gaayan

Harry belaafont 1954

gaayan ek aisi kriya hai jisse svar ki sahaayata se sangeetamaya dhvani utpann ki jaati hai aur jo saamaanya bolachaal ki gunavatta ko raag aur taal donon ke prayog se badhaati hai. jo vyakti gaata hai use gaayak ya gavaiya kaha jaata hai. gaayak geet gaate hain jo ekal ho sakte hain yaani bina kisi aur saaj ya sangeet ke saath ya fir sangeetajnyaon va ek saaj se lekar poore aarkestra ya bade band ke saath gaae ja sakte hain. gaayan aksar anya sangeetakaaron ke samooh mein kiya jaata hai, jaise bhinn prakaar ke svaron vaale kai gaayakon ke saath ya vibhinn prakaar ke saaj bajaane vaale kalaakaaron ke saath, jaise kisi rock samooh ya bairok sangathan ke saath. har vah vyakti jo bol sakta hai vah ga bhi sakta hai, kyonki gaayan boli ka hi ek parishkrut roop hai.

gaayan anaupachaarik ho sakta hai aur santosh ya khushi ke liye kiya ja sakta hai, jaise nahaate samay ya kairaaoke mein; ya yeh bahut aupachaarik bhi ho sakta hai jaise kisi dhaarmik anushthaan ke samay ya manch par ya rikaarding ke studiyo mein peshevar gaayan ke samay. oonche darje ke peshevar ya nauseekhiye gaayan ke liye saamaanyat: nirdeshan aur niyamit abhyaas aavashyakta hoti hai.[1] peshevar gaayak saamaanyat: kisi ek prakaar ke sangeet mein apne peshe ka nirmaan karte hain jaise shaastreeya ya rock aur aadarsh roop se ve apne saare career ke dauraan kisi svar-adhyaapak ya svar-prashikshak ki sahaayata se svar-prashikshan lete hain.

anukram

maanav svar

vokal fords ya kaurds ka ek lebald sanrachanaatmak aarekh.

apne bhautik pahaloo mein, gaayan ek achhi tarah se paribhaashit takaneek hai jo fefadon ke prayog par, jo hava ki aapoorti, ya dhaunkani ki tarah kaarya karte hain, svar yantr jo baansuri ya kampak ka kaam karta hai, vaksh aur sir ki guhaaen, jo vaayu vaady mein nali ki tarah, dhvani vistaarak ka kaarya karti hain aur jeebh jo taaloo, daanton aur hothon ke saath milkar svaron aur vyanjanon ka uchchaaran karti hai, par nirbhar hoti hai. haalaaainki ye chaaron pranaaliyaan svatantr roop se kaarya karti hain, unhein ek mukhaऱ takaneek ki sthaapana ke liye samanvit kiya jaata hai aur ve ek dusare ke saath antarkriya karne ke liye bani hoti hain.[2] nishkriya shvaas kriya ke samay, hava madhyapatal ke saath andar li jaati hai jabki uchhvaas ki kriya bina kisi prayaas ke ho jaati hai. pet, aantarik antarpasaleeya aur adho shronik peshiyaan uchhvaas ki kriya mein sahaayak ho sakti hai. baahya antarpasaleeya, skeleen aur starnokleedomaistaayad peshiyaan uchhvaas mein sahaayata karti hain. svar rajju aavaaj ki pitch mein parivartan karte hain. hothon ko band rakh kar svar utpann karne ko gunagunaane ki sanjnyaa di jaati hai.

pratyek vyakti ke gaayan ki adviteeya na keval aavaaj rajjuon ke vaastavik aakaar va banaavat ke kaaran hi naheen hoti balki us vyakti ke shesh shareer ke aakaar aur banaavat par bhi nirbhar hoti hai. manushya ke svar rajjuon ki motaai dheeli ki ja sakti hai ya, kasi ja sakti hai ya badli bhi ja sakti hai aur un par se hava badalate hue dabaav ke saath pravaahit ki ja sakti hai. vaksh aur gardan ka aakaar, jeebh ki sthiti aur anyatha asanbandhit peshiyon ke tanaav ko badla ja sakta hai. inmein se kisi bhi kaarya ke hone par utpann aavaaj ki pitch, aayatan, laya ya sur mein parivartan ho jaata hai. dhvani shareer ke vibhinn bhaagon mein bhi pratidhvanit hoti hai aur ek vyakti ka aakaar aur haddiyon ka dhaancha us vyakti dvaara utpann dhvani ko prabhaavit kar sakta hai.

gaayak aavaaj ko kuchh is tarah prastut karna bhi seekh sakte hain jisse ki vah unke svar tantr mein behtar tareeke se goonj sake. ise mukhar pratidhvanikran ke naam so jaana jaata hai. mukhar svar aur utpaadan par ek pramukh prabhaav svar yantr ke kaarya se hota hai, jise log bhinn tareekon se prayog karke bhinn prakaar ke svar utpann karte hain. svar yantr ke in bhinn prakaar ke kaaryon ka bhinn prakaar ki mukhar panjiyon ke rup mein varnan kiya jaata hai.[3] is safalta ke liye gaayakon dvaara prayukt vidhi mein gaayak ke faarmeint ka prayog kiya jaata hai, jise kaan ke aavruti daayare ke sabse adhik samvedansheel bhaag se khaas taur par anukool paaya gaya hai.[4][5]

mukhar panjeekaran

saaaincha:Vocal registration mukhar panjeekaran maanav ki aavaaj ke bheetar sthit mukhar rajistaron ki pranaali ko sandarbhit karta hai. maanav aavaaj ki panji ek vishesh suron ki shrrunkhala hoti hai, jo svar rajjuon ke samaan kanpanon mein utpann hoti hai aur ek samaan gunavatta liye hoti hai. panjiyon ka mool svar yantr ke kaarya mein hota hai. ve isaliye hoti hain kyonki svar rajjuon mein kai alag alag tarah ke kanpan utpann karne ki kshamata hoti hai. kampan ke ye prakaar pichon ke ek vishesh daayare mein prakat hote hain aur khaas tarah ke svar utpann karte hain.[6] shabd "panji" kuchh bhraamak ho sakta hai kyaunki yeh maanav aavaaj ke kai pahaluon ko apne mein sanjoe hota hai. panji shabd ka prayog nimn mein se kisi ke sandarbh mein bhi kiya ja sakta hai:[7]

  • gaayan ke daayare ke kisi khaas bhaag jaise oopari, madhyam ya nichli panjiyaan
  • koi pratidhvani kshetr jaise, vaksh svar ya sheersh svar.
  • svareekaran prakriya (svareekaran prakriya mein svar rajju ke kanpan dvaara mukhar svar utpann kiya jaata hai jise fir svar pranaali ki pratidhvani dvaara sanshodhit kiya jaata hai).
  • koi nishchit mukhar laya ya gaayan "rang"
  • aavaaj ka ek kshetr jise svar ke vyavadhaan dvaara paribhaashit ya seemaankit kiya jaata hai.

