fraanseesi kraanti

is anuchhed ko vikipeediya lekh French Revolution ke is sanskaran se anuvaadit kiya gaya hai.

fraanseesi kraanti (1789-1799) France ke itihaas mein raajanaitik aur saamaajik uthal-puthal aur aamool parivartan ki avadhi thi, jiske dauraan France ki sarkaari saranchana, jo pehle kuleen aur Catholic paadariyon ke liye saamanti visheshaadhikaaron ke saath poornataya raajashaahi paddhati par aadhaarit thi, ab usamein aamool parivartan hue aur yeh naagarikta aur avichhedya adhikaaron ke prabodhan siddhaanton par aadhaarit ho gayi.

is parivrtanon ke saath hi hinsak uthal puthal hui jismein raaja ka pareekshan aur nishpaadan, aatank ke yug mein vishaal raktapaat aur daman shaamil tha, yudgh (sangharsh) mein pratyek anya mukhya Europeeya shakti shaamil thi.

baad ki ghatnaaen jinke dvaara kraanti ka pata lagaaya ja sakta hai, mein shaamil hain nepoliyn ka yuddh, raajatantr ke do alag punarsthaapan aur do atirikt kraantiyaan jinhonne aadhunik France ko aakruti di.

agali sadi mein, France kisi ek ya anya bindu par ek ganaraajya, samvaidhaanik raajatantr aur do bhinn saamraajyon ke roop mein niyantrit kiya gaya.

anukram

kaaran

sabse aitihaasik modelon ko maanane vaale log, praacheen vyavastha ke kai samaan lakshanon ko kraanti ke kaaranon ke roop mein pahachaanate hain.

aarthik kaarakon mein shaamil the akaal aur kuposhan, jiske kaaran rogon aur mrutyu ki sambhaavana mein vruddhi hui aur kraanti ke theek pehle ke maheenon mein aabaadi ke sabse gareeb kshetron mein bhukhamari ki sthiti paida ho gayi.

akaal Europe ke anya bhaagon mein bhi fail gaya aur adhik maatra mein khaadya padaarthon ke liye ek bure sthaanaantaran dhaanche ke dvaara ise koi madad naheen mili.

(haal hi ke anusandhaan is vyaapak akaal ke liye al neeno prabhaav ko jimmedaar thaharaate hain, jiske baad 1783 meinaaisalaind par laaki visfot hua,[1] ya chhote barf yug ke thanda jalavaayu ke kaaran France aaloo ko mukhya fasal ke roop mein apnaane mein asafal raha.[2]

ek anya kaaran yeh tathya tha ki luis XV ne kai yuddh lade aur France ko divaaliyepan ke kagaar par le aaye aur luis XVI ne ameriki kraanti ke dauraan upanivesh mein rahane vaale logon ka samarthan kiya, jisse sarkaar ki anishchit vitteeya sthiti aur badatar ho gayi.

raashtreeya rin lagbhag do arab ki raashi tak pahunch gaya. yuddh ke kaaran utpann hue saamaajik bojh mein bhaari yuddh rin shaamil tha, raajatantr ki sainya viflataaon aur ayogyata ke kaaran aur yuddh ke diggajon ke liye saamaajik sevaaon ke abhaav ke kaaran sthiti aur bhi kharaab ho gayi.

akushal aur puraani vitteeya pranaali raashtreeya karj ke prabandhan mein asafal rahi, aisa karaadhaan ki ek nihaayat hi naainsaaf yukt pranaali ke ke kaaran hua. ek anya kaaran tha kuleen varg ka nirantar ullekhaneeya upabhog, aabaadi par vitteeya bojh ke baavajood, vishesh roop se luis XVI aur maari entoninet ki adaalat mein aisi vibhinnataaen dekhi jaati thi.

adhik berojgaari aur roti ki ooainchi keematon ke kaaran bhojan par adhik dhan vyaya kiya jaata tha aur anya aarthik kshetron mein dhan ka vyaya alp hota tha. roman Catholic church, jo desh ka sabse bada jmeendaar tha, ne fasalon par ek kar lagaaya, jise daaim ya tithe kaha jaata tha. haalaanki daaim ne raajatantr ki kar ki vruddhi ki gambheerta ko kam kar diya, isne sabse gareeb logon ki buri sthiti ko aur bhi badatar bana diya jo jo kuposhan ke saath ek dainik sangharsh ka saamana kar rahe the.

vahaaain par aantarik vyaapaar bahut kam tha aur seema shulk mein bahut si baadhaaen theen.[3]

kai saamaajik aur raajanaitik kaarak the, jinmein se kai kaarak the dvesh aur aakaankshaaen. prabodhan ke aadarshon ke utthaan ke dvaara in ki aur dhyaan aakarshit hua.

ismein shaamil tha shaahi taanaashaahi ka dvesh ya naaraajagi; mahatvaakaanshi peshevaron aur vyaapaarik vargon ke dvaara shaahi vargon aur saarvajanik jeevan mein unki prabhaavita ke prati dvesh, kyonki inmein se kai varg Netherland aur great Britain mein vyaavasaayik shaharon mein apne sahakarmiyon ke jeevan se parichit the; kisaanon, majadooron aur roodheevaadiyon ka shaahi vargon ke dvaara laagoo kiye gaye paaramparik saamanti visheshaadhikaaron ke prati dvesh ya naaraajagi; lipik laabh (isaai church ka yaachak-virodhi) aur dharm ki svatantrata ka dvesh aur graameen paadariyon ke dvaara kuleen bishp (paadariyon ka kshetreeya adhyaksh) ke prati dvesh, Catholic niyntran ke liye nirantar ghruna aur bade protesteint alpasamudaayon ke dvaara sabhi prakaar ke sansthaanon par prabhaav; svatantrata aur (vishesh roop se jaise jaise kraanti aage badhi) ganatantravaad ki aakaanksha; jekaus nekar aur ai aar J taragot par firing ke liye raaja ke prati krodh (anya vitteeya salaahakaaron ke beech), jinhein lokapriya tareeke se logon ke pratinidhi ke roop mein dekha jaata tha.[4]

ant mein, shaayad uparokt sabhi kaaranon se luis XVI asafal raha aur uske salaahakaar inmein se kisi bhi samasya se prabhaavi tareeke se nipat naheen paae.[tathya vaanchhit]

kraanti-poorv

vitteeya sankat

luis XVI sinhaasan par rahane ke samay ek vitteeya sankat ka saamana kar raha tha; raashtra divaaliyepan ki kagaar par tha aur aay se adhik vyaya the.[5] iska kaaran tha France ka saat saal tak yuddh mein shaamil rahana aur ameriki kraanti mein bhaag lena.[6] May 1776, vitt mantri taragot ko bahumat na milne ke kaaran barkhaast kar diya gaya. agale varsh, ek videshi, jekaus nekar, jo ek videshi the, ko vitt mahaanideshak niyukt kiya gaya. use mantri naheen banaaya gaya kyonki vah ek protesteint tha aur France ke naagrik naheen apnaaya ja sakta tha.[7] nekar ne mahasoos kiya ki desh ki karaadhaan pranaali kuchh anuchit bojh ke adheen hai;[7] shaahi logon aur paadari varg ke liye kai visheshaadhikaar maujood hain.[8] unhonne tark diya ki desh mein kar bahut uchch naheen ho sakte, shaahi aur paadari varg ko karon mein koi riyaayat naheen di jaani chaahiye aur prastaavit kya ki karj lekar desh ki vitteeya samasya ko hal kiya ja sakta hai.

nekar ne is daave ke samarthan mein ek report ka prakaashan kiya jismein mote taur par 36,000 leevarej ke dvaara ghaate ka anumaan lagaaya gaya; aur prastaavit kiya gaya ki paarlemeint ki vyaya kshamata ko seemit kiya jaaye. iska raja ke mantriyon aur nekar ke dvaara adhik svaagat naheen kiya gaya, usaki sthiti ko sthir karne ki aasha mein use ek mantri ke roop mein sveekaar karne ka tark diya gaya.

raaja ne inkaar kar diya, nekar ko uske pad se hata diya gaya aur Charles elegjeindar di kelone ko nideshak niyukt kiya gaya.[7]

kelone ne shuruaat mein udaarataapoorvak dhan ka vyaya kiya, lekin use jaldi hi jatil vitteeya sthiti ka ehsaas hua aur usane ek nae kar code ko laagoo kar diya.[9] is prastaav mein ek sthir bhoomi kar shaamil tha, jismein shaahi aur paadari vargon ke liye bhi karon ko shaamil kiya gaya aur May 1789 ke liye sampatti ki ek baithak ka aayojan kiya gaya; yeh is baat ka sanket tha ki borabon raajatantr mein ab taanaashaahi naheen rahegi.[10]

