gainimeed (upagrah)

agar aap ke is se milte-julate naam ke kshudragrah (aisteroyad) ke baare mein jaankaari dhoondh rahe hain to 1036 gainimeed wala lekh dekhiye
gainimed
True-color image taken by the Galileo probe
gailileeyo yaan dvaara li gayi gainimed ke us rukh ki tasveer jo bruhaspati se door hai - halke rangon ke kshetron mein barf ki maatra adhik hai aur gaadhe rang ke kshetr pathareele zyaada hain.
khoj
khoj karta gaileeliyo gailili
khoj ki tithi January 7, 1610[1][2][3]
upanaam
praavadhaanik naam Jupiter III
visheshan Ganymedian, Ganymedean
periyepsis 1,069,200 km[a]
epoaipsis 1,071,600 km[b]
ardh mukhya aksh 1,070,400 km[4]
vikendrata 0.0013[4]
parikraman kaal 7.15455296 d[4]
ausat parikraman gati 10.880 km/s
jhukaav 0.20° (to Jupiter's equator)[4]
svaami grah Jupiter
bhautik visheshataaeain
maadhya trijya 2634.1 ± 0.3 km (0.413 Earths)[5]
tal-kshetrafal 87.0 million km2 (0.171 Earths)[c]
aayatan 7.6saaaincha:Esp km3 (0.0704 Earths)[d]
dravyamaan 1.4819saaaincha:Esp kg (0.025 Earths)[5]
maadhya ghanatv 1.936 g/cm3[5]
vishuvateeya satah gurutvaakarshan 1.428 m/s2 (0.146 g)[e]
palaayan veg 2.741 km/s[f]
ghoornan synchronous
aksheeya naman 0–0.33°[6]
albedo 0.43 ± 0.02[7]
satah ka taapamaan
K
nyoon maadhya adhi
70[9] 110[9] 152[10]
spasht parimaan 4.61 (opposition)[7]
4.38 (in 1951)[8]
vaayu-mandal
satah par daab trace
sanghatan oxygen[11]
gaineemeed ka androoni dhaancha - sab se baahar sakht barf ki part, fir paani ka mahaasaagar, fir ek pathareela gola aur kendra mein lohe aur anya dhaatuon ka gola

gainimeed hamaare saur mandal ke paaainchave grah bruhaspati ka sab se bada upagrah hai aur yeh poore saur mandal ka bhi sab se bada chandrama hai. iska vyaas (daayaameetar) 5,268 kimi hai, jo budh grah se bhi 8% bada hai.[12] iska dravyamaan bhi saur mandal ke saare chandramaaon mein sabse zyaada hai aur pruthvi ke chandrama ka 2.2 guna hai.[13]

anukram

anya bhaashaaoain mein

gainimeed ko angreji mein "Ganymede" likha jaata hai. gainimeed praacheen yoonaani dhaarmik kathaaon ka ek paatr tha jo yoonaani dharm ke devon ko sharaab parosata tha (yaani saaki ki bhoomika nibhaata tha).

banaavat

gainimeed lagbhag baraabar maatra ke patthar aur paani ki barf ka bana hua hai aur iske kendreeya bhaag mein pighla hua loha hai. is pighle lohe ki vajah se gainimeed saur mandal ka ikalauta chandrama hai jiska apna chumbakeeya gola hai. vaigyaaniko ka maanana hai ki iski satah ke kreeb 200 kimi neeche do barfeeli parton ke daramayaan ek paani ka mahaasaagar hai. iski satah mein halke aur gaadhe rang ke kshetr dekhe ja sakte hain. maana jaata hai ke halke rang ke kshetron mein nai barf ki maatra adhik hai aur in ilaakon mein khaaiyaaain aur chattaanein maujood hain jinki vajah bruhaspati ke bhayankar gurutvaakarshan se paida hue jvaarabhaata bal dvaara ki gayi uthal-puthal ko bataaya jaata hai. gaadhe rang ki satah ki umr bahut puraani lagti hai aur anumaan hai ki is par jagah-jagah par ulkaapindon ke girne se prahaar kretar banaane ke sivaaya yeh pichhle 4 arab saalon mein zyaada naheen badli.

vaayumandal

gainimeed ka apna patala-sa vaayumandal hai jismein adhiktar aakseejan ke teen bhinn roop hain - aakseejan ke parmaanu (O), aanavik aakseejan (O2) aur ojon (O3). is vaayumandal mein kam maatra mein haaidrojan gas bhi maujood hai.[11]

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain

sandarbh

  1. sandarbh truti: <ref> ka galat prayog; SidereusNuncius naam ke sandarbh mein jaankaari naheen hai.
  2. sandarbh truti: <ref> ka galat prayog; Wright naam ke sandarbh mein jaankaari naheen hai.
  3. sandarbh truti: <ref> ka galat prayog; NASA naam ke sandarbh mein jaankaari naheen hai.
  4. a aa i E "Planetary Satellite Mean Orbital Parameters". Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology. http://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/?sat_elem.
  5. a aa i sandarbh truti: <ref> ka galat prayog; Showman1999 naam ke sandarbh mein jaankaari naheen hai.
  6. sandarbh truti: <ref> ka galat prayog; Bills2005 naam ke sandarbh mein jaankaari naheen hai.
  7. a aa Yeomans, Donald K. (2006-07-13). "Planetary Satellite Physical Parameters". JPL Solar System Dynamics. http://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/?sat_phys_par. abhigman tithi: 2007-11-05.
  8. Yeomans and Chamberlin. "Horizon Online Ephemeris System for Ganymede (Major Body 503)". California Institute of Technology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory. http://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/horizons.cgi?find_body=1&body_group=mb&sstr=503. abhigman tithi: 2010-04-14. (4.38 on 1951-Oct-03)
  9. a aa Delitsky, Mona L.; Lane, Arthur L. (1998). "Ice chemistry of Galilean satellites" (PDF). J.of Geophys. Res. 103 (E13): 31,391–31,403. Bibcode 1998JGR...10331391D. doi:10.1029/1998JE900020. http://trs-new.jpl.nasa.gov/dspace/bitstream/2014/20675/1/98-1725.pdf.
  10. Orton, G.S.; Spencer, G.R. evam anya (1996). "Galileo Photopolarimeter-radiometer observations of Jupiter and the Galilean Satellites". Science 274 (5286): 389–391. Bibcode 1996Sci...274..389O. doi:10.1126/science.274.5286.389.
  11. a aa Hall, D.T.; Feldman, P.D.; McGrath, M.A. et al. (1998). "The Far-Ultraviolet Oxygen Airglow of Europa and Ganymede". The Astrophysical Journal 499 (1): 475–481. Bibcode 1998ApJ...499..475H. doi:10.1086/305604.
  12. "Ganymede Fact Sheet". www2.jpl.nasa.gov. http://www2.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/ganymede/. abhigman tithi: 2010-01-14.
  13. "Ganymede". nineplanets.org. October 31, 1997. http://www.nineplanets.org/ganymede.html. abhigman tithi: 2008-02-27.


sandarbh truti: "lower-alpha" naamak sandarbh-samooh ke liye <ref> taig maujood hain, parantu samooh ke liye koi <references group="lower-alpha"/> taig naheen mila. yeh bhi sambhav hai ki koi samaapti </ref> taig gaayab hai.