gaisanirmaan

gaisanirmaan do uddeshyon se hota hai. kuchh gaisein prakaash utpann karne ke liye banaai jaati hain. aisi gaison ko "pradeepak gas" kehte hain. kuchh gaisein indhan ke liye banaai jaati hain. aisi gaison ko "taapan gas" kehte hain. donon kism ki gaisein "daahm gas" hain. inhein "audyogik gas" bhi kehte hain.

gaisanirmaan ke ek sanyantr ki rooparekha (IGCC = inteegreted gaiseefikeshan kambaaind saayakil)

anukram

itihaas

1792 E. mein England ke muradok ne gas udyog ki neenv daali, tab unhonne bataaya ki prakaash utpann karne ke liye gas ka vyavahaar ho sakta hai. 1812 E. mein London, 1815 E. mein pairis aur 1826 E. mein baralin ki sadkon ko prakaashit karne ke liye pradeepak gas ka vyavahaar shu degree hua. peechhe gas badi maatra mein banane lagi aur chhote-chhote nagar bhi gas ke prakaash se jagamaga uthe. aaj pradeepak gas ka sthaan bahut kuchh bijli ki roshani le rahi hai. ek samay aisa samjha jaata tha ki gas udyog ka sheegra hi ant ho jaayaga, par isi beech 1885 E. mein taapadeept maintal ke pravesh se yeh udyog fir chamak utha. peechhe kaarabyureted jalagais ke aavishkaar se prakaash aur ooshma utpann karne ki kshamata mein bahut vruddhi ho gayi, jisse yeh udyog fir panapa.

koyala gas

utpaadak gas

utpaadak gas ka upayog udyog dhandhon mein din din badh raha hai. bhatthe aur bhatthiyon, visheshat: lohe aur ispaat tatha kaaainch ki bhatthiyon, bhabhakon aur gas injanon ko garam karne mein utpaadak gas ka hi aajkal vyavahaar hota hai.

jalagais ya neeli gas

koyala gas ke saath, milaakar jalagais indhan mein kaam aati hai. isse badi maatra mein haaidrojan taiyaar hoti hai aur petrolium tatha methil ailakohal ka sanshleshan bhi hota hai.

kaarbuneekrut jalagais

jalagais ke saath kuchh hydrocarbon gas mili ho to aisi gas ko kaarbuneekrut jalagais kehte hain. aavashyak hydrocarbon gas petrolium tel ke bhanjan se praapt hoti hai. iske janitr bhi jalagais ke janitr se hi hote hain. kaarbaneekrut jalagais ki jvaala badi deept hoti hai. hydrocarbon ke kaaran ismein gandh bhi hoti hai. kaarbaneekrut jalagais ka vishleshan is prakaar hai :

pratishat aayatan

haaidrojan 38.0

kaarban monoksaaid 35.0

methen aur ethen 10.0

asantrupt hydrocarbon 7.5

kaarban daai-oksaaid 3.5

naaitrojan 6.0

gas ka kalareemaan prati ghan foot 500 british ooshma maatrak hota hai.

tailagais

khanij telon ke bhanjak aasavan se tailagais praapt hoti hai. yeh aasavan bhabhakon mein sampann hota hai. koyala gas ki bhaaainti hi is gas ka shodhan hota hai aur tab yeh tankiyon mein sangraheet hoti hai, athva silindar mein dabaav se. is prakaar tailagais taiyaar karne ki vidhi ko "pintash vidhi" kehte hain. Bhaarat ki chhoti badi prayogashaalaaon mein yahi gas garam karne ke liye prayukt hoti hai. saadhaaranataya mitti ka tel athva deejel tel iske liye upayukt hota hai. yadi is gas ke saath aakseejan athva vaayu mila di jaaya to yeh sasti padti hai aur taapanashakti bhi badh jaati hai. aisi gas mein methen, ethileen, aiseetileen, beinjeen aadi hydrocarbon rahate hain. aise to yeh gas bahut dhuaaain deti hui deept jvaala se jalati hai, par ek vishisht prakaar ke jvaalak mein, jismein bade chhote chhidr se gas niklati hai, yeh bina dhuaaain utpann kiye jalati hai. aisi jvaala ki taapan shakti ooainchi hoti hai. yadi is gas mein thoda aisatileen mila diya jaaya to gas ki pradeepak shakti aur badh jaati hai. is gas ko jalaane ke liye taapadeept maintalavaala jvaalak bhi bana hai, jisse badi tej roshani praapt hoti hai.

vaayugais

vaayu aur kuchh vaashpasheel haaidrokaarbanon, saamaanyat: petrol ya petrolium ithar (kvathanaank 35 degree -60 degree sein.), ka mishran bhi pradeepan ke liye vyavahrut hota hai.