bhaasha vigyaan mein, ek panjeekrut bhaasha vah bhaasha hai jo sur aur svar ko ek ekal svar vigyaan pranaali mein sanyukt karti hai. vaak rogavijnyaaan mein shabd mukhar panji ke teen tatv hote hain - svar raajjon ka koi nishchit kampan prakaar, pichon ki koi nishchit shrankhala aur koi nishchit prakaar ki aavaaj. vaak rogavisheshajnya svarayantr ke shareer vigyaan kriya ke aadhaar par chaar mukhar panjiyon ki pehchaan karte hain - mukhar fraai panji, modal panji, faalseto panji aur seeti panji. yahi najariya kai mukhar shikshaavidon ne bhi apnaaya hai.[7]

svar pratidhvanikran ya svar gunjan

Illu01 head neck.jpg

svar pratidhvanikran ek prakriya hai jiske dvaara svar utpaadanakriya ke mool utpaad ke sur ya gaharaai ko hava se bhari guhaaon dvaara us samay badhaaya jaata hai jab vah unamein se baahari hava tak jaate hue gujarati hai. pratidhvani kriya se sambandhit kai shabdon mein dhvani-vistaaran, prachureekaran, vistaar, sudhaar, teevreekaran aur deergheekaran shaamil hain, haalaaainki pakke vaigyaanik prayog ke liye svar ke adhikaari unamein se adhikaansh par prashn chinh lagaate hain. kisi gaayak ya vakta dvaara in shabdon se nikaala jaane wala mukhya nishkarsh yeh hota hai ki pratidhvani ka antim parinaam ek behtar aavaaj honi chaahiye.[7] shareer mein saat aise kshetr hain jinhein sambhaavit svar pratidhvanikaarakon ke roop mein soocheebaddh kiya ja sakta hai. shareer mein sabse neeche ki sthiti se sabse oopar ki sthiti ki shrankhala mein ye kshetr hain, vaksh, vaayunali vruksh, svarayantr, gala, mukhaguha, naasaguha aur saainas.[8]

vaksh svar aur sheersh svar

vaksh svar aur sheersh svar mukhar sangeet mein prayukt pad hain. in padon ka prayog maukhik svar shikshaavidon mein bade paimaane par bhinn tarah se hota hai aur vartamaan mein in padon ke vishay mein mukhar sangeet peshevaron mein koi sthir rai naheen hai. vaksh svar ka prayog svar ki seema ke kisi vishesh bhaag ya svar panji ke kisi vishesh prakaar - svar gunjan kshetr, ya vishisht svar taal - ke sambandh mein kiya ja sakta hai.[7] sheersh svar ka prayog bhi svar ki seema ke kisi vishesh bhaag ya svar panji ke prakaar ya svar gunjan kshetr ke sandarbh mein kiya ja sakta hai.[7]

itihaas aur vikaas

vaksh svar aur sheersh svar padon ka pehla likhit sandarbh 13veen shataabdi ke aas-paas milta hai, jab johaans di gaarlaindiya aur jerom of moraaviya naamak lekhakon dvaara ise gale ke svar (pektoris, gattoris, kaipitis - us samay yeh sambhav hai ki sheersh svar ka arth faalseto panji se tha) se alag pahachaana gaya.[9] in padon ko baad mein bail kainto naamak itaalavi aapera gaayan vidhi mein samaavisht kar liya gaya, jismein vaksh svar ko teenon svar panjiyon-vaksh, paisejiyo aur sheersh panji: mein sabse neeche aur sheersh svar ko sabse ooncha sthaan diya gaya tha.[10] yeh baat aaj bhi kuchh svar shikshaavidon dvaara padhaai jaati hai. aajkal prachalit bail kainto maadal par aadhaarit ek aur paddhati ke anusaar puroosh aur stri ke svaron ko teen panjiyon mein vibhaajit kiya gaya hai. purooshon ke svaron ko vaksh panji, sheersh panji aur faalseto panji mein aur striyon ke svar ko vaksh panji, madhya panji aur sheersh panji mein vibhaajit kiya gaya hai. ye shikshaavid kehte hain ki sheersh panji gaayak ke sir mein mahasoos kiye jaane vaale gunjan ka varnan karne ke liye gaayan mein prayukt ek svar takaneek hai.[11]

lekin pichhle do sau varshon mein maanav ke shareerakriya vigyaan ki jaankaari aur gaayan aur svar ke utpaadan ki bhautik kriya ki samajh mein vruddhi hui hai. parinaamasvaroop kai svarashikshaavidon jaise indiyaana vishvavidyaalaya ke raalf eppelamain aur dakshini California vishvavidyaalaya ke William venaard ne vaksh svar aur sheersh svar padon ke prayog ko punarparibhaashit kar diya hai ya unka prayog karna hi band kar diya hai.[10] khaas taur par vaksh panji aur sheersh panji padon ka prayog vivaadaaspad ho gaya hai kyonki svar panji ko aajkal svar tantr ki kriya ke utpaad ke roop mein dekha jaata hai jo ki vaksh, fefadon aur sir ke shareerakriyaavijnyaaan se asanbandhit hai. isi vajah se kai svar shikshaavid yeh tark karte hain ki panjiyon ke vaksh ya sir mein utpann hone ki baat karna anargal hai. ve kehte hain ki in kshetron mein mahasoos hone vaale kanpan pratidhvaniyaan hain aur unka varnan panjiyon ki bajaay svar ke gunjan se sambandhit padon mein kiya jaana chaahiye. ye svar shikshaavid panji ke sthaan par vaksh svar aur sheersh svar padon ka prayog adhik pasand karte hain. is najariye ke anusaar jin samasyaaon ko log panji ki samasyaaen maanate hain ve daraasal pratidhvani ke samanjan ki samasyaaen hain. yeh najariya vaak rogashaastr, svar vigyaan aur bhaashaavijnyaaan sahit svar panjiyon ka adhyayan karne vaale anya shaikshanik kshetron ke najariyon se bhi saamanjasya rakhata hai. haalaaainki dono hi vidhiyaan abhi bhi prayog mein hain, fir bhi vartamaan svar shikshaavid vyavasaaya nae adhik vaigyaanik najariye ko apanaana pasand karta hai. haan, kuchh svar shikshaavid donon najariyon ke vichaaron ka prayog karte hain.[7]

vaksh svar shabd ka samakaaleen prayog aksar kisi vishisht svar varn ya svar ke taal ke sandarbh mein hota hai. shaastreeya gaayan mein, iska prayog poori tarah se modal panji ya saamaanya svar ke nichle bhaag tak hi seemit hota hai. gaayan ke anya prakaaron mein vaksh svar ko aksar samooche modal panji mein prayog mein laaya jaata hai. vaksh sur gaayak ke svar ki arthapoorn rangapattika mein svaron ki aashcharyajanak kataar laga sakte hain.[12] lekin vaksh mein oonche svaron ko utpann karne ki koshish mein oonchi panjiyon mein adhik balashaali vaksh svar ka prayog balaprayog utpann kar sakta hai. balaprayog se antatogatva svar ka hraas ho sakta hai.[13]

