fredarik neetshe

fredarik neetshe
Nietzsche187a.jpg
neetshe basel mein , sann - 1875
janm fredarik vilhelm neetshe
15 October 1844
akenn (near Lüatzen), saiksani, parussiya
nidhan 25 August 1900(1900-08-25) (umr 55)
vaaimar, saiksani, Germany
raashtriyta jarman
yug 19 vi shataabdi ka darshan
kshetr paashchaatya darshan
abhiruchi saundaryashaastr · aachaarashaastr
tatvameemaansa · nishedhavaad
maanas shaastr · sattaameemaansa
Poetry · Value theory
Voluntarism · dukhaant naatak
naastikta · Fact–value distinction
Anti-foundationalism
itihaas ka darshan
ullekhaneeya vichaar Apollonian and Dionysian
Üaabermensch · Ressentiment
"Will to power" · "The Death of God"
Eternal recurrence · Amor fati
Herd instinct · Tschandala
"Last Man" · Perspectivism
Master–slave morality
Transvaluation of values
Nietzschean affirmation
hastaakshar Friedrich Nietzsche Signature.svg
फ्रेडरिक नीत्शे

fredarik neetshe (Friedrich Nietzsche) (15, aktoo, 1844 se 25, August 1900) Germany ka daarshanik tha. manovishleshanavaad, astitvavaad evam parightanaamoolak chintan (Phenomenalism) ke vikaas mein neetshe ki mahatvapoorn bhoomika rahi hai. vyaktivaadi tatha raajyavaadi donon prakaar ke vichaarakon ne usase prerana li hai. haalaaainki naaji tatha faasist raajaneetijnyaon ne usaki rachanaaon ka durupayog bhi kiya. jarman kala tatha saahitya par neetshe ka gahra prabhaav hai. Bhaarat mein bhi ikbaal aadi kaviyon ki rachanaaeain neetshevaad se prabhaavit hain.


anukram

jeevani

neetshe ka janm laaipajig ke nikat roekan naamak gram mein ek protestet paadari ke parivaar me hua tha. uske maata-pita parampara se dharmopadesh ke kaarya me sanlagn parivaaron ke vanshaj the. apne pita ki mrutyu ke samay neetshe paaainch varsh ka tha, parantu usaki shiksha ki vyavastha usaki maata ne samuchit dhang se ki. schooli shiksha me hi vah greek saahitya se prabhaavit ho chuka tha. dharmashaastr tatha bhaashaavijnyaaan ke adhyayan ke liye usane baun vishvavidyaalaya mein pravesh liya, jahaaain apne praadhyaapak ritshal se ghanishtata uske jeevan ka mahatvapoorn mod siddh hui. ritshal ke laaipajig vishvavidyaalaya jaane par neetshe ne bhi usaka saath diya. 24 varsh ki hi avastha me neetshe besl vishvavidyaalaya mein bhaasha-vigyaan ke praadhyaapak pad par niyukt hua. neetshe ko sainik jeevan ke prati bhi aakarshan tha. do baar vah sainik bana parantu donon baar use apne pad se hatna pada. pehli baar ek durghatana mein ghaayal hokar aur doosari baar asvasth hokar. laaipajig ke vidyaarthi jeevan mein hi vah prasiddh sangateejnya vegenar ke ghanishth sampark mein aa chuka tha aur, saath hi shopenahaavar ki pustak ""sankalp evam vichaar ke roop mein vishv"" se apni darshan sambandhi dhaaranaaon ke liye bal praapt kar chuka tha. neetshe aur vegenar ka sambandh, neetshe ke vyaktitv ko samajhne ke liye ek mahatvapoorn sootr ki bhaaainti maana jaata hai. 1879 E. mein asvasthata ke kaaran neetshe ne praadhyaapak pad se tyaagapatr de diya. tatpashchaat lagbhag das varshon tak vah svaasthya ki khoj mein sthaan sthaan bhatakata fira; parantu isi beech mein usane un mahaan pustakon ki rachana ki jinke liye vah prasiddh hai. 1889 mein use pakshaaghaat ka daura hua aur maanasik roop se vah sada ke liye vikshipt ho gaya. neetshe ki mrutyu ke samay tak usaki rachanaaeain prasiddhi pa chuki theen.

darshan

atimaanav ki avadhaarana neetshe ke darshan ka kendreeya chintan hai. neetshe ka chintan uske apne samay ki vaichaarik evam saanskrutik yathaarthata ke prati ek badi vyaapak evam samruddh parantu kuchh ulajhi hui pratikriya hai. vah aise darshan ki srushti karna chaahata hai jo sabhi moolyon ka punarmoolyeekaran kar sake. Europeeya sanskruti ke vibhinn pakshon ki vah aalochna karta hai. alochana sookshm tatha manaavaijnyaaanik hai aur usamein maulik ekta hai. parantu jin prashnon ko uthaaya gaya hai unke vishleshan mein kraantikaari ki si besabri aur samaadhaan mein ek paiganbar ka sa aatmavishvaas hai. mool vichaaron ki vibhinn pustakon mein punaraavrutti hui hai, haalaanki yeh punaraavrutti thakaavat naheen utpann karti. usaki adhiktar pustakein sooktiyon mein likhi gayi hain, isse yadi vyanjana ki prabhaavotpaadakata badhi hai to vichaaron ki aspashtata bhi badhi hai aur neetshe yatr tatr apna hi khandan karta prateet hota hai.