1789 ke estate general

estate general ko teen sampattiyon mein sangathit kiya gaya, kramash:: paadari, shaahi aur shesh France.[11] 1614 mein aakhiri baar jab estate general ki baithak hui, pratyek estate ko ek vote mila aur koi bhi do teesare ko radd kar sakte the. peris ki paarlemeint ko dar tha ki sarkaar parinaam ko niyantrit karne ke liye ek sabha ka aayojan karne ka prayaas karegi.

is prakaar, is baat ki aavashyakta thi ki estate ki vyavastha 1614 mein ki jaaye.[12]

1614 ke niyam sthaaneeya sabhaaon ki prathaaon se alag the, jinmein pratyek sadasya ke paas ek vote hota tha aur teesari estate sadasyata doguni hoti thi. udaaharan ke liye, dofaain ke praant mein, praanteeya vidhaanasabha teesare estate ke sadasyon ki sankhya ko doguni karne ke liye sahamat ho gayi, sadasyata chunaav ko sahamati praapt hui, jismein pratyek estate ke liye ek vote ke bajaay pratyek sadasya ko ek vote ki anumati mili.[13] peris ke udaaravaadiyon ke ek nikaaya, "committee of thirty", ne estate ke dvaara matadaan ke khilaaf aandolan shuroo kiya.

yeh samooh mukhya roop se dhanavaan logon se bana tha, isne tark diya ki dofaain ki matadaan pranaali estate general ko nirdhaarit karni chaahiye.

unhonne tark diya ki praacheen parampara paryaapt naheen thi. kyonki "log hi pramukh shaasak the".[14] nekar ne kuleen logon ki ek doosari sabha bulaai, jismein 333 ke liye 111 ke vote ke dvaara dohare pratinidhitv ki dhaarana ko asveekaar kar diya.[14] raaja, haalaanki, 27 December ke prastaav ke liye sahamat ho gaya; lekin usane khud estate general ke liye pratyek vote ke vajan par charcha karna chhod diya.[15]

chunaav 1789 ke vasant mein hue; mataadhikaar ke liye aavashyakataaen theen: 25 saal ki umr aur kar mein chhah se adhik livres ka bhugataan. sashakt matadaan ne 1,201 pratinidhiyon ka utpaadan kiya, jismein "291 shaahi log, 300 paadari aur teesare estate ke 610 sadasya" shaamil the.[15] pratinidhiyon ka netrutv karne ke liye, "samasyaaon ki soochi banaane ke liye "books of griveinses" (cahiers de doléaaances) ka sankalan kiya gaya.[11] pustakon ne un vichaaron ko abhivyakt kiya jo kuchh maah pehle kattarpanthi prateet hote the; haalaanki, adhikaansh logon ne saamaanya roop se raajatantr pranaali ka hi samarthan kiya.

kai logon ne man ki estate general bhaavi karon ko sahamati de dega aur prabodhan ke aadarsh apekshaakrut durlabh the.[12][16] press censorship ke uthane ke baad udaaravaadi kuleen logon aur paadariyon ke dvaara parche vyaapak ho gaye.[14] di ebbe seeyej ne parche Qu'est-ce que le tiers éaatat? mein teesare estate ke mahattv ka tark diya.

(teesara estate hai?), ka prakaashan January 1789 mein hua. unhonne kaha: "teesara estate kya hai? sabhi kuchh. ab tak raajanaitik kram mein kya raha hai? kuchh naheen. yeh kya karna chaahata hai?kuchh. "[12][17]

estate general ne 5 May 1789 ko varselij mein ek sammalen ka aayojan kiya jiska udaghaatan nekar ke dvaara teen ghante ke ek bhaashan se hua.

teesare estate ki mool rananeeti thi yeh sunishchit karna ki estate general ka koi bhi faisala alag kaksh mein naheen pahunchana chaahiye, lekin iske bajaay teenon estate se ek saath sabhi sahaayakon ke dvaara aisa kiya jaana chaahiye (doosare shabdon mein, rananeeti yeh thi ki teenon estate ko mila kar ek sabha banaayi jaaye) is prakaar unhonne maang ki ki sahaayak kredeinshiyls ki jaanch (satyaapan) sabhi sahaayakon ke dvaara saamaanya roop mein ki jaani chaahiye; naaki pratyek estate aantarik roop se apne khud ke sadasyon ke kredeinshiyls ka satyaapan kare; lekin anya estets ke saath vaarta ise paane mein asafal rahi. [16] saadhaaran logon ne paadariyon ko appeal ki jinhonne javaab diya ki unhein adhik samay ki aavashyakta hai. nekar ne kaha ki pratyek estate ko kredeinshiyls ka satyaapan karna chaahiye aur "raaja ko ek nirnaayak ke roop mein kaarya karna chaahiye".[18] haalaanki ise paane ke liye anya do estets ke saath vaartaaen asafal raheen.[19]

raashtreeya sabha (1789)

jekas-luis David dvaara raashtreeya assembly ka chitr jismein tennis court ki shapath li ja rahi hai.

10 June 1789 ko abbe siyej ke kaha ki teesara estate, jiski baithak ab kamyuns (angreji: "kaamans") ke roop mein hoti hai, apni shaktiyon ke satyaapan ke saath aage badhta hai aur anya do estets ko bhaag lene ke liye aamantrit karta hai, lekin unke liye intajaar naheen karta hai.

ve do din baad aisa karne ke liye aage badhe aur 17 June ko is prakriya ko poora kiya.[20] uske baad unhonne adhik kattarpanthi vote kiya, apne aap ko raashtreeya sabha ghoshit kar diya, ek sabha jo kisi estate ki naheen thi balki "logon" ki thi. unhonne anya aadeshon ko apne saath shaamil hone ke liye aamantrit kiya, lekin yeh spasht kar diya ki ve raashtreeya maamalon ko unke saath ya unke bina sanchaalit karne ka iraada rakhate hain.[21]

is prakriya par niyantran rakhane aur sabha ke sammelan ko rokane ke prayaas mein, luis XVI ne Salle des Éaatats ki sameepata ka aadesh diya jahaan sabha ki baithak hui thi, iske liye yeh bahaana banaaya gaya ki badhi logon ko do din mein ek shaahi bhaashan ke liye hall ko taiyaar karna hai.

aautador baithak ki anumati naheen thi isliye sabha ka aayojan paas hi mein ek inador reeal tennis court mein hua, jahaan unhonne tennis court shapath ki kaaryavaahi ki (20 June 1789), jiske tahat unhonne yeh sahamati jataai ki ve tab tak alag naheen honge jab tak France mein ek samvidhaan laagoo naheen kiya jaayega. jaldi hi paadariyon ke adhikaansh pratinidhi unamein shaamil ho gaye, aisa hi shaahi varg ke 47 sadasyon ne bhi kiya. 27 June tak, raajasi (shaahi) dal khuleaam peechhe hat gaya, haalaanki peris aur varselij ke aas paas badi sankhya mein sainya dal pahuainchane lage.

peris aur anya fraanseesi shaharon se sabha ke samarthan mein sandesh aane lage.[22]

raashtreeya samvidhaan sabha (1789-1791)

bastaail ka aakraman

is samay tak nekar teesare estate ke liye apne samarthan aur maargadarshan ke liye fraanseesi court ke kai sadasyon ki dushmani arjit kar chuka tha.

maari entoninet, raaja ka chhota bhaai komte di aartois aur raaja ki gupt parishd ke anya sanrakshak sadasyon ne usase aagrah kiya ki nekar ko usaki raaja ke vitteeya salaahakaar ki bhoomika ke pad se barkhaast kar diya jaaye.