gaayan ke svaron ka vargeekaran

saaaincha:Vocal range Europeeya shaastreeya sangeet aur aapera mein, svaron ka prayog sangeet ke vaadyon ki tarah kiya jaata hai. svar sangeet likhne vaale geetakaaron ko gaayakon ke hunar aur svar ke gunon ki pehchaan hona aavashyak hota hai. svar vargeekaran ek prakriya hai, jiske dvaara maanaveeya gaayan svaron ka moolyaankan karke unhein vibhinn svar prakaaron ka naam diya jaata hai. in gunon mein svar ka daayara, svar ka vajan, svar ka teseetyara, svar ki gaharaai aur svar ke parivartan bindu jaise svar ke tod aur uthaav aadi shaamil hote hain. anya dhyaan dene yogya baaton mein bhautik gun, vaakastar, vaigyaanik pareekshan aur svar panjeekaran shaamil hain.[14] Europeeya shaastreeya sangeet mein viksit svar vargeekaran se sambandhit vigyaan gaayan ke adhik aadhunik prakaaron se anukoolan mein pichhad gaya hai. aapera mein svar vargeekaran ka prayog aksar bhaavi svaron ko sambhaavit bhoomikaaon se jodne ke liye kiya jaata hai. shaastreeya sangeet mein aajkal kai vibhinn pranaaliyaan hain jinmein shaamil hain-jarman faik pranaali aur koral sangeet pranaali. koi ek pranaali na to sabhi sthaanon mein laagoo hai aur na hi sveekrut hai.[10]

fir bhi adhikaansh shaastreeya sangeet pranaaliyaan saat bhinn mukhya svar prakaaron ko maanyata deti hain. striyon ko teen samoohon mein vibhaajit kiya gaya hai - sopraano, mejo-sopraano aur kaantraalto. purooshon ko saamaanyat: chaar samoohon mein baanta gaya hai - kaauntarateenaur, teenaur, bairiton aur bais. taroon hone ke pehle ki umr vaale bachchon ki aavaajon par dhyaan dete samay ek aathavein pad, trebal, ka prayog kiya ja sakta hai. in sabhi mukhya prakaaron mein se har ek ke kai upaprakaar hote hain jo aavaajon ki alag pehchaan ke liye vishisht svar gunon jaise kalaraatura suvidha va svar ke vajan ki pehchaan karte hain.[7]

is baat par dhyaan dena chaahiye ki koral sangeet mein, gaayakon ke svar keval aavaaj ki gaharaai ke aadhaar par bante hote hain. koral sangeet pratyek ling mein adhiktar svar ke bhaagon ko oonchi aur neechi aavaajon (esaeteebi (SATB), ya sopraano, Alto, teenaur aur bais) mein baantata hai. parinaamasvaroop, aadarsh koral sthiti mein durvargeekaran ho jaane ki bahut sambhaavnaaen hoti hain.[7] choonki adhikaansh logon ki aavaaj madhyam hoti hai, unhein unke liye ya to bahut ooncha ya bahut neecha bhaag dena chaahiye; mejo-sopraano ko sopraano ya Alto gaana chaahiye aur bairiton ko teenaur ya bais gaana chaahiye. pratyek vikalp gaayak ke liye kathinaaiyaan prastut kar sakta hai, lekin adhikaansh gaayakon ke liye neeche ke sur mein gaane mein oonche sur mein gaane ki apeksha kam khatra hota hai.[15]

sangeet ke samakaaleen prakaaron (jinhein kabhi-kabhi samakaaleen vyaavasaayik sangeet ka naam diya jaata hai) mein gaayakon ko unke dvaara gaae jaane vaale sangeet ke anusaar vargeekrut kiya jaata hai, jaise jaij, paup, vlooj, sol, country, fok, ya rock shailiyaan. vartamaan samay mein gair-shaastreeya sangeet mein koi aadhikaarik svar vargeekaran naheen hai. anya prakaar ke gaayan mein shaastreeya svar ke prakaaron ka prayog karne ke prayatn kiye gaye hain lekin aise prayatn vivaadagrast ho gaye hain.[16] svar ke prakaaron ke vargeekaran ka vikaas is bharose par kiya gaya tha ki gaayak shaastreeya svar takaneek ka prayog ek khaas daayare mein rahakar bina vistaarit svar utpaadan ke saath karega. choonki samakaaleen sangeetajnya bhinn svar takaneekon, maaikrofonon, ka prayog karte hain aur vishisht svar bhoomika mein jamane ke liye majaboor naheen hote hain, isaliye sopraano, teenaur, bairiton jaise padon ka prayog bhraamak ya galat ho sakta hai.[17]

svar shikshaashaastr

erkol di' raubarti: kaunsart, si.1490

gaayan ke adhyaapan ke adhyayan ko svar shikshaashaastr kehte hain. svar shikshaashaastr ki kala aur vigyaan ka ek lamba itihaas hai jo praacheen grees mein shuroo hua tha aur aaj tak viksit aur parivrtit ho raha hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein] svar ke shikshaashaastr ki kala aur vigyaan ka vyavasaaya karne vaale peshon mein svar prashikshak, koral nirdeshak, mukhar sangeet shikshakon, opera nirdeshak aur gaayan ke anya adhyaapak shaamil hain.

svar shikshaashaastr ke siddhaant upayukt svar takaneek ke vikaas ka bhaag hain. adhyayan ke liye aadarsh kshetron mein nimn shaamil hain:[18][19]

  • maanaveeya shareer rachana shaastr aur shareerakriyaavijnyaaan jo gaayan ki bhautik prakriya se sambandhit hai,
    • svar ka svaasthya aur gaayan se sambandhit svar ke vikaar
    • shvaas kriya aur gaayan ke liye vaayu ka samarthan
    • svar utpaadan
    • svar ki pratidhvani ya svar ka projekshan
    • svar ka panjeekaran: svar rajjuon ke samaan kanpan prakaar mein utpann samaan gunavatta vaale taalon ya laya ki vishisht shrankhala, jo svar yantr se utpann hoti hai, kyonki in sabhi kanpan prakaaron mein se pratyek pichon ke ek vishisht daayare mein aate hain aur kuchh khaas tarah ki dhvaniyon ko utpann karte hain.
    • svar vargeekaran
  • svar ki shailiyaan: shaastreeya gaayakon ke liye, inmein laaidar se aapera tak ki shailiyaan shaamil hain; paup gaayakon ke liye, shailiyon mein "belted out" blooj bailaad-jaaj gaayakon ke liye, shailiyon mein swing bailaad aur skaiting shaamil hain.
    • sostenooto aur logaato jaisi shailiyon mein prayukt takaneekein, daayare ka vistaaran, sur ki gunavatta, vaaibreto aur kalaraatura

svar ki takaneek

upayukt svar ki takaneek se kiya gaya gaayan ek ekeekrut aur samanvayit kriya hai jo gaayan ki bhautik prakriyaaon ko prabhaavi roop se sanyojit karti hai. maukhik svar ke utpaadan mein chaar bhautik prakriyaaon ka prayog hota hai - shvasan kriya, svar utpaadan, pratidhvani aur uchchaaran. ye prakriyaaen nimn shrankhala mein hoti hain:

  1. saans li jaati hai
  2. svar yantr mein aavaaj shuroo hoti hai
  3. svar pratidhvanikaarak aavaaj ko grahan karte aur usako prabhaavit karte hain
  4. uchchaarak aavaaj ko samajhi ja sakane yogya ikaaiyon ka roop pradaan karte hain

yadyapi ye chaaron prakriyaaen adhyayan ke samay alag-alag padhi jaati hain, vaastav mein ve ek sanyojit kaarya mein mili hoti hain. kisi prabhaavashaali gaayak ya vakta ke saath sunane vaale ka dhyaan kabhi usamein hone waali prakriya ki or naheen jaata hai kyaunki man aur shareer is tarah se samaayojit ho jaate hain ki sunane vaale ko keval uske falasvaroop utpann ekeekrut kaarya ka hi dhyaan rahata hai. is prakriya mein samaayojan ki kami hone par kai svar sambandhi samasyaaen utpann hoti hain.[17]

choonki gaayan ek samaayojit upakram hai, isaliye kisi bhi vyaktigat takaneeki kshetr aur prakriyaaon ke baare mein anya logon ke sandarbh ke bina kehna kathin hota hai. udaaharan ke liye, svar nirmaan ke baare mein tabhi kah ja sakta hai jab vah shvasan kriya se juda ho, uchchaarak pratidhvani ko prabhaavit karte hain, pratidhvanikaarak svar rajjuon par asar daalte hain, svar rajju shvaas niyantran ko prabhaavit karte hain, aadi. svar ke vikaaron ke kaaran aksar us samaayojit prakriya ke ek bhaag mein rookaavat aa jaati hai jisse svar adyaapak ko apne vidyaarthi mein prakriya ke kisi ek bhaag par adhik jor dena padta hai jab tak ki vah samasya theek na ho jaaya. lekin gaayan ki kala ke kuchh kshetr samaayojit kaaryon ke parinaamon se ki unke baare mein paaramparik naamon jaise svareekaran, pratidhvanikran, uchchaaran ya shvasanakriya ke antargat baat karna kathin hai.

ek baar vidyaarthi gaayan ki kriya mein kaam aane waali prakriyaaon va unki kaaryapranaali ke prati sajag ho jaata hai to vah unka samaayojan karne ki koshish mein lag jaata hai. aparihaarya roop se vidyaarthi aur adhyaapak kisi ek prakaar ki takaneek ke baare mein adhik chintit ho jaate hain. kai prakriyaaen bhinn daron par aage badh sakti hain jisse ek asantulan ya samaayojan ki kami ho jaati hai. vidyaarthi ki bhinn kaaryon ko samaayojit karne ki kshamata par sabse adhik nirbhar svar ki takanaak ke kshetr hain:[7]

  1. svar ke daayare ko apni adhiktam seema tak le jaana
  2. ek samaan sur ke gun waali ek samaan aavaaj ki utpatti ka vikaas karna
  3. lacheelepan aur furti ka vikaas karna
  4. ek santulit vaaibreto praapt karna

gaayan yogya svar ka vikaas karna

gaayan ek hunar hai jiske liye uchch roop se viksit peshi prativrti kriyaaon ki jaroorat hoti hai. gaayan ke liye adhik pesheeya shakti ki jaroorat naheen hoti lekin peshi ke uchch darje ke samaayojan ki jaroorat padti hai. log apne svaron ko geeton aur svar ke vyaayaamon ke dhyaanapoorvak aur vyavasthit abhyaas dvaara viksit kar sakte hain. svar shikshaavid apne vidyaarthiyon se apni aavaaj ki kasarat buddhimttaapoorvak karne ka nirdesh dete hain. gaayakon ko hamesha yeh sochana hota hai ki ve kis tarah ki aavaaj nikaal rahe hain aur gaate samay unhein kis tarah ki anubhooti ho rahi hai.[17] svar ke vyaayaamon ke kai uddeshya hote hain, jinmein aavaaj ko garm karna, aavaaj ke daayare ko badhaana, svar ko kshitijvat aur lanbavat kataar mein lagaana aur svar ki takaneekein seekhana jaise, legeto, staiketo, gatiki ka niyantran, tej bolna, chaude antaraalon par aaraam se gaana seekhana, kampit dhvani se gaana, melisma gaana aur svar ki trutiyon ka sudhaar.[7]

aavaaj ke daayare ko badhaana

svar ke vikaas ka ek mahatvapoorn lakshya hai, gun ya takaneek mein parivartan ki or bina kisi tarah ka dhyaan kheenche apne svar ke daayare ki praakrutik seema ke bheetar gaana seekhana. svar shikshaavid kehte hain ki koi gaayak yeh lakshya keval tabhi praapt kar sakta hai jab gaayan ke liye aavashyak sabhi bhautik prakriyaaen (jaise svarayantr ki kriya, shvaas ka samarthan, pratidhvani ka samanjan aur uchchaaran) prabhaavi roop se ek saath kaarya kar rahi hon. adhikaansh svar shikshaavid in prakriyaaon ke samaayojan ke liye (1) svar ke sabse aaraamapoorn teseetoora mein achhi gaayan ki aadaton ke nirmaan aur fir (2) apne daayare ko dheere-dheere badhaane mein vishvaas karte hain.[3]

oonche ya neeche gaane ki kshamata ko prabhaavit karne vaale teen ghatak hain:

  1. oorja ghatak - "oorja" ke kai arth hain. iska matlab svar ko banaane mein shareer ki sampoorn kriya se, bheetar saans lene waali aur saans baahar karne waali peshiyon ke beech sambandh jise shvaas samarthan prakriya kehte hain, se, svar rajjuon par shvaas se daale gaye dabaav aur us dabaav ke prati unke pratirodh se, tatha aavaaj ke gatikeeya star se hota hai.
  2. sthaan ghatak - "sthaan" se matlab hai munh ke bheetar ke sthaan ka aakaar aur taaloo aur svarayantr ki sthiti. saamaanya taur par gaayak ka munh jitna ooncha vah gaata hai, utana hi adhik khulana chaahiye. bheetari sthaan ya narm taaloo aur svar yantr ko gale ko shithil karke chauda kiya ja sakta hai. svar shikshaavid iska varnan jamhaai lene ki shurooaat ki tarah karte hain.
  3. gaharaai ghatak - "gaharaai" ke do arth hain. iska matlab shareer aur svar prakriya mein gaharaai ke vaastavik bhautik anubhav se aur sur ke gun se sambandhit gaharaai ke maanasik siddhaanton se hai.

maikakini ka kehna hai, ye teenon ghatak teen mool niyamon mein vyakt kiya ja sakte hain - (1) jab aap ooncha gaate hain, aapko adhik oorja ka prayog karna chaahiye, jab aap neeche gaate hain to aap kam oorja ka prayog karna hota hai. (2) jab aap ooncha gaate hain, aapko adhik sthaan ka prayog karna padta hai, jab aap nichle sur mein gaate hain, aap kam sthaan ka prayog karte hain. (3) jab aap ooncha gaate hain, aap adhik gaharaai ka prayog karte hain, jab aap nichle sur mein gaate hain, aapko kam gaharaai ki jaroorat hoti hai.[7]

mudra

gaayan ki prakriya shareer ki kuchh khaas bhautik dashaaon ki upasthiti mein sarvottam kaarya karti hai. hava ko shareer mein mukt roop se kheenchne aur baahar nikaalne aur hava ki aavashyak maatra ke praapt karne ki kshamata shvasan prakriya ke bhinn bhaagon ki mudra dvaara gambhir roop se prabhaavit ho sakti hai. vaksh ka bheetar daba hona fefadon ki kshamata ko seemit kar deta hai aur sakht pet madhyapat ko neeche ki or aane se rok sakta hai. achhi mudra shvasan prakriya ko apna mool kaarya oorja ke vyarth kharch ke bina suchaaroo roop se karne deti hai. achhi mudra svar nirmaan ko shuroo karna aur pratidhvanikaarakon ki tyooning ko aasaan banaati hai kyonki sahi sanyojan shareer mein anaavashyak tanaav utpann hone se rokata hai. svar shikshaavidon ne yeh baat bhi dekhi hai ki jab gaayak achhi mudra apnaate hain, to unhein gaate samay adhik aatmavishvaas ka anubhav hota hai. shrota bhi achhi mudra vaale gaayakon ke prati behtar pratikriya karte hain. aadatan achhi mudra behtar rakt pravaah aur shareer ko thakaan va tanaav se bachaakar antatogatva shareer ke kul svaasthya mein sudhaar laati hai.[3]

aadarsh gaayan mudra ke aath ansh hote hain:

  1. halka sa alag mahasoos karna
  2. pair seedhe lekin ghutne khule hue
  3. kamar saamane ki or seedhe
  4. reedh sahi rekha mein jami hui
  5. pet sapaat rakhe hue
  6. seena aaraam se saamane ki or tana hua
  7. kandhe neeche aur peechhe ki or
  8. sir seedhe saamane ki or
shvaas va shvaas ka samarthan

praakrutik shvasan ki teen avasthaaen hoti hain, bheetar ko saans lena, saans ko baahar nikaalna aur vishraam ki avastha, ye avasthaaen saamaanya taur par jaanaboojh kar niyantrit naheen hoti hain. gaayan mein shvasan kriya ki chaar avasthaaen hoti hain, bheetar saans kheenchna, niyantran banaane ki avadhi, ek niyantrit uchhavaas avadhi (svar nirmaan) aur ek punarvaas avadhi.

ye avasthaaen tab tak gaayak ke niyantran mein honi chaahiye jab tak ki ve prativrti kriyaaen na ban jaaen. kai gaayak sachet niyantranon ko unke prativrti kriyaaon mein badalne ke pehle hi chhod dete hain, jisse antatogatva deerghakaalik svar ki samasyaaen utpann ho jaati hain.[20]

vaaibreto

vaaibreto ka prayog gaayakon (aur kai saajavaadakon dvaara-jaise dori yukt saaj jin par ek kamaan ka prayog karke vaaibreto dhun utpann ki ja sakti hai) dvaara tab kiya jaata hai jab koi anvarat sur teji se aur lagaataar oopar aur neeche ki pitch mein jaata hai jisse sur mein jara sa kampan utpann ho jaata hai. vaaibreto kisi anvarat sur mein ek lahar hoti hai. vaaibreto praakrutik roop se hota hai aur uchit shvaas samarthan aur aaraam ki sthiti mein kaam kar rahe svar yantr ka parinaam hota hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein] kuchh gaayak vaaibreto ka prayog abhivyakti ke roop mein karte hain. kai safal kalaakaaron ne gahre, prachur vaaibreto ki neenv par apne career ka nirmaan kiya hai.

mukhar sangeet

mukhar sangeet ek ya adhik gaayakon dvaara, saajon ke saath ya bina saajon ke, prastut sangeet hota hai, jismein gaayan ka mukhya bhaag hota hai. mukhar sangeet shaayad sangeet ka sabse praacheen prakaar hai, kyonki ise maanaveeya svar ke alaava aur kisi saaj ki jaroorat naheen hoti. sabhi sangeet sanskrutiyon mein kisi prakaar ka mukhar sangeet paaya jaata hai aur sampoorn vishv ki sabhi sanskrutiyon mein gaayan ki deerghakaalik paramparaaen rahi hain.

aisa sangeet jo gaayan ka prayog to karta hai par use mukhya roop se pesh naheen karta hai, saamaanya taur par saaj-sangeet maana jaata hai. udaaharan ke liye, kuchh blooj rock geeton mein saade bulaave-va-pratikriya vaale koras ho sakte hain, lekin geet mein saaj se utpann dhunon par adhik jor hota hai. mukhar sangeet aadarsh roop se gaae hue shabdon jinhein geet kehte hain, ko pesh karta hai, haalaaainki mukhar sangeet ke aise bhi udaaharan hain jinhein bina bhaasha vaale shabdon ya aavaajon - kabhi-kabhi sangeet ke onomotopiya ke roop mein - ka prayog kiye bhi prastut kiya gaya hai. geet ke saath gaae hue kisi bhi mukhar sangeet ke chhote se tukade ko gaana kehte hain.

mukhar sangeet ki vidhaaen

2013 mein deep parpal ke saath rock gaayak Ian giln live pradarshan kar rahe hain.

mukhar sangeet ko kai bhinn tareekon aur shailiyon mein likha jaata hai jinhein aksar kisi khaas vidha ka naam diya jaata hai. in vidhaaon mein shaamil hain: kala sangeet, lokapriya sangeet, paaramparik sangeet, kshetreeya aur raashtreeya sangeet aur in vidhaaon ke mishran. in mukhya vidhaaon mein kai up-vidhaaen hoti hain. uda. lokapriya sangeet mein blooj, jaaj, deshi sangeet, iji lisening, hip haup, rock sangeet aur kai anya vidhaaen shaamil hain. ek up-vidha mein ek aur up-vidha bhi ho sakti hai, jaise, jaaj mein vokeleej aur skait gaayan.

lokapriya aur paaramparik sangeet

kai aadhunik paup sangeet samoohon mein, ek mukhya gaayak gaane ke praathamik suron ya dhun ki prastuti karta hai aur koi aur gaayak gaane ke paarshv mein gaayan ya svarasangati ka kaarya karta hai. pichhle gaayak gaane ke kuchh, lekin saamaanya taur par poore naheen, hisson ka gaayan hi karte hain aur aksar gaane ke paarshv mein gunagunaane jaisa kaarya karte hain. paanch bhaagon wala gauspel kapela sangeet iska ek apavaad hai, jismein mukhya aavaaj paanch aavaajon mein se sabse oonchi hoti hai aur vah geet ka naheen, balki, utaar-chadhaav ka gaayan karti hai. kuchh kalaakaar aadiyo rikaardingon mein rikaard kiye hue sangeet ko aachhaadit karke mukhya aur pichhle donon prakaar ka gaayan kar lete hain.

