fraink log

pashchimi Europe mein roman saamraajya ke ant ke baad frainki teji se failane lage
klovis pratham (466-511), ekatrit frainkon ka pehla raaja
frainki raaja klothaar dviteeya (584-628) dvaara gadha gaya ek sikka

fraink log (laatini: Franci) pashchimi Europe mein basane waali aur ek pashchimi jarmaini bhaasha bolne waali jaati thi. teesari sadi isavi mein inke kbeele raain nadi ke uttarapoorvi bhaag mein rahate the. us samay is poore kshetr par roman saamraajya ka kbja tha aur inki aapas mein jhadpein hoti rahati theen. ek saaliya naamak frainki upashaakha ki romanon ke saath mitrata thi aur unka apna raajya tha. jab roman saamraajya ka sooryaast ho gaya to, lagbhag paaainchavi sadi isavi mein, saaliyaai frainkon ka ek merovinji naamak raajakul teji se aadhunik fraans ke adhiktar kshetr par haavi ho gaya aur unka raajya aarambh hua.

samay ke saath-saath fraink shabd ka koi vishesh jaateeya arth naheen rah gaya, lekin inhi frainkon ki vajah se hi "fraans" ka naam "fraans" pada tha. madhya-poorv mein rahane vaale logon (jaise ki arabon) ke liye pashchimi Europe ke saare logon ka naam fraink pad gaya. dheere-dheere yahi shabd hindi mein bhi pravesh kar gaya, jis vajah se bhaarateeya upamahaadveep mein Europe (visheshakar pashchimi Europe) ke logon ko "firanki" ya "firangi" bulaaya jaane laga. arabi bhaasha mein aaj bhi Europe ko "firanja" bulaate hain.

anukram

sankshipt itihaas

anya jaatiyon ki tarah, frainkon ne bhi apni jaateeya utpatti ke baare mein kuchh mithyaaeain banaai jinhein sach naheen maana ja sakta. san 727 mein likhe "leeber historiye fraankorum" (Liber Historiae Francorum) ke anusaar praacheen yoonaan ke kshetr mein, trauya ki haar ke baad, lagbhag 12,000 trojan (yaani trauya ke log) vahaaain se kooch kar ke uttari Europe aa gaye aur fraink jaati unhi se shuroo hui. isi kahaani ka ek roop "fredegaar ka varnan" (Fredegar) mein milta hai, jiske anusaar is samooh mein kabhi ek fraankiyo naam ka raaja hua, jispar is jaati ka naam fraink pada. isi tarah ki katha hamein doosari sabhyataaon mein bhi milti hain - jaise rom ka naam romyulas naamak raaja par pada aur Bhaarat ka naam bharat naam ke raaja par.

"taabyula peutingeriyaana" (Tabula Peutingeriana) naamak roman varnan mein likha hai ke lagbhag san 50 isavi mein frainko ka ek chamaavi (Chamavi) naam ka kbeela raain nadi ko paar kar ke roman ilaake mein daakhil ho gaya. yeh itihaas mein frainkon ka pehla zikr hai. samay ke saath-saath roman saamraajya kamzor hota gaya aur frainki kbeele avsar paakar alag-alag kshetron par dhaava bolte rahate the. san 250 mein ek frainki dal roman kshetr mein ghusate-ghusate Spain tak ja pahuaincha aur vahaaain par uthal-puthal machne laga. roman sena ko unhein hataane mein lagbhag das varsh lage. san 357 mein frainkon ki saaliya upashaakha ka ek raaja roman-niyantrit dharati par aaya aur bas gaya. agale saal hi (yaani 358 mein), roman saamraajya ne sarkaari star par unhein apna sandhi-mitr (laatini mein Foederatus) maan liya.[1]

merovinji raajakul (481-751)

paaainchavi shataabdi tak bahut se chhote-chhote frainki raajya ban chuke the. klovis pratham (Clovis I) naam ke frainki raaja ne in sab ko jeet liya aur saare 509 mein frainko ka raaja ban gaya. uske daada ka naam merovech (Merovech) tha aur usi se is kul ka naam merovinji (Merovingian) pada.[2] klovis ki patni isaai thi aur klovis ne usaka dharm apna liya, jis se frainkiyon ka isaaikaran shuroo ho gaya. klovis ke chaar putr the aur usane unamein apna raajya baaaint diya. aage chalakar un putron ne bhi apne putron mein apne raajya baaainte. in sab bhaaiyon mein kheenchaataani ubhari jis se merovinji raajakul khandit ho gaya. san 613 mein, klothaar dviteeya (Chlothar II) ne fir se frainkiyon ko ekatrit kiya aur uske putr daagobart pratham (Dagobert I) ne bhi sainya safalataaeain pai.[3] lekin daagobart ke baad ke raaja kamzor the. 687 mein lade gaye tairtri ke yuddh (fraansisi mein Bataille de Tertry) ke baad to yeh naubat aa gayi ke raajya vaastav mein raaja ke mahal ka sevaapramukh chala raha tha. yeh sevaapramukh bilkul raajaaon ki tarah kaam karne lage.