11 July 1789 ko, nekar ke is sujhaav ke baad ki shaahi parivaar ko dhan sanrakshan ke anusaar rahana chaahiye, raaja ne use nikaal diya aur usi samay poori tarah se vitt mantraalaya ka punargathan kiya gaya.[23]

peris ke kai logon ne sanrakshakon ke dvaara ek shaahi takhtaapalat shuroo karne luis ki kaaryavaahi ki poorv kalpana ki thi aur jab unhonne agale din yeh khabar suni to khula vidroh shuroo kar diya.

unhein yeh bhi dar tha ki pahuainchane vaale sainik-mool fraanseesi dalon ke bajaay fraanseesi sevaaon ke tahat kaam karne vaale adhikaansh videshi the- unhein raashtreeya samvidhaan sabha ko band karne ke liye samman (aahvaan) bheja gaya.

varseleej mein sabha ki baithak, ek baar fir se unke baithak ke sthaan se nishkaasan ko rokane ke liye bina ruke jaari rahi. peris mein jaldi hi dange, araajakata aur bade paimaane par lootpaat fail gayi.

is bheed ko jaldi hi fraanseesi guard aur hathiyaaron va prashikshit sainikon ka samarthan milne laga.[24]

14 July ko, vidrohiyon ne bestaail durg ke bheetar hathiyaaron aur gola baarood par apna dhyaan kendrit kiya, jo raajatantravaadi atyaachaar ka kathit prateek tha.

kai ghanton ki ladaai ke baad us dopahar ko jail gir gaya. yuddh viraam, jiske parinaamasvaroop aapasi narasanhaar ruk gaya, ke aadesh ke baavajood, Governor maarkis barnaard de lone ko peeta gaya, us par vaar kiya gaya aur usaka sir dhad se alag kar diya gaya; uske sir ko ek nukeele bhaale par rakhakar shahar mein parade ki gayi.

haalaanki peris ne keval saat kaidiyon ko riha kiya (chaar jaalasaaj, do kuleen log jinhein anaitik aacharan ke liye rakha gaya tha aur ek hatya ka sandigdh), bestaail ne us har cheej ke ek prabhaavashaali prateek ka kaam kiya jo praacheen shaasan mein nafarat ka paatr tha.

hotel de vile (city hall) mein lautane ke baad bheed ne préaavôaat des marchands (sanbhavataya mayor) jekaas de flesselles ko kapat ka abhiyukt paaya aur use goli maar di gayi.[25]

fraanseesi kraanti ke dauraan seins-kyulote ke haathon mein tirange ka praarambhik varnan

raaja aur uske sainya samarthak kam se kam us samay ke liye peechhe hat gaye. la fayette ne peris mein raashtreeya guard ki kamaan apne haath mein le li. jeen silven belly jo us samay tennis court shapath ki sabha ke adhyaksh the, kamyoon naamak ek nae sarkaari dhaanche ke arntagat shahar ke mayor ban gaye. raaja peris gaya, jahaan 17 July ko usane Vive la Nation [raashtra ke lambe jeevan] aur Vive le Roi [raaja ke lambe jeevan] ke liye ek traaikalar kokaaid ko sveekruti di.[26] nekar satta mein fir se aaya lekin usaki jeet alpakaalik thi. ek chatur vittajnya lekan ek kam chatur raajaneetijnya, nekar ne aam logon se kshama maang kar aage aane ki koshish ki, lekin adhikaansh logon ke samarthan ko usane kho diya tha.

usane yeh bhi mahasoos kiya ki vah kuchh vichaaron ke baavajood khud hi France ko bacha sakta hai.[tathya vaanchhit] shaahi log raaja aur logon ki is spasht sulah se aashvast naheen the. unhonne pravaasi (éaamigréaas) ki tarah desh se bhaagna shuroo kar diya, inmein se kuchh ne saamraajya ke bheetar gruh yuddh ki yojana banaana shuroo kar diya aur France ke khilaaf ek Europeeya gathabandhan ke liye aandolan ki shuruaat ki.[tathya vaanchhit] July ke ant tak, viplav aur lokapriya samprabhuta ki bhaavana poore France mein fail gayi. graameen kshetron mein, bahut se log iske pare chale gaye: kuchh logon ne "la Grande Peur" (di great fiar) naamak saamaanya krushak vidroh ke ek bhaag ke roop mein chhoti sankhya mein châaateaux aur sheershakon ko jala daala.

iske alaava, varseleej mein shadyantr aur berojgaari ke parinaamasvaroop France mein logon ki ek bahut badi sankhya ke sadak par aa jaane ki vajah se bade paimaane par ashaanti aur afavaahein fail gayeen, (vishesh roop se graameen kshetron mein) jiske kaaran vyaapak roop se ashaanti aur naagrik gadabadi paida hui jisne bahut adhik dar ki sthiti ko janm diya.[27]

ek samvidhaan ki disha mein kaarya

4 August 1789 ko raashtreeya samvidhaan sabha ne saamantavaad ko samaapt kar diya (haalaanki us samay par paryaapt kisaan vidroh the, jisse pehle se hi saamantavaad lagbhag samaapt ho chuka tha), jo August aadeshon ke roop mein jaana jaata hai, isne doosare estate ke saamanti adhikaaron tatha pehle estate ke dvaara vyutpann kar donon ko door kar diya.

kuchh hi ghanton mein, shaahi, paadari, kasbe, praant, companiyaan aur shaharon ne apne visheshaadhikaar kho diye. sanyukt raajya ki svatantrata ki ghoshana ko ek namoone ke roop mein dekhte hue, 26 August 1789 ko sabha ne manushya aur naagrikon ke adhikaaron ki ghoshana ka prakaashan kiya. America ki is ghoshana ki tarah, ismein kaanooni prabhaav se yukt ek ek samvidhaan ke bajaay siddhaanton ka ek byaura shaamil tha. raashtreeya samvidhaan sabha na keval kaarya ke roop mein ek vidhaayika ke roop mein kaarya kar rahi thi balki ek nae samvidhaan ka masauda taiyaar karne ke liye ek nikaaya ke roop mein kaarya kar rahi thi. nekar, mauneer, leli-toleindal aur anya logon ne ek senate ke liye asafal tark diya, jismein logon ke naamaankan par raaja ke dvaara sadasyon ki niyukti ki jaayegi.

asankhya shaahi logon ne shaahi logon ke dvaara chayanit ek bhavya uchch sadan ke liye tark diya.

di popular party ne ise jaari rakhate hue kaha: France mein ek ekal, yooneekemaral sabha hogi. raaja ne keval ek "saspeinsiv veto" banaaye rakha"; vah kaanoon ke kriyaanvayan mein deri kar sakta tha lekin ise poori tarah se rok naheen sakta tha. sabha ne antat: 83 vibhaagon se aitihaasik praanton ko pratisthaapit kar diya, ye vibhaag (déaapartements) samaan roop se prashaasit the aur kshetrafal aur janasankhya ki drushti se mote taur par baraabar the. 1789 ke ant mein, mool roop se vitteeya sankat se nipatne ke liye bulaai gayi sabha ne anya maamalon par dhyaan kendrit kiya aur isse ghaate ke sthiti aur badatar ho gayi.

honore miraabyu ne ab is maamale ka netrutv kiya aur sabha ne nekar ko poorn vitteeya taanaashaahi de di.

varseleej mein mahila March

chitr:Women's March on Versailles.jpg
varselij mein mahilaaon ke March ki nakkaashi 5 October 1789

1 October 1789 raaja ke angarakshakon ke dvaara failaai gayi afavaah ke anusaar raashtreeya koked ko kuchal diya gaya tha, jiske baad 5 October 1789 ko peris ke baajaaron mein mahilaaon ne ikaththa hona shuroo kar diya. pehle mahilaaon ne hotel de vile ki taraf March kiya, is baat ki maang ki ki shahar ke adhikaari unki samasyaaon ka samaadhaan karein.[28] mahilaaen kathor aarthik sthiti, vishesh roop se roti ki kami ka saamana kar rahi theen, unhonne is sthiti ke liye pratikriya darshaayi. unhonne raashtreeya sabha ko block karne ke liye raajabhakt prayaason ke ant ki bhi maang ki aur vyaapak gareebi ke baare mein baat karte hue unhonne kaha ki raaja aur uske prashaasakon ko achhe vishvaas ke ek chinh ke roop mein peris chale jaana chaahiye.

unhein shahar ke adhikaariyon se koi santoshajanak pratikriya praapt naheen hui, jiske kaaran 7000 mahilaaen varseleej mein March mein shaamil ho gayeen, unke saath kai chhote hathiyaar aur top ke tukade the.

la fayette ke aadesh ke tahat bees hajaar raashtreeya gaardon ne aadesh ko banaaye rakhane ke liye pratikriya di aur bheed ke sadasyon ne mahal par hamla bol diya, kai gaardon ya rakshakon ko maar daala gaya.[29] la fayette ne antat: raaja ko bheed ki is maang ko sveekaar karne ke liye taiyaar kar liya ki raajatantr ko peris chale jaana chaahiye. 6 October 1789 ko, raaja aur shaahi parivaar raashtreeya gaardon ke sanrakshan mein varseleej se peris chale gaye, is prakaar ki raashtreeya assembly ko banaaye rakha gaya.

kraanti aur church

is vyangya chitran mein, monk aur nan 16 fravari 1790 ko dikri ke baad apni nayi aajaadi ka aanand uthaate hue.

is kraanti ke kaaran roman Catholic church se raajya ko vishaal shaktiyon ka sthaanaantaran hua. praacheen vyavastha ke tahat church desh ka sabse bada jmeendaar ban gaya tha. 1790 mein paarit kiye gaye kaanoon mein fasalon par kar lene ke church ke adhikaar ko samaapt kar diya gaya, jise "daaim" kaha jaata tha, paadari varg ke liye visheshaadhikaaron ko bhi samaapt kar diya gaya aur church ki sampatti ko jabt kar liya gaya.

2 December 1789 ke kaanoon ke maadhyam se, sabha ne raashtra ke dvaara church ki sampatti ko apne niyantran mein le lene ke dvaara (church ke vyaya kiyo lekar) vitteeya sankat ko sambodhit kiya. sampatti ki bahut badi maatra ko niyantrit karne ke liye, sarkaar ne nayi kaagaji mudra assignet shuroo ki, jo jabt ki gayi church ki bhoomi ke dvaara samarthit thi. iske baad 13 fravari 1790 ko nae kaanoonon ne mathavaasi pratijnyaa ke vidhaan ko samaapt kar diya.paadariyon ka naagrik samvidhaan jo 12 July 1790 ko paarit kiya gaya (haalaanki 26 December 1790 tak is raaja ke hastaakshar naheen hue the), isne shesh paadari varg ko raajya ke karmachaariyon mein badal daala aur iske anusaar yeh jaruri ho gaya ki ve samvidhaan ke prati vafaadaari ki shapath lein, iske tarkapoorn nishkarsh ke liye gailikvaad apnaaya gaya, jiske liye France ki Catholic church ko raajya ka ek vibhaag bana diya gaya aur paadariyon ko raajya ke karmachaari bana diya gaya. is kaanoon ke javaab mein, aiks, aarchabishp de bonal ke aarkabishp, klaramont ke bishp ne raashtreeya samvidhaan sabha se paadariyon ki ek hadtaal ka netrutv kiya.

Pope pius VI ne is nai vyavastha ko sveekaar naheen kiya, iske parinaamasvaroop ve paadari jinhonne aavashyak shapath lekar nayi vyavastha ko sveekaar kiya tha ("jurar" ya "samvaidhaanik paadari") aur "gair-jurar" ya "virodhi paadariyon" jinhonne aisa karne se inkaar kiya tha, ke beech dhaarmik matabhed paida ho gaya.

aagaami varsh mein paadariyon mein hinsak daman dekha gaya, jismein unhein kaaraavaas mein bheja gaya, poore France mein pujaariyon mein narasanhaar hua.

nepoliyn aur church ke beech 1801 ke samjhaute ke parinaamasvaroop vikrishchanikran avadhi ka ant hua aur kaitholok church aur fraanseesi raajya ke beech ek sambandh ke liye niyam banaaye gaye, iska ant tab hua jab 11 December 1905 ko church aur raajya ke pruthakkaran ke maadhyam se teesare ganatantr ke dvaara ise radd kar diya gaya.

dalon ka udbhav

upahaasaatmak kaartoon England mein dekhi gayi kraanti ki jyaadatiyon ko darshaate hue

sabha ke bheetar gut spasht hone lage.kuleen ya abhijaat jaikas entoni maari de kajales aur abbe jeen-sifren mauri ne kraanti ka virodh shuroo kiya jo daayeen ving (yeh dal sabha mein daahine haath ki disha mein baithata tha) ke roop mein jaana jaata hai.

"raajabhakt democrat" ya raajatantravaadiyon, ne nekar ke saath milkar, France ko aisi rekha par sangathit kiya jo Britain ke samvaidhaanik model se milti thi; inmein shaamil the jeen Joseph mauniar, di komte de leli-toleindal, di komte de klaramont- tonero aur piyre Victor maalot, komte de viriyu.

yeh "national party", jo sabha ke kendra ya baaen kendreeya bhaag ka pratinidhitv karti thi, mein honore miraabyu, la fayette aur belly shaamil the; jabki edarin dyuport, barnaave aur Alexander lameth ne adhik ativaadi vichaaron ka pratinidhitv kiya.

baayeen or lagbhag ek hi vyakti apni kattarata mein akela tha, vah tha araraas laayar meksimiln robesapiyre.

abbe siyej ne is avadhi mein kaanoon ke prastaav ka netrutv kiya aur raajanaitik kendra aur baayeen ving ke beech kuchh samay ke liye sahamati ka nirmaan kiya. peris mein bhinn samitiyon, mayor, pratinidhiyon ki sabha aur vyaktigat jile pratyek ne doosaron se svatantr praadhikran ka daava kiya.

la fayette ke tahat teji se badhte hue madhyam vargeeya raashtreeya guard bhi dheere dheere apne aap mein mein ek shakti ke roop mein ubhare, aisa hi kuchh anya svat: utpann sabhaaon ne bhi kiya.

saajish aur kattarpanth

sabha ne praacheen vyavastha ki prateekaatmak saamagri-armoroyal biyring, leevarej aadi ko samaapt kar diya- jisne baad mein adhik rudhivaadi shaahi varg ko samaapt kiya aur unhein pravaasi (éaamigréaas) ke raink mein joda.

14 July 1790 ko aur iske baad ke kai dinon ke liye, chemp de maars ke samooh ne fete de la federation ke saath bestaail ke patan ki saalagirh manaayi; teleeraind ne ek saamoohik pradarshan kiya: pratibhaagiyon ne "raashtra, kaanoon aur raaja ke prati nishthaan" ki shapath li; aur raaja aur shaahi parivaar ne sakriya roop se bhaag liya.[30] nirvaachakon ne moolat: ek varsh tak seva karne ke liye estate general ke sadasyon ko chuna.

haalaanki, tennis court shapath ki sharton ke anusaar, kamyoon khud nirantar baithakon ke liye baadhya tha jab tak France ka samvidhaan na ho.

daayeen ving ke tatvon ne ab ek nae chunaav ke liye tark diya, miraabyoo jaari raha usane yeh maana ki sabha ki sthiti mool roop se badal gayi hai aur samvidhaan ko poora karne se pehle koi nae chunaav naheen kiye jaane chaahiye.[tathya vaanchhit] 1790 ke ant mein, kai ubharate hue chhote prati kraantikaari utpann hue aur kraanti ke khilaaf poorn sena ko ya iske kisi bhaag ko parivrtit karne ke liye prayaas kiye gaye. yeh sab samaan roop se vifal raha. shaahi adaalat ne "har virodhi kraantikaari udyam ko protsaahit kiya aur kisi bhi sveekruti naheen di."[31] sena ne kaafi aantarik uthal-puthal ka saamana kiya: general bouile ne safalataapoorvak is chhote vidroh ko khtm kar diya, jisse use prati kraantikaari sahaanubhooti ke liye (sateek) pratishtha mili.

naya sainya code jiske tahat padonnati varishthata aur siddh yogyata (kuleenata ke bajaay) par nirbhar karti thi, ne kuchh maujooda adhikaari sainikon ko hata diya, jo éaamigréaas ki shreni mein shaamil hue the ya khud prati kraantikaari ban gaye the.[tathya vaanchhit] is avadhi mein fraanseesi raajaneeti mein kai "raajanaitik club" ubhare, inmein sabse agrani tha jekobin club; 10 August 1790 tak jekobins ke saath 152 club jud chuke the.[32] jab jekobins adhik vyaapak lokapriya sangathan ban gaya, iske kuchh sansthaapakon ne club '89 ke nirmaan ke liye ise chhod diya.

shaahi logon ne pehle laghu club des impartioks ki sthaapana ki aur baad mein club monaarkik ki sthaapana ki gayi.

baad mein roti ke vitran ke dvaara saarvajanik paksh ko jaari rakhane ka asafal prayaas kiya gaya. fir bhi, ve nirantar virodh aur yahaaain tak ki dangon ke lakshya bane rahe aur antat: January 1791 mein peris nagarapaalika praadhikran ne club monaarkik ko band kar diya.[tathya vaanchhit]

in saajish ke beech, sabha ne nirantar ek ek samvidhaan ke vikaas par kaam karna jaari rakha.ek nae nyaayik sangathan ne sabhi nyaayaalayon ko asthaayi aur sinhaasan se svatantr bana diya. vidhaayak ne khud raajatantr ke alaava vanshaanugat kaaryaalayon ko samaapt kar diya.aaparaadhik maamalon ke liye joori pareekshan shuroo kiye gaye. raaja ko yuddh ki prastaavana ke liye adviteeya shaktiyaan di gayeen, vah vidhaayika ke saath yeh nirnaya lega ki yuddh kab shuroo kiya jaaye.

sabha ne sabhi aantarik vyaapaarik baadhaaon ko khtm kar diya aur sahakaari samitiyon, svaamitv aur shramikon ke sansthaanon ka daman kar diya: kisi bhi vyakti ko ek license ki khareed ke dvaara vyaapar ka adhikaar diya gaya; hadtaalein avaidya ban gayeen.[33]