lokapriya sangeet mein kai mukhar svar shailiyaan shaamil ho sakti hain. hip-haup raiping ka prayog karta hai, jismein kisi taal par bina kisi sahayog ke geeton ko taalapoorn roop se prastut kiya jaata hai. kuchh prakaar ki raiping mein jamaikaai tosting ki tarah, poori ya adhikaansh bolachaal ya shabdon ka uchchaaran hota hai. kuchh anya prakaar ki raiping mein gaayak chhote ya adhoore gaae gaye bhaagon ko jod sakte hain. blooj gaayan blue suron ke prayog par aadhaarit hota hai-aise sur jo abhivyakti ke liye mukhya sur se kam pitch par gaae jaate hain. bhaari dhaatu aur haardakor pank upavidhaaon mein, mukhar shailiyon mein cheekh, chillaahat aur maut ke gurraane jaise asaamaanya svar shaamil ho sakte hain.

loss Vegas mein rapper busta raaims pradarshan kar rahe hai.

lokapriya aur shaastreeya vidhaaon ki jeevant prastutiyon mein ek antar yeh hota hai ki jabki shaastreeya gaayak aksar chhote ya madhyam aakaar ke haalon mein bina dhvani-vistaarakon ki sahaayata ke gaate hain, lokapriya sangeet mein, lagbhag sabhi prastutiyon mein maaikrofon aur peee system (dhvani vistaarakon aur pravarddhak) ka prayog kiya jaata hai, bhale hi vah kisi chhote se kaufi house nein bhi kyon na ho. maaikrofon ke prayog ka lokapriya sangeet par kai tarah se prabhaav hua hai. ek, isse antarang aur abhivyaktipoorn gaayan shailiyon jaise krooning ka vikaas ho saka hai, jismein paryaapt praujekshan ya aavaaj ka utpaadan bina maaikrofon ke sambhav naheen ho sakta tha. isi tarah, maaikrofon ka prayog karne vaale paup gaayak itni anya sur shailiyon ki prastuti kar sakte hain jo bina dhvani-vistaarak ke naheen ho sakta hai, jaise, fusafusaahat ki aavaaj nikaalna, gunagunaana aur aadhi aur poori gaai hui dhunon ka mishran karna. isi prakaar, kuchh gaayak maaikrofon ka prayog karke prabhaav utpann karte hain, jaise Mike ko munh ke bahut paas laakar badha hua bais prabhaav praapt karna ya hip-haup beetabaaksaron ki tarah Mike mein pi aur bi ke visfotak svar nikaal kar tabale jaisa prabhaav utpann karna.

jabki kuchh band paarshv mein sthit gaayakon ka prayog keval manch par gaane ke samay hi karte hain, lokapriya sangeet mein paarshvik gaayakon ki anya bhoomikaaen bhi hoti hain. kai rock aur metal baindon mein paarshvik gaayan karne vaale sangeetakaar vaadya bhi bajaate hain, jaise ridm gitaar, ilektrik bais ya drum. laitin ya afro-kyoobaai samoohon mein, paarshvik gaayak gaate samay taal milaane vaale vaadya ya shekar bajaate hain. kuchh paup aur hip-haup samoohon aur sangeet theatre mein hedaset maaikrofonon se gaate hue paarshvik gaayakon ko vistrut roop se taiyaar kiye gaye nrutya mein abhinay karna hota hai.

gaayan se aajeevika kamaana

gaayakon ke mehanataanon aur kaarya-dashaaon mein bahut bhinnata dekhne mein aati hain. jabki sangeet ke anya kshetron jaise sangeet shiksha mein naukriyaan poornakaalik, tanakhvaah waali hoti hain, gaayan ki naukriyaan ekal prastutiyon ya pradarshanon ya unki shrankhalaaon par (jaise, aapera ya sangeet theatre pradarshan ki do hafton ki shrankhala) aadhaarit hoti hain. gaayan ki naukariyon se aay choonki aniyamit hoti hai, gaayak aksar apni aay ko sangeet se sambandhit anya kaam, jaise gaayan ka prashikshan dekar, svar ke paath padhaakar ya church mein koral nirdeshak ka kaam karke badhaate hain. ichhuk gaayakon ki sankhya kaafi adhik hone ke kaaran, gaayan mein naukri paana bahut pratispardhaatmak ho sakta hai.

1973 mein emsatardam mein apne antim daure ke dauraan Maria kailas.

church ke gaayakon ke dal mein ekal gaayak 30 se 500 dollar tak kama sakte hain. saamudaayik gaayak samooh mein gaane vaale log 200 se 3000 dollar prati varsh tak kama sakte hain, jabki peshevar kaaryakram ke koral samooh ke sadasya prati pradarshan 80 dollar ya adhik kama lete hain. radio ya TV ke pradarshanon mein bhaag lene vaale gaayak sthaaneeya station par 75 dollar prati pradarshan aur raashtreeya network sho (uda. CBS (CBS) ya enabeesi (NBC)) mein 125 ya adhik dollar ki kamaai kar sakte hain. nrutya baindon ya night club pradarshan samoohon mein kaam karne vaale jaij ya paup gaayak 225 ya adhik dollar prati saptaah tak kama sakte hain. peshevar aapera koras gaayak 350 se 750 dollar prati saptaah tak lete hain. aapera ekal gaayakon ko, jinke liye naukariyon ke avsar bahut seemit hote hain, 350 se 20000 dollar tak mil sakte hain. shaastreeya kaaryakram ke ekal gaayak, jinke liye naukri ke avsar kaafi seemit hain, prati pradarshan lagbhag 350 dollar ya adhik ki kamaai karte hain.[21]

gaayak banane ke ichhuk logon mein sangeet ka hunar, utkrusht aavaaj, logon ke saath kaam karne ki kshamata aur pradarshan karne aur naatakeeyata ka shauk hona aavashyak hai. iske alaavaagaayakon mein lagaataar seekhane aur parishkaar karne ki aakaanksha aur lagan honi chaahiye,[21] kyonki gaayan ka adhyayan praarambhik diploma ya degree ke samaapt hone ke saath khatm naheen hota-peshevar gaayak apne praarambhik prashikshan ke samaapt hone ke kai dashakon baad bhi apne hunar ko badhaane aur nai shailiyaan seekhane ke liye sangeet ka prashikshan praapt karne ka prayatn karte rahate hain. saath hi gaayak banane ke ichhuk logon ko gaanon ko samajhne ke liye, apne chune hue sangeet ki shaili ke mukhar saahitya ko padhne aur koral sangeet ki takaneekon mein maahir hone ke liye, drushya gaayan aur gaanon ko yaad rakhane, piyaano ke mool hunaron, nae geet seekhane mein madad aur kaanon ke abhyaas ya maukhik kasaraton ke liye, mukhar takaneekon mein vishesh hunar praapt karne ki aavashyakta hoti hai. shaastreeya gaayan aur kuchh anya vidhaaon mein, videshi bhaashaaon jaise French, itaalavi, jarman ya anya bhaashaaon ka gyaan hona aavashyak hai. college aur vishvavidhyaalaya ke prashikshan ke pehle, gaayak banane ke ichhukon ko sangeet padhna seekhana, mool piyaano ka adhyayan karna aur samooh gaan va ekal donon sthitiyon mein gaane ka anubhav praapt karna chaahiye.

college aur vishvavidhyaalaya ka prashikshan hamesha jaroori naheen hota lekin uske baraabar ke prashikshan ka hona aam taur par aavashyak hai.[21] sekandari school ke baad gaayan mein shaastreeya va gairashaastreeya donon tarah ke gaayakon ke liye prashikshan upalabdh hai. shaastreeya shreni mein gaayan ka adhyayan kanjarvetariyon aur yunivrsiti sangeet kaaryakramon mein kiya ja sakta hai, isse diploma aur baichalar degree se lekar master ki degree aur Doctor of myoojikl Arts tak ki upaadhiyaan upalabdh hain. lokapriya aur jaij shailiyon mein, college aur yunivrsiti digriyaan upalabdh hain, haalaaainki is tarah ke kaaryakramon ki sankhya kam hai.

gaayak banane ke ichhuk vidyaarthiyon ke apne peshevar prashikshan ko poora kar lene ke baad, unhein kisi aapera nirdeshak, koyaramaastar ya conductor ke saamane gaayan ki pareeksha dekar sangeet ke hunar ke khareedaaron ke sammukh swayam ko bechne ke liye kadam uthaane chaahiye. mukhar sangeet ki jis shaili mein vyakti prashikshit hota hai, hunar ko khareedne vaale log, rikaard company ke pratinidhi, aapera ya sangeet theatre ke nirdeshak, kauyar nirdeshak, night club manager ya kaansart promotar ho sakte hain. apne prashikshan aur pradarshan ke anubhav ko darshaate hue apne sankshit parichay ke alaava gaayak ek promotional kit taiyaar karte hain jismein peshevar tareeke se liye gaye photo, apne gaayan ke abhinay se yukt (head shauts) seedi ya deeveedi aur sangeet ke aalochakon ya patrakaaron ki sameekshaaon ki pratiyaan hoti hain. kuchh gaayak saakshaatkaar aur anya abhinay ke avsaron ke liye ek agent ya manager ko bhi rakhate hain, agent ya manager ko aksar manch par kaam karne se praapt fees ka kuchh pratishat diya jaata hai.

svaasthya sambandhi laabh

vaigyaanik adhyayanon se gyaat hua hai ki gaayan ka logon ke svaasthya par sakaaraatmak asar ho sakta hai. koral gaayan mein bhaag le rahe vidhyaarthiyon ke sarve se praapt swayam diye gaye byaure ke anusaar kiye gaye ek praathamik adhyayan mein fefadon ki kshamata mein vruddhi, behtar mood, tanaav mein kami aur saamaajik va aadhyaatmik laabh mahasoos kiye gaye.[22] fir bhi, fefadon ki kshamata ke ek kaafi puraane adhyayan mein peshevar gaayan ke prashikshan praapt logon ki tulana bina prashikshan vaale logon se ki gayi aur fefadon ki kshamata ke badhne ke daavon ke samarthan mein koi baat naheen pai gayi.[23] gaayan tanaav ko kam karke pratirodhakshamata pranaali par sakaaraatmak prabhaav daal sakta hai. ek adhyayan mein paaya gaya ki koral sangeet ko gaane aur sunane donon se tanaav ke haaramonon ke star kam hote hain aur pratirodhakshamata badhti hai.[24] 2009 mein gaayan aur svaasthya ke beech sambandh ka adhyayan karne ke liye ek bahuraashtreeya sahayog ki sthaapana ki gayi, jiska naam gaayan mein pragat antaraanushaasaneeya shodh (ers) rakha gaya.[25]

gair maanaveeya jaatiyon mein gaayan

vidvaan log yeh maanate hain ki gaayan kai gair maanaveeya jaatiyon mein shaktishaali roop mein vidhyamaan hai.[26][27] bahut bhinn pashu jaatiyon mein gaayan ke bartaav ke vistrut failaav se lagta hai ki gaayan bhinn jaatiyon jaise (pakshiyon, gibbanon, vhelon aur manushyon) mein svatantr roop se prakat hua. vartamaan mein kareeb 5400 pashuon ki aisi jaatiyaan hain jo gaayan kar sakti hain. kam se kam kuchh gaane waali jaatiyaan apne gaanon ko seekhane, sudhaarane aur nai dhunon ko banaane ki kshamata ka bhi pradarshan kar sakti hain.[28] kuchh pashu jaatiyon mein gaayan ek saamoohik gatividhi hota hai (dekhiye, uda. gibban parivaaron mein gaayan[29]), haalaaainki keval manushya hi gaane waali aisi jaati hai jise taal ki samajh hai aur ekdam sahi roop se taal mein ekeekrut ki ja sakti hai.

vibhinn praakrutik paryaavarano mein gaayan

Joseph jordaaniya ne sujhaav diya ki gaayan ka bartaav bhinn paryaavaranon mein (jameen par, paani mein, pedon par) rahane waali pashu jaatiyon mein bahut hi asamaan roop se vitrit hota hai.[30] adhiktar gaane waali jaatiyaan (jaise kai pakshi jaatiyaan, ya gibban) pedon par rahati hain, kuchh paani mein rahati hain (vhel, daulfin, seelein, samudri Singh) aur jameen par manushya ke alaava anya koi pashu jaati naheen gaati[31] hai. gaayan ka yeh asamaan vitran pashuon aur manushyon ke gaayan ke bartaav ke mool ko samajhne ke liye mahatvapoorn ho sakta hai. jordaaniya is tathya ko praakrutik chayan ke dabaav ke parinaam ke roop mein samajhaata hai. gaayan ek bahut hi mahanga bartaav hai na keval isaliye ki aavaajon ke utpaadan mein oorja kharch hoti hai, balki suraksha ke kaaranon se bhi kyaunki sabhi sambhaavit shikaari gaane vaale pashu ko aasaani se khoj sakte hain. pedon par rahane waali gaayak jaatiyaan kaafi adhik anukool paristhiti mein hoti hain kyonki ped bhinn jaatiyon ko unke shareer ke vajan ke anusaar rahane dete hain. is tarah bhinn vajan vaale bhinn jeev pedon ki shaakhaaon par bhinn staron par rahate hain. uda. ek 50 kilo ka cheeta ek 50 kilo ke bandar dvaara utpann aavaajon ko dekh aur sun to sakta hai par choonki kam vajan wala bandar pedon ki shaakhaaon par kaafi oopar rahata hai, saliye vah adhik vajan vaale cheete ki pahunch ke baahar hota hai. isaliye ped par rahane waali jaatiyaan mukhar sanketon ke ek bade daayare mein gaane ya sanchaar karne mein surakshit mahasoos karti hain. doosari or, jameen par rahane waali sabhi pashu jaatiyaan, unke vajan mein badi asamaanataaen (kharagosh se lekar sinhon aur haathiyon tak) hone par bhi bhoomi ke samaan star par rahate hain aur chup rahana unke liye bahut aavashyak hota hai. adhikaansh pakshi, atyant shaukeen gaayak bhi jameen par baithe hone par gaana aur anya svaron ka utpaadan band kar dete hain.[32] isaliye shikaari ka khatra pedon par rahane waali jaatiyon ke saadhaaranataya jameen par rahane waali jaatiyon ki tulana mein kaafi adhik shor karne ka mukhya kaaran ho sakta hai.[33]