isaai mat ke paramaarthavaad, samaajavaad, saamaajik pragati ki niytivaadi vyaakhya par (chaahe vah heegel pradatt itihaasavaadi ho ya daarvin dvaara pratipaadit vikaasavaadi) tatha beintham aur J. S. mil ke upayogitaavaad par neetshe kada prahaar karta hai. protesteint prushthabhoomi tatha praacheen greek saahitya ke aaranbhik parichay ne use in vichaar paranparaaon ke virodhi sanskaar de diye the, parantu can't ki jnyaaanameemaansa, shopenahauvar ke chintan, jarman saahitya tatha kala mein vyaapt svachhandataavaad (romaantisijm), tulanaatmak neetishaastr tatha swayam vikaasavaad ne uske liye daarshanik aadhaarabhoomi ka kaarya kiya. can't ke anusaar ham nij-roop padaarthon ko naheen jaan sakte kyonki anubhav ke pradatt gyaan banane mein jnyaaaneindriyon ke tatha buddhi ke niyamon se ve pratibandhit ho jaate hain tatha samast gyaan mein anusyoot hone ke kaaran ye niyam hi sarvaabhaum hote hain. neetshe ki vyaakhyaanusaar ye niyam bhi sarvaabhaum naheen hote, ve swayam hamaari ruchiyon se, moolyon evam sankalpon se, pratibandhit hote hain. 'ham satya ko hi kyon jaanana chaahate hain', ""kyon naheen asatya, anishchita ya ajnyaaan ko jaanana chaahate?"" neetshe ka uttar hai- anishchitta mein hamein jeene ki sambhaavana naheen prateet haati. gyaan is vishv ko vyavasthit, suniyojit evam poorvaanumeya banaata hai. at: hamaara gyaan aur isliye yeh vishv hamaare "jeene ke sankalp" ka parinaam hai. parantu jeevan ka arth hai aatmasaateekaran, vistaar tatha shakti ka sankalp". at: "shakti ka sankalp" hi saarvabhaum satya hai, yahi hamaare gyaan ke roop ko nirmit karta hai. shakti ke sankalp ki dhaarana hi atimaanav ki srushti ko prerit karti hai jo ki neetshe ke chintan ka aadhaar hai.

neetimeemaansa

naitik ya anaitik kya hai, iska koi vastunishth maanadand naheen ho sakta. naitik vahi hai jo shakti ke sankalp ki prabalata ka parinaam ho, anaitikta ka nirbalata ka hi prakat roop hai. vyaktiyon mein "shakti ke sankalp" ki "maatra mein bhinnata ke kaaran samaaj ki rooparekha piraamid ki bhaaainti hoti hai. neetshe oopar ke vyaktiyon ko shaasak tatha neeche ke vyaktiyon ko das varg ko maanata hai. donon vargon ki sveekrut moolya-sanrani bhinn bhinn prakaar ki hoti hai. uchch varg ke vyaktiyon ke jeevan-moolya unke vyaktitv ki kshamata tatha uske utpann sahaj jeevan ke parinaam hote hain, par nimnavarg ke moolya uchch varg ke prati pratikriya ke parinaam hain. isaai mat tatha janavaad se sambandhit moolyon ko neetshe nimn varg ke moolya maanata hai. ye moolya nirbal vyaktitv ki maanasik granthiyon ke parinaam hain. inmein shreshth vyaktiyon ko bhi neeche ghaseetane ki kucheshta hai. pragaati ke liye neetshe uchch varg ki moolyaparanpara ka sthaapit hona aavashyak samajhta hai. hindu varn-vyavastha bhi kabhi kabhi use apne aardash ke anukool prateet hoti hai, evam isi aadhaar par vah manusmruti ko baaibil se shreshth granth maanata hai.

maanav-vyaktitv ka vikaas hi maanav ki kshamataaon ko prakat karega, yeh siddhaant neetshe ke darshan ki aatma hai. maanav saadhan hai pruthvi par atimaanav ke avataran ka, parantu yeh avataran vikaasavaad ke anusaar na hokar maanav ke sakraya evam saavdhaan prayatnon ka parinaam hoga. sahaj jeevan aur uske liye svechha se apnaaya hua anushaasan neetshe ke aadarsh vyakti ki kasauti hai. vyakti ko roodhiyon ka naheen shreshth purushon ka anukaran karna chaahiye. ""ishvar ki mrutyu ho gayi hai"" neetshe ki prasiddh ukti hai, parantu is ukti ke dvaara vah moolyon mein shaashvatavaad ke ant ka tatha maanav-man mein vyaapt anaastha ka nirdesh to karna hi chaahata hai. saath hi vah yeh bhi spasht karna chaahata hai ki shreshth purush hi ab maanav ki sabse badi aasha hai.

rachanaaeain

neetshe ki rachanaaon ka daarshanik jagat par vyaapak prabhaav pada. usaki pustak "jrathustr ki vaani" (Also sprach Zarathustra) vishv ki shreshthatam saahityik krutiyon mein gini jaati hai. isi prakaar punya aur paap ke aage (Jenseits von Gut und Bose) tatha "moolyon ki parampara" (Zur Genealogie der Moral) darshan mein naye mod prastut karti hai.

sandarbh


baahari kadiyaaain