gaatha

vaidik saahitya ka yeh mahatvapoorn shabd rigved ki sanhita mein geet ya mantra ke arth mein prayukt hua hai (rigved 8. 32.1, 8.71.14). 'gai' (gaana) dhaatu se nishpann hone ke kaaran geet hi iska vyutpattilbhya tatha praacheenatam arth prateet hota hai.

1. stuti.
2. vah shlok jismein svar ka niyam na ho.
3. praacheen kaal ki ek prakaar ki aitihaasik rachana jismein logon ke daan, yajnyaaadi ka varnan hota tha.
4. aarya naam ka vrutti. 5. ek prakaar ki praacheen bhaasha jismein sanskrut ke saath kaheen kaheen paali bhaasha ke vikrut shabd bhi mile rahate hain.
6. shlok.
7. geet.
8. katha. vruttaat. haal.
9. baarah prakaar ke bauddh shaastron mein chautha.
10. paarasiyon ke kaaran dharmagranth ka ek bhed. jaise,—agaatha ahravaiti gaatha ushtavaiti ityaadi.

parichay

gaath shabd ki upalabdhi hone par bhi aakaaraant shabd ka hi prayog lokapriya hai (rig. 9. 99. 4). gaatha shabd se bane hue shabdon ki satta iske bahul prayog ki soochika hai. gaathaani ek geet ka naayakatv karanevaale vyakti ke liye prayukt hai (rig0 1. 43. 14). rijugaath shuddh roop se mantron ke gaayan karanevaale ke liye (rig. 8. 9. 212) tatha gaathin keval gaayak ke arth mein vyavahrut kiya gaya hai (rig. 5. 44. 5). yadyapi iska poorvokt saamaanya arth hi bahush: abheesht hai, tathaapi rigved ke is mantra mein iska apekshaakrut adhik vishisht aashay hai, kyonki yahaaain yeh naaraashansi tatha raibhi ke saath vargeekrut kiya gaya hai:

raibhyaaseedanudeyi naaraashansi nyochani.
sooryaaya bhadramidvaaso gaathayaiti parishkrutam. -- rigved 10.86.6

yeh sahavargeekaran rik sanhita ke baad anya vaidik granthon mein bhi bahush: upalabdh hota hai (taittireeya sanhita 7. 5. 11. 2; kaathak sanhita 5. 2; aitareya braahman 6. 32; kausheetaki braahman 30. 5; shatapath braahman) 11. 5. 6. 8, jahaan raibhi naheen aata tatha gopath braahman 2. 6. 12) in teenon shabdon ke arth ke vishay mein vidvaanon mein matabhed hai. bhaashyakaar saayan ne in teenon shabdon ko atharvaved ke katipya mantron ke saath sameekrut kiya hai. atharvaved ke 20vein kaand, 127vein sookt ka 12vaaain mantra gaatha; isi sookt ka 1-3 mantra naaraashansi tatha 4-6 mantra raibhi batalaaya gaya hai. isi sameekaran ko daaktar oldenabarg rigved ki drushti mein doshapoorn maanate hain, parantu daaktar bloomafeeld ki drushti mein yeh sameekaran rik sanhita mein sveekrut kiya gaya hai.