inhein bhi dekhein: kala sangeet

  • A kaipela
  • area
  • bail kainto
  • chainasan
  • chiyrosakuro (Chiaroscuro) (sangeet)
  • koral sangeet
  • sprechagesang
  • gala se gaayan
  • vaani prashikshan
  • vaani prakshepan
  • vaani ke prakaar
  • drut utaar-chadhaav ke saath gaana
  • vinsingad

inhein bhi dekhein: lokapriya sangeet

  • bit boxing
  • belt (sangeet)
  • death graaul
  • gunagunaana
  • pramukh gaayak
  • raiping
  • chillaana (sangeet)
  • vokodar

sandarbh

  1. Falkner, Keith, san (1983). Voice. Yehudi Menuhin music guides. London: MacDonald Young. pp. 26. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 035609099X. OCLC 10418423.
  2. "Singing". Britannica Online Encyclopedia. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/545880/singing.
  3. a aa i Vennard, William (1967). Singing: the mechanism and the technic. New York: Carl Fischer. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 978-0825800559. OCLC 248006248.
  4. Hunter, Eric J; Titze, Ingo R (2004). "Overlap of hearing and voicing ranges in singing." (PDF). J Singing 61 (4): 387–392. http://web.ku.edu/~cmed/923/Hunter1.pdf.
  5. Hunter, Eric J; Šaavec, Jan G; Titze, Ingo R (December 2006). "Comparison of the produced and perceived voice range profiles in untrained and trained classical singers". J Voice 20 (4): 513–526. doi:10.1016/j.jvoice.2005.08.009. PMID 16325373.
  6. Large, John W (fravari/March 1972). "Towards an integrated physiologic-acoustic theory of vocal registers". The NATS Bulletin 28: 30–35. ISSN 0884-8106. OCLC 16072337.
  7. a aa i E u oo A ai O au k McKinney, James C (1994). The diagnosis and correction of vocal faults. Nashville, Tennessee: Genovex Music Group. pp. 213. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 1565939409. OCLC 30786430.
  8. Greene, Margaret; Mathieson, Lesley (2001). The voice and its disorders (6th san॰). John Wiley & Sons. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 1861561961. OCLC 47831173.
  9. Grove, George; Sadie, Stanley, san (1980). The new Grove dictionary of music & musicians. 6. Macmillan. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 1561591742. OCLC 191123244.
  10. a aa i Stark, James (2003). Bel Canto: A history of vocal pedagogy. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 978-0802086143. OCLC 53795639.
  11. Clippinger, David Alva (1917). The head voice and other problems: Practical talks on singing. Oliver Ditson. pa॰ 12. Singing gyootenabarg pariyojana par
  12. Miller, Richard (2004). Solutions for singers. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 286. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0195160053. OCLC 51258100.
  13. Warrack, John Hamilton; West, Ewan (1992). The Oxford dictionary of opera. Oxford: Oxford University Press. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0198691645. OCLC 25409395.
  14. Shewan, Robert (January/February 1979). "Voice classification: An examination of methodology". The NATS Bulletin 35 (3): 17–27. ISSN 0884-8106. OCLC 16072337.
  15. Smith, Brenda; Sataloff, Robert Thayer (2005). Choral pedagogy. San Diego, California: Plural Publishing. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 1597560436. OCLC 64198260.
  16. Peckham, Anne (2005). Vocal workouts for the contemporary singer. Boston: Berklee Press. pp. 117. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0876390475. OCLC 60826564.
  17. a aa i Appelman, Dudley Ralph (1986). The science of vocal pedagogy: theory and application. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press. pp. 434. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0253351103. OCLC 13083085. sandarbh truti: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Appelman" defined multiple times with different content
  18. Titze Ingo R (2008). "The human instrument". Scientific American 298 (1): 94–101. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0108-94. PMID 18225701.
  19. Titze Ingo R (1994). Principles of voice production. Prentice Hall. pp. 354. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 013717893X. http://ncvs.org/bookshop/index.html.
  20. Sundberg Johan (January/February 1993). "Breathing behavior during singing". The NATS Journal 49: 2–9, 49–51. ISSN 0884-8106. OCLC 16072337.
  21. a aa i sangeet shikshak ke raashtreeya samiti "sangeet mein career" (2001), MENC.org
  22. Clift, SM; Hancox, G (2001). "The perceived benefits of singing". The Journal of the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health 121 (4): 248–256. doi:10.1177/146642400112100409. PMID 11811096.
  23. Heller, Stanley S; Hicks, William R; Root, Walter S (1960). "Lung volumes of singers". J Appl Physiol 15 (1): 40–42. PMID 14400875.
  24. Kreutz, Gunter; Bongard, Stephan; Rohrmann, Sonja; Hodapp, Volker; Grebe, Dorothee (December 2004). "Effects of choir singing or listening on secretory immunoglobulin A, cortisol, and emotional state". Journal of Behavioral Medicine 27 (6): 623–635. doi:10.1007/s10865-004-0006-9. PMID 15669447.
  25. Mick, Hayley (19 June 2009). "Doctor's prescription: 2 arias + a chorus". The Globe and Mail. Archived from the original on 12 September 2012. https://archive.is/hyCu.
  26. maarlar, Peter (1970). bardasaung aur bhaashan vikaas: kya samaanataaen ho sakte hai? American saainsatist 58:669-73
  27. vailin, nils, baurn markar, steven brown. (sampaadak) (2000). sangeet ka nikaas. Cambridge, emae: emaaaiti (MIT)
  28. paayen, Cathrine (2000). "kubade vhels ke uttarottar badalate gaane: jangali jaanavar mein rachanaatmak prakriya par ek vindo." sangeet ke mool mein. N. L. vailin, bi. markar aur steven brown dvaara sanpaadit, peepi 135-150. Cambridge, emae: emaaaiti (MIT)
  29. gismain, Thomas. 2000. "vikaasavaadi drushtikon se gibn gaane aur ek maanav sangeet." sangeet ke mool mein. N. L. vailin, bi. markar aur S. brown dvaara sanpaadit, peepi 103-124. Cambridge, emae: emaaaiti
  30. Joseph Jordania (2006). Who Asked the First Question? The Origins of Human Choral Singing, Intelligence, Language and Speech. Tbilisi: Logos. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 99940-31-81-3.
  31. jaurdaniya, Joseph (2009). "times too faait end times too rilaiks: singing end haming eight the bigning of hyuman evalyooshaneri history". kaidmos 1, 2009: 272-277
  32. kaichapol, klaaiv ke. aur Peter J. bi. sletar (1995). bird song: biological theems end vereeeshans. Cambridge yunivrsiti press.
  33. jaurdaniya, 2009:272-273

baahari links

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singing ko vikshanari,
ek mukt shabdakosh mein dekhein.
Wiktionary-logo-en.png
singing ko vikshanari,
ek mukt shabdakosh mein dekhein.