh vidanbana hi theen ki unheen ke sanbandhiyon ne unapar sabse bade prahaar kiye----ve the vaideheeputr ajaatashutr mauriya Rajkumar chandragupt maurya, lichhavidauhitr samudragupt. par panchaayati bhaavanaaeain naheen mareen aur aheer tatha goojar jaisi anek jaatiyon mein ve kai shataabdiyon aage tak palati raheen.

pashchim mein ganaraajyon ki parampara

praacheen Bhaarat ki bhaaainti grees ki bhi ganaparanpara atyant praacheen theen. doriyaai kabeelon ne ijiyn saagar ke tat par 12 veen sadi E. poo. mein hi apni sthiti bana li. dheere dheere saare grees mein ganaraajyavaadeen nagar khade ho gaye. Athens, spaarta, korinth aadi anek nagararaajya doriya greek aavaason ki kataar mein khade ho gaye. unhonne apni paranparaaon, sanvidhaanon aur aadarshon ka nirmaan kiya, janasattaatmak shaasan ke anek svaroop saamane aae. praaptiyon ke upalakshyasvaroop keertistanbh khade kiye gaye aur aishvaryapoorn sabhyataaon ka nirmaan shuroo ho gaya. parantu unki ganavyavasthaaon mein hi unki avanati ke beej bhi chhipe rahe. unke aishvarya ne unki sabhyata ko bhogavaadi bana diya, spaarta aur Athens ki laag daat aur paarasparik sangharsh praarambh ho gaye aur ve aadarsh raajya--ripblik--swayam saamraajyavaadi hone lage. unamein tathaakathit svatantrata hi bach rahi, raajaneetik adhikaar atyant seemit logon ke haathon raha, bahul janta ko raajaneetik adhikaar to door, naagrik adhikaar bhi praapt naheen the tatha sevakon aur gulaamon ki vyavastha un svatantr nagararaajyon par vyangya siddh hone lagi. svaarth aur aapasi foot badhne lagi. ve aapas mein to lade hi, Iran aur makadooniyaaain ke saamraajya bhi un par toot pade. sikandar ke bhaarateeya ganaraajyon ki kamar todne ke poorv use pita Phillip ne greek ganaraajyon ko samaapt kar diya tha. saamraajyalipsa ne donon hi deshon ke nagararaajyon ko dakaar diya.

parantu pashchim mein ganaraajyon ki parampara samaapt naheen hui. Italy ka rom nagar unka kendra aur aage chalakar atyant prasiddh hone waali roman jaati ka moolasthaan bana. haanibaal ne usapar dhaave kiye aur laga ki rom ka ganaraajya choor choor ho jaayaga par us asaadhaaran vijeta ko bhi jaama ki ladaai haarakar apni raksha ke liye hatna pada. rom ki vijyani sena grees se lekar England tak dhaave maarane lagi. par jaisa grees mein hua, vaisa hi rom mein bhi. sainik yuddhon mein grees ko jeetanevaale roman log sabhyata aur sanskruti ki ladaai mein haar gaye aur rom mein grees ka bhogavilaas panapa. abhijaat kulon ke laadle bhrashtaachaar mein doobe, janavaadi paaharoo bane aur use samoocha nigl gaye---paanpei, seejar, antoni sabhi. bhaarateeya malamal, moti aur masaalon ki baareeki, chamak aur sugandh mein ve doobne lage aur plini jaise itihaasakaar ki cheekh ke baavajood rom ka sona Bhaarat ke pashchimi bandaragaahon se yahaaain aane laga. rom ki ganaraajyavaadi parampara sukh, saundarya aur vaibhav ki khoj mein lupt ho gayi aur unke shmashaan par saamraajya ne mahal khada kiya. agastas usaka pehla samraat bana aur uske vanshajon ne apni saamraajyavaadi sabhyata mein saare Europe ko dubo dene ka upakram kiya. par usaki bhi reedh un hoonon ne tod di, jinki ek shaakha ne Bhaarat ke shaktishaali gupt saamraajya ko jhakajhorakar dharaashaayi kar dene mein anya patanonmukh pravruttiyon ka saath diya.

tathaapi nae uthate saamraajyon aur saamanti shaasan ke baavajood Europe mein nagar ganatantron ka aabhaas chaartaron aur gildon (shreniyon) aadi ke jariye fir hone laga. nagaron aur saamanton mein, nagaron aur samraaton mein gajab ki kashamakash hui aur sadiyon bani rahi; par antat: nagar vijayi hue. unke chaartaron ke saamanton aur samraaton ko sveekaar karna pada.

madhyakaal mein Italy mein ganaraajya uth khade hue, jinmein prasiddh the jenoaa, floreins, paaduaa evam venis aur unke sanrakshak tatha neta the unke Duke. par raashtreeya nruparaajyon ke udaya ke saath ve bhi samaapt ho gaye. needaralainds ke saat raajyon ne spaini saamraajya ke viru ddh vidroh kar sanyukt needaralainds ke ganaraajya ki sthaapana ki.

aage bhi ganatantraatmak bhaavanaaon ka uchhed naheen hua. England aanuvanshik nruparaajya tha, tathaapi madhyayug mein vah kabhi kabhi apne ko kaamanabeel athva kaamanavelth naam se pukaarata raha. 18veen sadi mein vahaaain ke naagrikon ne apne adhikaaron ki raksha ke liye apne raaja (chaalrs pratham) ka vadh kar daala aur kaamanavelth athva ripblik (ganatantr) ki sthaapana hui. pun: raajatantr aaya par ganatantraatmak bhaavanaaeain jaari raheen, raaja janta ka krupaapaatr, khilauna ban gaya aur kabhi bhi usaki aseemit shakti sthaapit na ho saki. maanav adhikaari (raaits ov main) ki ladaai jaari rahi aur amareeka ke angreji upaniveshon ne England ke viru ddh yuddh thaanakar vijay praapt ki aur apni svatantrata ki ghoshana mein un adhikaaron ko samaavisht kiya. France ki praja bhi aage badhi; ekta, svatantrata aur bandhutv ke naare lage, raajatantr dhah gaya aur kraanti ke falasvaroop prajaatantr ki sthaapana hui. nepoliyn un bhaavanaaon ki baadh par taira, France swayam to pun: kuchh dinon ke liye nirankush raajatantr ki chapet mein aa gaya, kintu Europe ke anyaanya deshon aur uske baahar bhi svaatantrya bhaavanaaon ka samudra umad pada. 19veen sadi ke madhya se kraantiyon ka yug pun: praarambh hua aur koi bhi desh unase achhoota na bacha. raajatantron ko samaapt kar ganatantron ki sthaapana ki jaane lagi. parantu 19veen tatha 20veen sadiyon mein Europe ke ve hi desh, jo apni seemaaon ke bheetar janavaadi hone ka dam bharate rahe, baahari duniyaaain mein----Asia aur Africa mein----saamraajyavaad ka nagn taandav karne se na chooke. 1917 E. mein maakrsavaad se prabhaavit hokar roos mein raajyakraanti hui aur jaarashaahi mita di gayi. 1948 E. mein usi parampara mein cheen mein bhi communist sarkaar ka shaasan shuroo hua. ye donon hi desh apne ko ganatantr ki sanjnyaa dete hain aur vahaaain ke shaasan janta ke naam par hi kiye jaate hain. parantu unamein janavaad ki dori kheenchanevaale haath adhinaayakavaadi hi hain. sadiyon ki gulaami ko todkar Bhaarat bhi aaj ganaraajya ki parampara ko aage badhaane ke liya katibddh hai aur apne liye ek lokatantreeya saanvaidhaanik vyavastha ka srujan kar chuka hai.

saamraajyon aur samraaton ke naamonishaan mit chuke hain tatha nirkunsh aur aseemit raajyavyavasthaaeain samaapt ho chuki hain, kintu svatantrata ki vah mool bhaavana maanavahrudaya se naheen door ki ja sakti jo ganaraajya parampara ki kunji hai. vishv itihaas ke praacheen yug ke ganon ki tarah aaj ke ganaraajya ab na to kshetr mein atyant chhote hain aur na aapas mein foot aur dveshabhaavana se grast. unamein na to praacheen grees ka daasavaad hai aur na praacheen aur madhyakaaleen Bhaarat aur Europe ke ganaraajyon ka seemit matadaan. unamein ab samast janta ka praadhaanya ho gaya hai aur uske bhaagya ki vahi vidhaayika hai. sainik adhinaayakavaadi bhi vivsh hokar janavaad ka dam bharate aur kabhi kabhi uske liye kaarya bhi karte hain. ganaraajya ki bhaavana amar hai aur usaka janavaad bhi sarvada amar rahega.

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh

baahari kadiyaaain