petrolium-gas

petrolium ke bhanjan aur aasavan se kuchh gaisein praapt hoti hai, jinmein methen, ethen, propen, naarmal byooten, aaiso byooten aur unke tadanuroopi olifeen tatha peinten rahate hain. inmein propen, naarmal aur aaiso byooten tatha unke asantrupt sanjaat aur olifeen silindar mein bharakar athva tankiyon mein rakhakar baahar bheje jaate hain. in gaison ki praapti ke liya "sanpeedan reeti" athva "avashoshan reeti" prayukt hoti hai. avashoshak tel inhein avashoshit kar leta hai aur use garam karne se gaisein nikal jaati hain, jinko thandaakar sanghanan aur sanpeedan dvaara alag karte hain. saavadhaani se iske prabhaavi aasavan dvaara gas praapt karte hain. prati varg inch 450 pound daab par tanki-yaanon mein rakhakar upabhoktaaon ko dete hain.

gaison ka yeh mishran ghareloo indhan mein kaam aata hai. motor mein bhi yeh jalata hai. sadkon ki roshani bhi isse ki jaati hai.

anya gaisein

haaidrojan, aaksijn aur aiseetileen bhi pradeepan aur taapan ke liye vyavahrut hote hain. inka varnan anyatr milega. petrolium koopon se nikli "praakrutik gas" bhi pradeepan aur taapan mein kaam aati hai.

praakrutik gas-koyale aur khanij tailon ke kshetron ke koopon se (kabhi kabhi ye koop tail kshetron se meelon door rahate hain) ek gas niklati hai, jise "praakrutik gas" kehte hain. kabhi kabhi yeh gas bade dabaav se niklati hai aur kabhi kabhi ise panp se nikaalna padta hai. sabhi khanij tailon ke koopon se yeh gas niklati hai, par kuchh aise koopon se bhi gas niklati hai jinmein khanij tail naheen hota.

gas jab pehle pahal niklati hai tab usamein methen adhik rahata hai, par dheere dheere methen ki maatra badhti jaati hai. aisi gas mein methen aur ethen ke sivaaya propen, naarmal byooten, aaisobyooten, peinten aur kuchh adaahya padaarth rahate hain. methen aur ethen ke vaashp-dabaav itne ooainche hote hain ki ve vyaapaarik mahatva ke naheen hain. peinten ka vaashp dabaav itna kam hota hai ki gas ke roop mein usaka koi moolya naheen hai, yadyapi motor-indhan mein yeh moolyavaan hota hai. ab keval propen, naarmal byooten aur aaisobyooten rah jaate hain, jo vyaapaar ki drushti se bade mahatva ke hain. praakrutik gas ya to shuddh propen ke roop mein ya 50 prati shat propen aur 50 prati shat byooten ke mishran ke roop mein, athva shuddh naarmal aur aaisobyooten ke roop mein vyavahrut hoti hai.

praakrutik gas ke petrol ansh (peinten) ko sanpeedit aur thanda kar avashoshakon dvaara nikaal lete hain. avashoshak ke roop mein ooainche kvathanaankavaale khanij tailon, kaath koyale ya silika ka vyavahaar karte hain. is prakaar praakrutik gas se amareeka mein 1940 E. mein 232 karod gailan petrol praapt hua tha.

petrol nikaal lene par jo gas bach jaati hai usase indhan ka kaam lete hain. jalaakar isse kajali bhi taiyaar karte hain, jo mudran-syaahi aur kaale rang ke liye sarvottam samajhi jaati hai. garam karne se yeh gas kaarban aur haaidrojan mein vightit bhi ho jaati hai. kok gas ke saath milaakar praakrutik gas ghareloo indhan mein vyavahrut hoti hai. udyog dhandhon, visheshat: krutrim rabar banaane mein, yeh byootaadeen mein parint ki jaati hai.

1940 E. mein amareeka mein 2,672 karod ghan foot praakrutik gas biki thi. yeh gas aadhi tail koopon se aur aadhi gas koopon se praapt hui thi. aisi gas ka 89 prati shat petrol ansh nikaal liya gaya tha.

gas ko upabhoktaaon ke paas pahuainchaane ke liye tanki yaanon, tanki vaiganon, ispaat ke cylinderon aur peepon ka upayog hota hai. nal dvaara bhi gas nikat ke sthaanon par pahuainchaai jaati hai. parivhan ke liye amareeka mein chhote chhote sanyantr bane hain, jinmein taraleekrut gas door door tak bheji ja sakti hai. is sanyantr mein gol tankiyaaain 57 foot vyaas ki hoti hain, jinka bheetari tal kam kaarbanavaale (0.09 prati shat) aur nikelavaale (3.5 prati shat nikel) ispaat ka aur baahya tankiyaaain 62 foot vyaas ki hoti hai. donon tankiyon ke beech ka rikt sthaan daanedaar kaag se bhara rahata hai. tanki ki gas ka taap - 157 degree sein. aur dabaav 5 pound rahata hai. sanyantr mein sanpeedak, ethileen aur aimoniya prasheetak aur udvaashpan sanbhaar rahate hain.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain