gadya

saamaanyat: manushya ki bolne ya likhne padhne ki chhandarahit saadhaaran vyavahaar ki bhaasha ko gadya (prose) kaha jaata hai. ismein keval aanshik satya hai kyonki ismein gadyakaar ke rachanaatmak bodh ki avhelna hai. saadhaaran vyavahaar ki bhaasha bhi gadya tabhi kahi ja sakti hai jab yeh vyavasthit aur spasht ho. rachanaatmak prakriya ko dhyaan mein rakhate hue gadya ko manushya ki saadhaaran kintu vyasthit bhaasha ya usaki vishisht abhivyakti kehna adhik sameecheen hoga.

parichay

manushya ki sahaj evam svaabhaavik abhivyakti ka roop gadya hai. kavita aur gadya mein bahut si baatein samaan hain. donon ke upakaran shabd hain jo arth parivartan ke bina ek hi bhandaar se liye jaate hai; donon ke vyaakaran aur vaakyarachana ke niyam ek hi hain (kavita ke vaakyon mein kabhi kabhi shabdon ka sthaanaantaran, vaakyarachana ke aadhaarbhoot niyamon ka khandan naheen), donon hi laya aur chitramaya ukti ka sahaara lete hain. vardasvarth ke anusaar gadya aur padya (ya kavita) ki bhaasha mein koi moolabhoot antar na to hai aur na ho sakta hai.

lekin in saari samaanataaon ke baavajood kavita aur gadya abhivyakti ke do bhinn roop hain. samaan upakaranon ke prati bhi unke drushtikonon ki asamaanata praaya: star par ubhar aati hai. lekin unamein keval stareeya naheen balki taatvik ya gunaatmak bhed hai, jiska kaaran yeh hain ki kavita aur gadya jagat aur jeevan ke vishay mein manushya ki maanasik prakriya ke do bhinn roopon ki abhivyakti hain. unke udaya aur vikaas ke itihaas mein iske pramaan maujood hai.

apni pustak ilyoojan aind riyeliti mein kaudavel ne kavita ki utpatti, saamaajik upaadeyata aur takaneek ka vistrut vivechan karte hue likha hai ki saahitya ke sabse praarambhik roop mein kavita manushya ki saadhaaran bhaasha ka unmesheekaran thi. us kaal kavita keval raagaatmak na hokar itihaas, dharm, darshan, tantr, mantra, jyotishi, neeti aur bheshaj sambandhi gyaan ka bhi vahan karti thi. use unmesh pradaan karne ke liye sangeet, chhand, tuk, maatra ya svaraaghaat, anupraas, punaraavrutti, roopak ityaadi ka prayog kiya jaata hai. kaalaantar mein sabhyata ke vikaas, samaaj ke vargeekaran, shramavibhaajan aur udbuddh saahityik chetna ke kaaran pehle ki unmeshapoorn bhaasha bhi vibhkt ho gai—akavita ne apne ko raagon ki unmeshapoorn bhaasha ke roop mein seemit kar liya aur vigyaan, darshan, itihaas, dharmashaasr, neeti, katha aur naatak ne saadhaaran vyavahaar, arthaat kathya ki bhaasha ko apnaaya. aavashyakataanusaar pratyek shaakha ne apni vishisht shaili ki vidhi ka vikaas kiya, unamein aadaan pradaan hua aur unase swayam saadhaaran vyavahaar ki bhaasha bhi prabhaavit hui. manushya ka maanasik jagat apne ko bhaasha ke do vishisht roopon-kavita aur gadya-mein pratibinbit karne laga.