1791 ki sardiyon mein, sabha ne pehli baar éaamigréaas ke khilaaf vidhaayika par vichaar kiya. is bahas ka mudda tha kisi vyakti ki chhodne ki svatantrata ke khilaaf raajya ki suraksha. miraabyoo is ke khilaaf jaari raha jise usane "dreko ke code mein rakhe jaane yogya" kaha tha.[31] lekin miraabyoo ki 2 April 1791 ko mrutyu ho gayi aur varsh ke ant se pehle nai vidhaanasabha ne is "drekoniyn paddhati" ko apna liya.[34]

vaarenej ke liye shaahi udaan

25 June 1791 ko shaahi parivaar ka lautana, jeen-luis priyr ke chitr par rangeen kaupar plate

luis XVI, ne is kraanti ke path ka virodh kiya, lekin Europe ke anya raajatantron ki sambhaavit avishvasaneeya sahaayata ko asveekrut kar diya, general bouile ke saath kaafi prayaas kiya, jisne sabha aur utpravaas donon ki ninda ki aur use sharan dene tatha montamedi mein apne camp mein samarthan dene ka vaada kiya. 20 June 1791 ki raat ko, shaahi parivaar naukaron ka bhesh dhaaran karke tulereej bhaag gaya jabki unke naukaron ne shaahi kapade pahane the.

baharahaal, agale din raaja ko pehchaan liya gaya aur 21 June ko der se use vaareneej mein (myooj "vibhaag" mein) giraftaar kar liya gaya.

use aur uske parivaar ko sanrakshan ke arntagat peris bhej diya gaya, ve abhi bhi naukaron ka bhesh dhaaran kiye hue the.

petion, laataur-maaborg aur entoni piyaare Joseph maari barnaave, sabha ka pratinidhitv kar rahe the, ve eparne mein shaahi parivaar se mile aur unke saath laut aaye.

is samay se, barnaave shaahi parivaar ka ek salaahakaar aur samarthak ban gaya. bheed chup rahi jab ve peris pahunche. sabha ne kaanooni tareeke se raaja ko nilambit kar diya. vah aur raani maari entoninet sanrakshan mein rakhe gaye.[35][36][37][38][39]

samvidhaan ko poora karna

choonki adhikaansh sabha ek ganatantr ke bajaay samvaidhaanik raajatantr ke paksh mein thi, kai samooh ek samjhaute par pahuainch gaye, jisse luis XVI ek kaalpanik mukhiya se kuchh adhik ho gaya: usapar samvidhaan ke prati ek shapath lene ka dabaav daala gaya aur ek dikri ne ghoshana ki ki apni shapath se mukar jaana, raashtra par yuddh karne ke uddeshya ke liye ek sena banaana, ya unke naam par kisi ko bhi aisa karne ki anumati dena di fekto tyaag maana jaayega.[tathya vaanchhit] jaikas piyre brissot ne ek yaachika taiyaar ki jismein yeh kaha gaya ki raashtra ki najaron mein luis XVI ko usaki udaan ke baad se uske pad se hata diya gaya hai.

is yaachika par hastaakshar karne ke liye chemp de maars mein ek vishaal bheed ekatrit hui. jorjes deintan aur kemile desmoulin ne ugr bhaashan diye. "janta ke aadeshon ko sanrakshit rakhane" ke liye nagar nigam adhikaariyon ki sabha bulaayi gayi.

la fayette ke nirdeshon ke arntagat raashtreeya sanrakshak ne bheed ka saamana kiya. sainikon ne bheed par goleebaari kar ke pattharon ki bauchhaar ka javaab diya, is prakaar se 13 aur 50 ke beech log maare gaye.[40] is narasanhaar ke maddenajar adhikaariyon ne deshbhakti ke kai club band kar diye, saath hi kattarpanthi samaachaar patra jaise jeen-paul marats l'ami dyoo pyoopal ko bhi band kar diya gaya.

denatan England bhaag gaya; desmolin aur marat chhup gaye.[tathya vaanchhit] is beech, videsh se ek naya khatra paida hua: pavitra roman samraat liyopold II, parshiya ke fredarik William dviteeya aur raaja ke bhaai Charles-Phillip, komte di' artois ne pilnitj ki ek ghoshana jaari ki, jismein luis XVI ko khud kaaran maana gaya, usaki poorn svatantrata ki maang ki gayi aur yadi kraantikaari adhikaari iski sthitiyon se inkaar kar dein, to unki or se France se aakraman ke baare mein bataaya gaya.[41] fraanseesi logon ne videshi raajatantr ke aadeshon ke liye koi sammaan pradarshit naheen kiya, or balapoorvak di gayi dhamakiyon ke kaaran seemaaon ka sainyeekaran kiya gaya.[tathya vaanchhit] yahaaain tak ki usaki "vaareneej ko udaan" se pehle, sabha ke sadasyon ne apne aap ko sabha se bedakhal karne ka nishchaya kar liya, jisse ve vidhaan sabha mein safal hue. ab unhonne ve alag alag samvaidhaanik kaanoon banaaye, jo unhonne ke hi samvidhaan mein paarit kiye the, mukhya sanshodhan ke liye ek avsar ke roop mein iske upayog ka chayan naheen karne mein ullekhaneeya kshamata ka pradarshan kiya, or ise haal hi mein sankalit luis XVI mein jod diya, jisne yeh likhte hue sveekaar kiya "main iski ghar par suraksha karooainga, sabhi videshi hamlon se iski raksha karoonga aur sabhi arthon mein iska nishpaadan karoonga."

raaja ne sabha ko sambodhit kiya aur sadasyon aur darshakon se utsaahit prashansa praapt ki. sabha ke kaaryakaal ka ant 29 sitmbar 1791 ko nirdhaarit kiya gaya.[tathya vaanchhit] mignet ne tark diya ki "1791 ka samvidhaan..........maadhyam varg ka kaarya tha, uske baad prabalatam; kyonki yeh prasidd tathya hai ki prabhaavi bal sansathaan par kabja kar leta hai.......

is samvidhaan mein log sabhi shaktiyon ka srot the, lekin is par kisi ne prayog naheen kiya.[42]

vidhaan sabha (1791-1792)

samvaidhaanik raajatantr ki asafalata

1791 ke samvidhaan ke tahat, France ne ek samvaidhaanik raajatantr ke roop mein kaarya kiya. raaja ko nirvaachit vidhaan sabha ke saath shaktiyon ko baaaintana hota tha, lekin abhi bhi uske paas usaka shaahi veto tha aur mantriyon ke chayan ki kshamata uske paas thi. vidhaan sabha ki pehli baithak 1 October 1791 ko hui aur ek saal se bhi kam samay mein bigad kar avyavasthit ho gayi. 1911 vishvakosh britaanika ke shabdon mein: "sabha niyantran ke prayaas mein kul milaakar asafal rahi. isne khajaane ko khaali kar diya, sena aur nausena ko anushaasanaheen bana diya aur log ek surakshit aur safal dange ki vajah se galat raaste par chalne lage."[43] vidhaan sabha ke daayeen or lagbhag 165 feilaants (samvaidhaanik raajatantravaadi) the, baayeen or 330 gironadist (udaaravaadi Republican) aur jekobins (prati kraantikaari) the aur lagbhag 250 sahaayak kisi bhi gut se sambandhit naheen the. jaldi hi raaja ne vidhaayika mein veto diya ki mrutyu ke saath pravaas ya éaamigréaas par aur dikri par pratyek gair joori paadari ko aath din ke andar paadari varg ke pratyek samvidhaan ke anusaar aavashyak naagrik shapath leni hogi.

ek varsh ke dauraan, is tarah ke matabhed ek samvaidhaanik sankat ka kaaran ban gaye.[tathya vaanchhit]

samvaidhaanik sankat

chitr:French Revolution-1792-8-10.jpg
10 August 1792 peris kamyoon - tyuleris pailes ka toofaan

10 August 1792 ki raat ko, ek nai kraantikaari peris kamyoon dvaara samarthit vidrohiyon ne toolereej par aakraman kar diya. raaja aur raani ne kaidiyon ko samaapt kar diya aur vidhaan sabha ke ek antim satr ne raajatantr ko nilmbit kar diya; ek tihaai se kuchh adhik sahaayak maujood the, unamein se lagbhag sabhi jekobsin the.

ek raashtreeya sarkaar vidrohi kamyoon ke samarthan par nirbhar thi. kamyoon ne jailon mein giroh bheje jo 1400 peediton par manamaane atyaachaar karein aur fraans ke anya shaharon mein aisa hi ek prapatr bhej diya jismein unhein is prakaar ke udaaharan ka anusaran karne ke liye aamantrit kiya gaya. vidhaanasabha hi peshakash kar sakta.hai keval mand pratirodh kosabha iske liye keval ksheen pratirodh hi kar sakti thi. yeh sthiti sammalen tak bani rahi, jab 20 September 1792 ko ek naya samvidhaan likhne ke liye baithak bulaai gayi aur fraans ki nayi di fekto sarkaar ban gayi. agale din isne raajatantr ko samaapt kar diya gaya aur ek ganaraajya ghoshit kiya gaya. is tithi ko baad mein ek French Republican calendar ke ek varsh ki shuruaat ke roop mein apnaaya gaya tha.