kairolingi raajakul (751-843)

737-743 ke kaal mein sevaapramukh shaarl maartel (Charles Martel) naam ka ek vyakti tha. us samay Spain par musalamaani raaj tha aur ve fraans ko apne kabje mein lene ki koshish kar rahe the. 732 mein shaarl maartel ne toor ke yuddh (Battle of Tours ya Bataille de Poitiers) mein muslim sena ko haraakar khyaati praapt ki. usi ke pepain naamak putr ne (jise "naata pepain" ya Pepin the Short kaha jaata hai) san 751 mein merovinji raaj khtm kiya aur swayam ko raaja ghoshit kar diya. is nae raajakul ko kaarolingi (Carolingian) kaha jaata hai.[4] is kul ka sab se prasiddh samraat shaaralemen (Charlemagne) tha. usanein apne saamraajya ka naam "pavitra roman saamraajya" (Holy Roman Empire) rakha. iska vaise roman saamraajya se kuchh lena-dena naheen tha. usane keval apne aap ko vishaal praacheen roman saamraajya ka vaaris jatalaane ke liye aisa kiya.[5]

fraans aur Germany

aage chalakar, shaaralemen ke do poton ne aapas mein gruh yuddh lada, jiska ant mein jaakar yeh nateeja hua ke frainki saamraajya ko do hisson mein baaainta gaya: pashchimi fraankiya (jo baad mein fraans bana) aur poorvi fraankiya (jo baad mein Germany bana). in donon raajyon mein seemaavarti kshetron ke liye ladaaiyaaain hoti raheen. frainki pehchaan samay ke saath-saath lupt ho gayi, lekin fraansisi aur jarman pahachaanon ne do bhinn raashtron aur sanskrutiyon ka roop dhaaran kar liya. pashchimi fraankiya ke fraink vahaaain ki sthaai gaillo-roman jaatiyon mein sama gaye aur unki bhaasha samay ke saath frainki bhaasha se bhinn laatini ki vanshaj fraansisi bhaasha ban gayi.[6] kuchh itihaasakaar fraans aur Germany ki pratham vishvayuddh aur dviteeya vishvayuddh mein apne seemavarti ilaakon par hui ladaaiyon ko isi poorvi aur pashchimi fraankiya ki kheenchaataani ke silsile ki aadhunik kadiyaaain maanatein hain.

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh

  1. Heinrich Friedrich Theodor Kohlrausch. "A history of Germany: from the earliest period to the present time". D. Appleton & Co., 1880. http://books.google.com/books?id=sIVCAAAAIAAJ. "... They even crossed the Pyrenees into Spain, and conquered the city of Tarragona. The Romans in the third century had so frail a tenure of these countries, that the Franks and other German warlike hordess, among whom are named the Burgundians and Vandals, had possession of seventy considerable cities in Gaul ..."
  2. Previté-Orton. The Shorter Cambridge Medieval History, vol. I. pa॰ 151.
  3. George Holmes. "The Oxford illustrated history of medieval Europe". Oxford University Press, 1988. http://books.google.com/books?id=nbxmAAAAMAAJ. "... Dagobert was the son of Chlothar II, who had reunited the Frankish kingdom in 613 after torturing to death the dominant figure in Frankish politics for twenty years, his aged aunt Brunhild ..."
  4. John Ronald Moreton-Macdonald. "A history of France". Macmillan, 1915. http://books.google.com/books?id=g68sAAAAYAAJ. "... The Saracens ... began to threaten France ... as far as Poitiers, where Charles ... completely routed them ... Pepin the Short, in fact, as soon as he became sole ruler, decided that the time had come to strike ..."
  5. George Hodges. "Saints and heroes to the end of the middle ages". H. Holt and company, 1911. http://books.google.com/books?id=5iplAAAAMAAJ. "... the West was independent of the East, and that the true successor of the ancient emperors was Charlemagne the Frank. It was the beginning of a new order of things, the Holy Roman Empire. In this Holy Roman Empire Charlemagne was supreme ..."
  6. Walter Yust. "Encyclopaedia Britannica: a new survey of universal knowledge, Volume 16". Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1956. http://books.google.com/books?id=tmY7AAAAIAAJ. "... The conversion of the Franks tended to facilitate fusion between them and the Gallo-Roman population and to accentuate the enmity ..."