kavita aur gadya ke uddeshyon mein bhed aur bhaasha ke upakaran shabdon ke prati unke drushtikon mein bhed ka gahra sambandh hai. kavita ki utpatti manushya ke saamoohik shram ke saath hui. shabd anivaaryat: sangeet aur praaya: nrutya ke sahaare poore samooh ke aavegon ko ek bindu par sangathit kar kaarya sampann karne ki prerana dete the. fasal saamane naheen thi, beej bona tha. shabdon ka kaarya tha lahalahaati fasal ka maayaavi chitr upasthit kar poore samooh ko beej bone ke liye prerit karna. kaudavel ke anusaar is maayaavi srushti ke dvaara shabd shakti ban jaate the. kavita saamoohik bhaavon aur aankaakshaaon ka pratibinb thi aur unhein udbuddh aur sangathit karne ka asr thi. isliye kavita ka sookshm kathya-uske tathyon ki vastu-naheen, balki samaaj mein usaki gadyaatmak bhoomika-uske saamoohik bhaavon ki vastu-kavita ka satya hai.

saamaajik jeevan mein shabd vastunishth jagat ke shushk prateek maatr naheen rah jaate balki unke saath jeevan ke anubhav se utpann saral se jatil hote hue bhaavaatmak sandarbh jud jaate hain. kavita shabdon ke shuddh prateekaatmak arth ki upeksha naheen kar sakti, lekin usaka mukhya uddeshya shabdon ke bhaavaatmak sandarbhon ko arthapoorn sangathan hai. kavita shabdon ki nai srushti hai. harbart reed ke shabdon mein kavita mein chintan ke dauraan shabd baar baar naya janm lete hain. anek bhaashaaon mein kavi ke liye prayukt shabd ka arth srashta hai.

gadya shabdon ke bhaavaatmak sandarbhon ke sthaan par unke vastunishth prateekaatmak arth ko grahan karta hai. gadya mein shabdon ke is prakaar ke prayog ko dhyaan mein rakhakar harbart reed ne gadya ko nirmaanaatmak abhivyakti kaha hai, aisi abhivyakti jismein shabd nirmaata ke chaaron or prayog ke liye int gaare ki tarah bane banaae taiyaar karte hain.

spasht hai ki shabd ke vastunishth arth aur uske bhaavaatmak sandarbh ko poornataya vibhkt karna sambhav hai. yahi kaaran hai ki kavita sarvatha kathyashoonya naheen ho sakti aur gadya sarvatha bhaavashoonya naheen ho sakta. kavita aur gadya ki takaneekon mein paasparik aadaan pradaan svaabhaavik hai. kintu jahaaain unke vishisht dharmon ka bodh naheen hota, vahaaain hamein kavita ke sthaan par foohad gadya aur padya ke sthaan par foohad kavita ke darshan hote hain.

vastunishth satya ki bhaasha kehne ka arth yeh naheen ki gadya kavita se heya hai, ya usaka saamaajik prayojan kavita se kam hai, ya vah bhaasha ki kalaashoonya abhivyakti hai. vaastav mein bahut se aise kaarya jo kavita ki shakti ke baahar hai, gadya dvaara sampann hote hain. bahut pehle yeh anubhav kiya gaya ki kavita ki chhandamaya bhaasha mein vichaaron ka tarkamaya vikaas sambhav naheen. kavita se kam viksit avastha mein bhi gadya ki vishsht shakti ko pahachaanakar arastu ne apne prasiddh granth retaurik mein use prateeti parasueshan, doosaron ko apne vichaaron se prabhaavit karne ki bhaasha kaha tha, jiske mukhya tatv hain-vichaaron ka tarkasangat kram, varnan ki sajeevata, kalpana, chitrayojana, sahajata, laya, vyaktivaichitrya, ukti-saundarya, oj, sanyam. inmein se pratyek bindu par kavita aur gadya ki seemaaeain milti hui jaan padti hain, kintu donon mein inke prayog ki alag alag reetiyaaain hain.