yuddh aur virodhi-kraanti (1792-1797)

is avadhi mein hui raajaneeti ne svat: hi fraans ko ostriya aur uske sahayogiyon ke saath yuddh ki disha mein aage badhaaya. raaja, fayooilaants aur gironadins vishesh roop se yuddh karna chaahate the. raaja (aur uske saath kai fayooilaants) ko ummeed thi ki yuddh se usaki lokapriyta mein vruddhi hogi; usane kisi bhi haar ke shoshan ke avsar ki bhi ummeed ki thi: parinaam chaahe koi bhi ho use prabal banaaega.

is girondins poore Europe mein kraanti ko faila dena chaahate the aur vistaar ke dvara fraans ke bheetar kraanti ki raksha karna chaahate the.

keval kuchh kattarpanthi jekobins yuddh ke khilaaf the, ve sirf ghareloo kraanti ke vistaar aur prabalata ko praathamikta de rahe the. ostriya ke samraat leopold dviteeya, maari entoninet ke bhaai, shaayad yuddh se bachana chaahate the, lekin 1 March 1792 ko unka nidhan ho gaya.[44] France (20 April 1792) ostriya aur parshiya mein yudgh ki ghoshana ki aur kuchh saptaah ke baadh ostriya ke paksh mein aa gaya. aakramanakaari parshiyn sena ne tab tak virodh ka saamana kiya jab tak vaalmi ka yuddh naheen shuroo hua (20 September 1792) aur use vaapas jaane ke liye majaboor naheen kiya gaya. haalaanki, is samay tak, France mein uthalaputhal thi aur raajatantr prabhaavi roop se ateet ki ek baat ban chuki thi.[tathya vaanchhit]

raashtreeya sammalen (1792-1795)

Louis XVI ki htya

Louis XVI ki htya jismein ab place de la konakord, khaali pedastal ke saamane khada hai, jahaan uske daada luis XV ki moorti khadi hai.

braaunashvik ghoshana patra mein, impeeriyl aur parshiyn senaaon ne fraanseesi aabaadi par javaabi hamle ki dhamaki di thi, yadi vah agrim ya raajashaahi ki bahaali ka virodh karega. is kaaran se Louis ne fraans ke dushmanon ke saath shadyantr banaaya.17 January 1793 ko Louis maut ko ek sammalen mein bahumat ke saath "saarvajaanik svatantrata aur aam suraksha ke khilaaf shadyantr" ke roop mein dekha gaya: 361 vote raaja ke paksh mein hue, 288 uske khilaaf aur anya 72 vote kai prakaar ki deri ki sthitiyon ke nishpaadan ke liye the.

poorv Louis XVI, jise ab sitoyen luis kaapet (naagrik luis kaapet) kaha jaata hai, ki htya 21 January 1793 ko gilotin dvaara vartamaan ke kshetr place di la konakord mein ki gayi.

use maar daalne ke baad, kuchh naagrik jo gavaah the, ve bhaag kar aage badhe aur unhonne mrut raaja ke sir se tapak rahe khoon se apne kapade bhigo liye.[45] bheed mein anya log paagal ho gaye, unhonne apni gardan kaat daali ya scene nadi mein kood gaye.[46] - itihaasakaar Adam jaamoysaki ke anusaar unhonne aisa raaja ke prati apne pyaar ke kaaran naheen kiya lekin isliye kiya ki use dharati par Bhagwan ke pratinidhi ke roop mein dekha jaata tha. apni pustak di ribel mein, albart kemas ne likha ki yeh mrutyu fraans ke tatkaaleen itihaas mein ek mahatvapoorn mod tha, "ek aisa kaarya jisne fraanseesi duniya ko dharm nirpeksh banaaya aur fraanseesi logon ke uske baad ke itihaas se Bhagwan ko nirvaasit kar diya." [46] 21 January ko hui yeh htya anya Europeeya deshon ke saath aur adhik yuddh ka kaaran bani.Louis ki ostriya mein janmi raani maari entoninet 16 October ko gilotin ke paksh mein aa gayi.[47]

arthavyavastha

jab yuddh buri tarah se chal raha tha, keematein badh gayeen aur gareeb shramik-sans-culottes aur kattarpanthi jekobins ne dange shuroo kar diye; kuchh kshetron mein prati kraantikaari gatividhiyaan shuroo ho gayeen.

isne sansadeeya takhtaapalat ke maadhyam se, jekobins ko shaktiyon par kabja kar lene ke liye utsaahit kiya, ise girondist gut ke khilaaf janta ka samarthan jutaane ke dvaara prabhaavit bal se gati mili aur saath hi isne peris ke sans-culottes ki gatisheel kshamata ka bhi upayog kiya. jekobeen aur sans-culottes tatvon ke gathabandhan is prakaar se nayi sarkaar ka prabhaavi kendra ban gaye. niti adhik kattarpanthi ho gayi, kyonki "adhiktam ke niyam" ne khaadya ki keematon aur aparaadhiyon ke liye saja ka nirdhaaran kiya.[48]

aatank ka ganatantr

jan suraksha samiti ek vakeel meksikiln robsapiyre ke niyantran ke adheen aa gayi aur jekobasins ne aatank ke raajya ko jeet liya (1793-1794).

abhilekheeya record ke mutaabik kam se kam 16,594 log gilotin ke arntagat ya prati krantikaari gatividhiyon ke parinaamasvaroop maare gaye,

[49] kai itihaasakaaron ne not kiya ki lagbhag 40,000 aaropi kaidiyon ko sankshipt sunavaai ke bina ya sunavaai ke baad maar diya gaya.[49][50][51] 2 June 1793 ko, peris vargon ne- enragéaas ("pravaasi") jeks roks aur jeks hebart ke dvara utsaahit hokar-sammalen ka niyantran kiya, ismein prashaasanik aur raajaneetik sudhaar, roti ke kam uchit moolya aur keval "seins-klutos" ke liye chunaavi mataadhikaar ki seema tay karne ke baare mein baat ki gayi.[52] national guard ke samarthan ke saath, ve jeks piyre brissot sahit 31 girondin netaaon ko giraftaar karne ke liye kanveinshan ko raaji karne mein kaamayaab rahe. in girftaariyon ke baad, jekobasins ne 10 June ko, kraantikaari taanaashaahi ki sthaapana karte hue jan suraksha samiti ka niyantran praapt kar liya.

13 July ko ek girondin chaaralote korade ke dvaara jekobin neta aur patrakaar jeen paul maarat ki hatya-jo apni khatarnaak bayaanbaaji ke liye jaana jaata tha, ke parinaamasvaroop jekobin raajanaitik prabhaav mein vruddhi hui.

raaja ke khilaaf August 1792 ke vidroh ke neta jorjes deintan, ka kai raajanaitik virodhiyon ke dvaara virodh kiya gaya, use samiti se hata diya gaya aur "abhrashtaachaari" robsapiyre prabhaavashaali sadasya ban gaye, kyonki isne kraanti ke gharelu aur videshi shayruon ke khilaaf kattarpanthi upaayon ko apnaaya.[53]

is beech, 24 June ko is sammalen ne France ka pehla ganatantr samvidhaan sveekrut kiya, ise 1793 ke fraanseesi samvidhaan ya varsh I ke samvidhaan ke roop mein sambodhit kiya gaya. yeh kai sandarbhon mein pragatisheel aur kattarpanthi tha, vishesh roop se saarvajanik nar mataadhikaar ki sthaapana ke dvaara.

iski pushti saarvajanik janamat sangrah ke dvaara ki gayi lekin ise kabhi laagoo naheen kiya gaya, kyonki iske prabhaavi ho paane se pehle hi saamaanya prakriyaaen nilambit ho gayeen.[54] veindi mein, kisaanon ne France ki kraantikaari sarkaar ke khilaaf 1793 mein vidroh kar diya.ve paadariyon ke naagrik samvidhaan ke dvaara roman Catholic church par adhyaaropit parivrtanon se naaraaj ho gaye aur kraantikaari sarkaar ki sena ki bharati ko chunauti dete hue unhonne khula vidroh shuroo kar diya.[55] yeh ek gurilla yuddh ban gaya jo veindi ke yuddh ke roop mein jaana jaata hai.[56] uttar ke loyar, tathaakathit chaunas (raajabhakt vidrohiyon) dvaara saamaan vidroh shuroo kiye gaye.[tathya vaanchhit]saavene mein haar ke baad, jab veindi mein niyamit yuddh khtm hone wala tha, fraanseesi general freinkois Joseph vestarmen ne jan suraksha samiti ko ek patra likha jismein kaha gaya