braahman sanhita ke anusheelan se gaatha ke lakshan aur svaroop par paryaapt prakaash padta hai. aitareya braahman ki drushti mein (ai. bra. 7. 18) mantron ke vividh prakaar mein gaatha maanav se sambandh rakhati hai, jabki rich Dave se sambandh rakhata hai. arthaat gaatha maanaveeya hone se aur rich daivi hone se paraspar bhinn tatha pruthak mantra hai. is tathya ki pushti shun:shep aakhyaan ke liye prayukt shatagaatham (sau gaathaaon mein kaha gaya) shabd se paryaaptaroopen hoti hai, kyonki shun:shep ajeegart rishi ka putr hone se maanav tha jiski katha rigved (1. 24; 1. 25 aadi) ke anek sookton mein di gayi hai. in sookton ke mantron ki sankhya sau ke aaspaas hai isaliye aitareya braahman ki drushti mein gaatha shabd manushya tatha manushyochit vishyon ke dyotak mantra ke liye spashtat: prayukt hua hai. aitareya aaranyak (2. 3. 6) gaatha ko rich tatha kumbya se bhinn tatha pruthak mantra ka ek prakaar maanata hai jisse gaatha ke padyabaddh hone ka paryaapt sanket milta hai. varnya vishay ki drushti se gaathaaeain, yadyapi dharm se sambaddh vishyon ki abhivyakti ke kaaran dhaarmik hi hain, parantu vedon ke saanskaarik saahitya mein rich yajush tatha saaman ki tulana mein avaidik kahi gayi hain arthaat is yug mein ye mantra naheen maani jaateen. maitraayani sanhita (3. 7. 3) ka kathan hai ki vivaah ke samay gaatha aanand pradaan karti hai aur gruhyasootron (aashvalaayan, aapastanb aadi) mein anek gaathaaeain di gayi hain jinhein vivaah ke shubh avsar par veena par gaaya jaata tha. aitareya braahman ke aindr mahaabhishek ke prasang mein (8. 21-23) yagya mein vishaal daan denevaale tatha vishisht purohiton ke dvaara abhishikt kiye jaane vaale prasiddh raajaaon ki stuti mein anek praacheen gaathaaeain uddhrut ki gayi hain jo puraanon ke tattat, prasang mein bhi upalabdh hoti hain. shatapath braahman (13. 5. 4) mein bhi aisi daanaparak gaathaaeain surakshit hain. pichhle yug mein gaatha tatha naaraashansi (kisi raaja ki daanastuti mein prayukt) richaaeain praaya: samaanaarthak hi maani jaane lageen, parantu moolat: donon mein paarthakya hai. gaatha geya mantron ka saamaanya abhidhaan hai jiske antargat naaraashansi ka antarbhaav maanana sarvatha nyaayaya hai. is tathya ki pushti aitareya aaranyak (2. 3. 6) ke saayan bhaashya se hoti hai. saayan ne yahaaain praat: praatar anrutan te vadanti (sabere sabere ve jhooth bolte hain) ki gaatha ka udaaharan diya hai jo spashtat: naaraashansi naheen hain.

gaatha ki bhaasha vaidik mantron ki bhaasha se bhinn hai. ismein ved ke visham vaiyaakaran roopon ka sarvatha abhaav hai tatha padon ka saraleekaran hi sfutatataya abhivyakt hota hai. gaathaaon ke katipya udaaharanon se yeh spasht ho jaata hai :

katarat t aaharaani dadhi mantha parishrutam.
jaaya patin vipruchhati raashtre raajnya: pareekshit. -- atharvaved (20. 127. 9)

yeh mantra prasiddh kutaap sookton ke antargat aaya hai, parantu iski shaili tatha varshya vishay ka prakaar ise gaatha siddh kar rahe hain.

aitareya braahman mein raaja dushyant ke putr bharat se sambaddh gaatha mein :

hirnyen pareevrutaan krushnaan shukladato mrugaan
bhashnaare bharatoऽdadaachhatan badvaani sapt ch..
bharatasyaish daushyanteragni: saachi gune chit:.
yasmin sahasran braahman badvasho ga vibhejire. (8. 4)

yahaaain ye shlok naam se abhihit hone par bhi praacheen gaatha mein hain jo parampara se praapt hoti puraanon tak chali aati hai. aisi kitni hi gaathaaeain braahman granthon mein udadhrut ki gayi hai.

jain dharm tatha bauddh dharm mein bhi mahaaveer tatha Gautam buddh ke upadeshon ka nishkarsh upasthit karanevaale padya gaatha naam se vikhyaat hai. jain gaathaaeain ardhamaagadhi mein tatha bauddh gaathaaeain paali bhaasha mein hain. inko ham un mahaapurushon ke mukhodagaat saakshaat vachan hone ke gaurav se vanchit naheen kar sakte. tathaagat ki aisi hi upadeshamayi gaathaaon ka lokapriya sangrah dhammapad hai tatha jaatakon ki katha ka saar prastut karanevaali gaathaaeain praaya: pratyek jaatak ke ant mein upalabdh hoti hi hain. sanskrut ki aarya ke samaan paali tatha praakrut mein gaatha ek vishisht chhand ka bhi dyotak hai. theragaatha tatha thereegaatha ki gaathaaon mein ham sansaar ke bhog vilaas ka parityaag kar sannyast jeevan bitaanevaale theron tatha theriyon ki maarmik anubhootiyon ka sankalan paate hain. haal ki gaaha sattasai praakrut mein nibddh gaathaaon ka ek nitaant manjul tatha saras sangrah hai, parantu gaatha ka sambandh paarasiyon ke avesta granth mein bhi bada antarang hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

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