udaaharanaarth, unke do tatv, laya aur chitrayojana, liye ja sakte hain jinki bahut charcha hoti hai. gadya ki laya mein kavita ki laya se adhik loch ya vividhta hoti hai kyonki gadya mein laya vaakyarachana ki naheen balki vichaaron ki ikaai hoti hai. kavita mein praaya:. laya ko vaakyarachana ki ikaai banaakar punaraavrutti se prabhaav ko teevrata di jaati hai. kavita se kaheen jyaada gadya mein laya anubhooti ki vaani hai. praaya: laya ke maadhyam se hi gadyakaar ke vyaktiv ka udghaatan hota hai.

kavita ke praan chitrayojana mein basate hain, jabki gadya mein usaka prayog atyant sanyam ke saath vichaar ko aalokit karne ke liye hi kiya jaata hai. angreji gadya ke mahaan shaileekar swift ke vishay mein dau॰ jaansan ne kaha tha : yeh dusht kabhi ek roopak ka bhi khatra mol naheen leta. mukhya vastu yeh hai ki gadya mein bhaasha ki saari kshamataaeain vichaar ki achook abhivyakti ke adheen rahati hain. kavita mein bhaasha ko alankrut karne ki svatantrata aksar shabdon ke prayog aur vaakyarachana ke prati asaavadhaan rahane ki pravrutti ka kaaran hai. visheshanon ka jitna durupayog kavita mein sambhav hai utana gadya mein naheen. kavita me sangeet ko aksar sasti bhaavukata ka aavaran bana diya jaata hai. gadya mein kathya ka mahatva usapar ankush ka kaam karta hai. isaliye gadya ka anushaasan bhaasha ke rachanaasaundarya ke bodh ka uttam saadhan hai. ti. S. iliyt ke shabdon mein achhe gadya ke gunon ko hona achhi kavita ki pehli aur kam se kam aavashyakta hai.

gadya ka praarambh itihaas, vigyaan, saundaryashaasr ityaadi ki bhaasha ke roop mein hua. baad mein vah upayog se kala ki or pravrutt hua. roopon ke vikaas ke aadhaar par usaki teen sthool kotiyaaain bani hain-varnanaatmak, jismein katha, itihaas, jeevani, yaatra ityaadi aate hain. vivechanaatmak, jismein vigyaan, saundaryashaasr, aalochna, darshan, dharm aur neetishaasr, vidhi, raajaneeti ityaadi aate hain, evam bhaavaatmak, jismein oopar ke anek vishyon ke atirikt aatmaparak nibandh aur naatak aate hain. vishyon ke anusaar gadya mein pravaah, spashtata, chitramayata, laya, vyaktigat anubhooti, alankaran ityaadi ki maatraaon me her fer ka hona aavashyak hain, kintu gadya ki kotiyon ke beech deevaarein naheen khadi ki ja sakti. lekhak ki ruchi aur prayojan ke anusaar ve ek doosare mein ant:pravisht hoti rahati hai.

aadhunik yug mein upanyaas gadya ki vishesh prayogashaala ban gaya hai. kavita rah rahakar kaafi dinon tak shabdon ke pathya par rahati hai, gadya mein nae puraane, sookhe chikne sabhi prakaar ke shabdon ko pachaane ki adbhut shakti hoti hai. bonaami daabri (Bonamy Dobree) ke anusaar saara achha jeevit gadya prayogaatmak hota hai. upanyaas gadya ki is kshamata ka poora upayog kar sakta hai. aise prayog England ki apeksha amareeka mein adhik hue hain aur vindham livis, hemingve, steen, Falkner, aindarsan ityaadi ne apne prayogon ke dvaara angreji gadya ko naya rakt diya hai. gadya mein teji se keinchul badalne ki shakti ka anumaan hindi gadya ke tej vikaas se bhi kiya ja sakta hai, haalaaainki usaka itihaas bahut puraana naheen. bhavishya mein gadya ke vikaas ki aur sanket karte hue ek angrej aalochak midiltan mari ne likha hai : gadya ki vistaar seema anant hai aur shaayad kavita ki upeksha usaki sambhaavnaaon ki kam khoj hui hai.