"veindi naheen bacha hai. yeh hamaari muft ghudsavaar fauj ke dvaara iski patniyon aur bachchon sahit maar diya gaya. mainne inhein sirf jangalon aur savaane ke daladal mein dafna diya hai. aapne mujhe jo aadesh diye the uske anusaar, bachchon ko ghodon ke pairon ke neeche kuchalava diya, mahilaaon ko maar daala, kam se kam ve kisi aur brigeind ko janm naheen deingi. main ninda karne ke liye ek kaidi naheen hu.main sabhi exterminated hai. sadkon laashon ke saath boya jaata hai. savaane mein, har samay brigeinds aatmasamarpan ka daava karne ke liye pahunch rahein hain aur ham unako lagaataar maarate ja rahein hain........ daya ek kraantikaari bhaavana naheen hai ."[57][58]

haalaanki, kuchh itihaasakaar is dastaavej ke astitv par sandeh vyakt karte hain[59] aur anya kehte hain ki ismein kiye gaye daave spasht taur par jhoothe hain- vaastav mein hajaaron (jeevit) veindi kaidi the, vidroh kuchale jaane se door tha,[60] aur sammalen mein spasht roop se aadesh diya gaya ki mahilaaon, bachchon aur nihatthe purushon ke saath maanavata ka vyavahaar kiya jaaye.[61] aisa lagta hai ki yadi yeh patra sahi hai, to iski kriya aur safalta ka vestarmen ka prayaas atishyoktipoorn hai, kyonki vah apne apoorn sainya netrutv ki sthiti se hataaye jaane ke liye utsuk tha aur aur sens-kulote general ke liye unke virodh ke liye utsuk tha (yeh isse bachane mein asamarth raha kyonki vah deintan samooh ke saath gilotin tha)[62] aisa man jaata hai ki vidroh aur uske daman (jismein donon aur ke narasanhaar, hatyaaen aur sajaayein shaamil hain) ne 117 000 aur 250 000 jaanein le leen (170 000 naveenatam anumaanon ke anusaar).[63] in behad kroor tareekon ki vajah se kai sthaanon par ganatantr ka daman hua, vishesh itihaasakaar jaise renaald seshar ne is ghatna ko "jeenosaaid ya narasanhaar" kaha.

yeh vivran maas media mein lokapriya ho gaya[64] lekin avaastavik aur pakshapaati hone ke kaaran ise shiksha mein kaafi aalochna ka saamana karna pada.[65] desh ke poorv aur pashchim mein sthaaneeya vidroh aur videshi aakraman ka saamana karte hue, sabse jaruri sarkaari vyaapaar yuddh tha.

17 August ko, sammalen ne saamaanya sainik bharti ke liye vote kiya, di livi N maase, ne sabhi naagrikon ko yuddh ke prayaas mein sainik ya vitrak ka kaam karne ke liye prerit kiya.

chitr:Guillotine model 1792.jpg
gilotin: 18,000 aur 40,000 ke beech aatank ke shaasanakaal ke dauraan logon ko maar daala gaya.

iska parinaam ek neeti thi jiske maadhyam se raajya ne sarkaar ke virodh ko kuchalane ke liye hinsak daman ka prayog kiya.

prabhaavi roop se taanaashaahi samiti ke niyantran mein, sammalen ne sheegra hi adhik vidhaan ko adhiniymit kar diya. 9 September ko, sammalen ne sens kulotes ardhasainik balon ki sthaapana ki jo kraantikaari senaaen theen, jiske dvaara kisaanon par sarkaar ke dvaara maange jaane vaale anaaj ko samarpit karne ka jor lagaaya gaya. 17 September ko, sandigdh ka kaanoon paarit kiya gaya, jisne svatantrata ke khilaaf alp paribhaashit aparaadhon ke saath prati kraantikaariyon ke chaarj ko adhikrut kiya.

29 September ko, sammalen ne anya ghareloo saamaan ke liye anaaj aur roti ki keemat ka nirdhaaran kiya aur majadoori par ek seema ka nirdhaaran karne ke liye adhikaar ka nirdhaaran kiya.[66] gilotin hatyaaon ki ek shrrunkhala ka prateek ban gaya. luis XVI aatank ke shuroo hone se pehle hi gilotin mein shaamil ho gaya tha; raani maari entoninet, girodins, Phillip egaalite (raaja ki mrutyu ke liye uske vote ke baavajood), medam roleind aur kai anya logon ki gilotin ke dvaara htya kar di gayi.

kraantikaari tribunal ne gilotin ke dvaara hajaaron logon ki htya ki sankshipt ninda ki, jabki bheed ne anya aparaadhiyon ko maar daala. aatank ke adhiktam ho jaane par, prati kraantikaari vichaaron aur kriyaaon ka thoda sa ishaara (ya, jaisa ki jekas hebert ke maamale mein hua, kraantikaari jeel ne satta mein rahate hue kiya) bhi kisi vyakti par shak ka kaaran ban sakta tha aur parikshan hamesha shesh prakriya ke samakaaleen maanakon ke anusaar aage naheen badhte the. kabhi kabhi logon ko unke raajanaitik vichaaron ya kaaryon ke liye maara gaya, lekin adhikaansh logon ko mahaj sandeh se pare kisi chhote kaaran ki vajah se maara gaya ya isliye maara gaya kyonki koi usase chhutakaara paana chaahata tha.

adhikaansh peediton ko ek khuli lakadi ki gaadi mein (tambaral) anaupachaarik roop se gilotin bheja diya gaya.

vidrohi praanton mein, sarkaar ne pratinidhiyon ke paas aseemit adhikaar the aur kuchh log ativaadi daman aur galat shabdon ka itemaal kar rahe the. udaaharan ke liye, jeen-beptist career noyaadej ["drownings"] ke liye kukhyaat ho gaya-jise usane neints mein sangathit kiya[67]; use kaarya ko yahaaain tak ki jekobin sarkaar ke dvaara bhi asveekrut kiya gaya aur vaapas bula liya gaya.[tathya vaanchhit] ek anya virodhi lipik vidroh 24 October 1793 ko Republican calendar ki sthaapana ke dvaara sambhav hua. robsapiyre ki aastikta aur sadaachaar ki avadhaarana ke khilaaf hebert ke (aur chaamute ke) naastik aandolan ne vikrishchanikrut samaaj ke liye ek dhaarmik abhiyaan ki shuruaat ki.

10 November ko notre dem kaithedral mein kaaran ki lau ke jashn ke saath yeh shikhar par pahuainch gaya tha.[68] aatank ke raaj ne kraantikaari sarkaar ko sainya haar se bachane mein saksham bana diya. jekobins ne sena ke aakaar ko vistrut kiya aur kaaranot ne kai kuleen adhikaareeyon ko javaan sainikon se pratisthaapit kar diya, jinhonne apni kshamata aur deshbhakti ka pradarshan kiya tha.

Republican sena ostriyn, parshiyn, british aur Spanish ko vaapas bhej dene mein saksham thi. 1793 ke ant mein, sena ne jeetna shuroo kiya aur aasaani se vidrohon ko hara diya gaya. ventos dikri (February, March 1794) ne bandhuon aur kraanti ke virodhiyon ke saamaan ki jabti aur jarooratamandon ke liye punarvitran ka prastaav rakha.[69] 1794 ke vasant mein, donon ativaadi pravaasi (enragéaas) jaise hebert aur udaaravaadi montegnaard indalajeints jaise deintan par prati kraantikaari gatividhiyon ki koshish aur gulotin mein shaamil hone ka aarop lagaaya gaya. 7 June ko robsapiyre jisne pehle kaaran ke panth ki ninda ki thi, ne ek nae raajya dharm ki vakaalat ki aur "sarvochch" ke astitv ko sveekaar karne ke liye sammalen ki sifaarish ki.[70]

tharmidoriyn pratikraya

enagreving: "jekobin club ka band hona, 27-28 July 1794, ki raat ko, ya 9/10 tharmeedor, ganatantr ka varsh 2"

27 July 1794 ko, tharmidoriyn pratikriya ke kaaran robs piyre aur luis de seint ki giraftaari aur htya ki gayi. nai sarkaar mukhyat: gironadist se bani hui thi jinhonne aatank ko banaaye rakha aur sata lene ke baad unhonne yahaaain tak ki un jekobins par atyaachaar kar ke badla liya, robsapiyre ke paraabhav mein, jekobins club ko prabandhit karne mein madad ki thi aur iske kai poorv sadasyon ki htya ki thi, jise safed aatank ke naam se jaana jaata hai.[tathya vaanchhit]

aatank ki jyaadatiyon ke maddenajar, sammalen ne 22 August 1795 ko naya "varsh III ka samvidhaan" sveekrut kar diya.

ek fraanseesi janamat sangrah ne dastaavej ka anumodan kiya, jismein samvidhaan ke paksh mein 1,057,000 vote aaye aur vipaksh mein 49,000 vote daale gaye.[71] matadaan ke parinaamon ko 23 September 1795 ko, ghoshit kiya gaya aur 27 sitmbar 1795 ko naya samvidhaan prabhaav mein aaya.[71]

nirdeshika (1795-1799)

nae samvidhaan mein ek daayarektari banaayi gayi (angreji: Directory) aur yeh France ke itihaas mein pehli baaikemaral vidhaayika thi.[72] sansad 500 pratinidhiyon se bani thi-the Conseil des Cinq-Cents (500 ki parishad)-aur ismein 250 senator the- the Conseil des Anciens (badon ki parishad)

kaaryakaari shakti mein paanch "nirdeshak" the, jinke naam Conseil des Anciens ke dvaara vaarshik roop se diye jaate the, iske liye Conseil des Cinq-Cents ke dvaara ek soochi banaayi jaati thi.[tathya vaanchhit] iske aalaava, 1793 ke saarvabhaumik mataadhikaar ko sampatti par aadhaarit seemit mataadhikaar ke dvaara pratisthaapit kar diya gaya.[tathya vaanchhit] is nirdeshika ki sthaapana ke saath, samakaaleen prekshakon ne kalpana ki hogi ki kraanti khtm ho chuki thi. yuddh ki sthiti se gujar chuke raashtra ke naagrik sthirta, shaanti chaahate the, ashaanti aur sharton ki sthiti ko samaapt karna chaahate the.

ve log jo luis XVII ko sinhaasan par baithaakar raajatantr aur puraani vyavastha ko kaayam rakhana chaahate the aur vo log jinhonne aatank ke raajya ko naveeneekrut kar diya tha, unki sankhya naganya thi.

pehle gathabandhan ki vifalta ke saath videshi hastakshep ki sambhaavana gaayab ho gayi thi. pehle ke atyaachaaron ne paartiyon ke beech vishvaas aur sadabhaavana ko asambhav bana diya tha. aatm sanrakshan ki saamaan bhaavana jiske kaaran sammalen ke sadasyon ne nayi vidhaayika mein daava kiya aur poori nirdeshika ne unki poorv prabhaavita ko banaaye rakhane ke liye unhein pravrut kiya.[tathya vaanchhit]

kyonki bahut se fraanseesi naagrik nirdeshika par bharosa naheen karte the,[73] nirdeshak apne uddeshyon ko keval asaadhaaran tareekon se hi praapt kar sakte the.

ve aadatan, samvidhaan ki sharton ka sammaan naheen karte the aur yahaaain tak ki chunaav ke dauraan unke khilaaf jaate the,[74] nirdeshak niyamit roop se asantosh ko shaant karne ke liye kathor police ke tareekon ka upayog karte the.

iske alaava, nirdeshika ne yuddh ka upayog apni shaktiyon ko badhne ke liye sarv ottam upaaya ke roop mein kiya aur is prakaar se nirdeshak ko sena par bharosa karna padta tha, jo bhi yuddh ki ichha rakhate the aur kam naagrik vichaar ke the aur unki vruddhi kam hui thi.[tathya vaanchhit] is disha mein anya kaaranon se unhein prabhaavit kiya. kraanti ki praarambhik avastha ke dauraan raajya ki vitteeya avastha itni barbaad ho chuki thi ki sarkaar videshi sahaayata ya loot ke bina apne kharchon ko poora naheen kar sakti thi.

yadi shaanti banaayi jaati to nirdeshakon ko pad aur file ki drushti se krodh ka samana karna padta, jo apni aajeevika kho chuke the, saath hi general ki mahatvaakaanksha jo ek kshan mein ise khtm kar sakte the.

barras aur rayoobel kukhyaat roop se bhrashtaachaari ban chuke the aur doosaron mein bhrashtaachaar ki jaanch kar rahe the. nirdeshakon ka sanrakshak beemaar tha aur saamaanya kushaasan ne use kukhyaat bana diya tha.[tathya vaanchhit]

18 brumaire ke takhtaapalat mein nepoliyn bonaapaart (frankois bushot ke dvaara ek oliyo ka varnan)

vidhaayika mein samvaidhaanik party naun-joori paadariyon ki sahishnuta chaahati thi, pravaasiyon ke rishtedaaron ke khilaaf kaanoonon ko nirast karna chaahati thi aur khud pravaasiyon ke liye kuchh dayaalu bhedabhaav chaahati thi.

nirdeshakon ne aise sabhi prayaason ko vismit kar diya. doosari taraf, beboof ki samaajavaadi saajish aasaani se tal gayi. vitt mein sudhaar laane ke liye thoda prayaas kiya gaya aur assignet ki keemat nirantar girti rahi.[tathya vaanchhit] nae shaasan ka shesh jekobasins aur shaahi logon ke dvaara virodh kiya gaya. sena ne dangon aur prati kraantikaari gatividhiyon ka daman kar diya. is tarah se sena aur uske safal general, nepoliyn bonaapaart ne antat: adhik shakti praapt ki. 9 November 1799 ko (18 Brumaire of the Year VIII) nepoliyn bonaapaart ne 18 brumaire ke takhtaapalat ka manchan kiya jisne vaanijya dootaavaas ki sthaapana ki. isse prabhaavi roop se bonaapaart ki taanaashaahi ko madad mili aur ant mein (1804 mein) use samraat (Empereur) banaaya gaya. jo fraanseesi kraanti ki Republican avastha ko vishesh roop se kareeb le aaya.[tathya vaanchhit]

aitihaasik vishleshan

samvaidhaanik sabha kai kaaranon se vifal rahi: kai raajatantravaadi the jinke paas ganatantr tha aur bahut se Republican bhi the jo raajatantr ke paksh mein the; bahut se log raaja ke virodhi the (vishesh roop se vaareneej ki udaan ke baad), iska arth yeh hai ki jo log raaja ka paksh le rahe the unki pratishtha kam ho gayi thi; paadari varg ka naagrik samvidhaan; aur bahut kuchh.[tathya vaanchhit]

itihaasakaar kraanti ki raajaneetik aur saamaajik aarthik prakruti se sahamat naheen hain. paaramparik maarksavaadi vyaakhyaayein jaise ki jo jorjes lefbvar ke dvaara prastut ki gayeen,[75] saamantavaadi kuleen varg aur poonjeevaadi sanpattijeevi varg ke beech sangharsh ke parinaamasvaroop kraanti ka varnan karti hain.

kuchh itihaasakaaron[kaun?]ka tark yeh hai ki[kaun?]praacheen vyavastha ka puraana kuleen kram badhte poonjeevaad, peedit kisaanon aur shahari majadoori arjakon ki majadoori ke saamane jhuk gaya.[tathya vaanchhit] fir bhi ek aur vyaakhya yeh hai[kaun?]ki kraanti tab shuroo hui jab vibhinn kuleenatantreeya aur sanpattijeevi sudhaar aandolan niyantran ke baahar ho gaye.

is model ke anusaar, ye aandolan sanyogavash nae majadoori arjak varg va praanteeya kisaanon ke lokapriya aandolan ke saath hue lekin in vargon ke beech mein koi bhi sambandh aakasmik aur praasangik tha.[tathya vaanchhit]

pichhle varshon mein gareebi ka bahut adhik badh jaana is kraanti mein ek yogadaan kaarak tha. kuchh vidvaan ise kai varshon ke aavartak mausami vichlan se sambandhit karte hain, jiska kaaran tha 1783 ka laaki visfot,[76] aur gambhir al neeno prabhaav.[77]

yeh bhi dekhein

sambandhit pej

  • Biens nationaux
  • lokatantr ke itihaas
  • jeen nikolas pache - librate, igaalaait, fretaarnaait
  • la revolyooshan frenkaais (film)
  • fraanseesi kraanti ke dauraan France ki maanad naagarikta praapt karne vaale logon ki soochi
  • kraantiyon aur vidrohon ki soochi
  • nepoliyn bonaapaart ki sainya kairiyr
  • nepoliyn ki sanket-lipi
  • Europe mein raashtravaad ka utthaan

fraanseesi itihaas mein anya kraantiyaan ya vidroh

  • kaamisrd vidroh, French huguenots (1710-1715)
  • haaitiyn kraanti, haiti colony (1791-1804)
  • July kraanti (1830)
  • 1848 ki fraanseesi kraanti
  • 1871 ke peris kamyoon
  • fraanseesi sena vidroh (1917)
  • May 1968 France mein, ek ullekhaneeya vidroh, haalaanki ek kraanti ke liye kaafi naheen

sandarbh

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is lekh ki saamagri sammilit hui hai britainika vishvakosh ekaadashavein sanskaran se, ek prakaashan, jo ki jan saamaanya hetu pradarshit hai.. saaaincha:Mignet

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aitihaasik yug

poorvaadhikaari
The Old Regime
French Revolution
1789-1792
uttaraadhikaari
First French Republic

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