fraanseesi Bhaarat

fraanseesi Bhaarat
Éaatablissements françaaais de l'Inde
(French bhaasha)
upanivesh
Royal Standard of the King of France.svg
1769 – 1954 Flag of India.svg
Location of भारत
fraanseesi Bhaarat 1815 ke baad
rajdhani paundicheri
bhaasha(eain) fraanseesi

iske alaava boli; tamil, telugu, malayalam

raajaneetik dhaancha upanivesh
aitihaasik yug saamraajyavaad
- fraanseesi East India company ka ant 1769
- visansthaapit November 1
kshetr
- 1948 508.03 km² (196 sq mi)
janasankhya
- 1929 est. 2,88,546
- 1948 est. 3,32,045
mudra fraanseesi bhaarateeya rupaya
naksha pehle (hara) aur doosare (neela) fraanseesi aupaniveshik saamraajya.

fraanseesi Bhaarat 17 veen sadi ke doosare aadhe mein Bhaarat mein fraanseesi East India company dvaara sthaapit fraanseesi pratishthaanon ke liye ek aam naam hai aur aadhikaarik taur par establisement franse dde inddae (fraanseesi:Éaatablissements françaaais de l'Inde) roop mein jaana jaata, seedha French shaasan 1816 shuroo hua aur 1954 tak jaari raha jab pradeshon nae svatantr Bhaarat mein shaamil kar liya gaya.[1] unke shaasak kshetron paundicheri, karaaikal, yaanam, maahe aur chandananagar the. fraanseesi Bhaarat me bhaarateeya shaharon mein banaae rakha kai sahaayak vyaapaar station (lodge) shaamil the.

kul kshetr 510 km2 (200 varg meal) tha, jinmein se 293 km2 (113 varg meal) paundicheri ka kshetr tha. 1936 mein, upanivesh ki aabaadi kul 2,98,851 nivaasiya thi, jinmein se 63% (1,87,870) paundicheri ke kshetr mein nivaas karti thi.[2]

anukram

praarambhik itihaas

France ek mahatvapoorn raaste mein East India vyaapaar mein pravesh ke liye 17 veen sadi ka pramukh antim Europeeya samudri shaktiyon tha. chhah dashakon, angreji aur dach East India companiyon ki sthaapana ke baad (1600 aur 1602 kramash:) aur aise jab samay donon companiyon Bhaarat ke tat par kaarkhaanon guna kar rahe the, yeh France ke liye bada jhatka tha.

France maidaan mein pravesh karne mein itni der ho chuki thi kyon, itihaasakaaron ne kaaranon par vichaar kiya. ve havaala dete hai ki bhoo raajaneetik haalaat jaise France ki rajdhani ke antardesheeya sthiti, desh ka aakaar, vyaapaari samudaaya ke beech ekta ki kami aur ek bade paimaane par company mein kaafi nivesh karne ke liye anichhuk vishesh roop se bahut door desh ke saath vyaapaar ke liye.[3][4]

fraanseesi East India company (fraanseesi:La Compagnie françaaaise des Indes orientales) kaardinl richheliyeu (1642) ke tatvaavadhaan mein gathit hui aur jeen baiptist kolabart (1664) ke tahat khangaala ki gayi thi, unka pehla abhiyaan medaagaaskar ke liye gaya tha. 1667 mein French India company ek anya abhiyaan baahar bheji, jo 1668 mein soorat pahunch gaya aur Bhaarat mein pehli baar fraanseesi kaarkhaane ki sthaapana ki.[5][6]

1669 mein, ve machhaleepattanam mein ek aur French kaarkhaana sthaapit karne mein safal rahe. chandananagar 1692 mein sthaapit kiya gaya tha, navaab shaaista Khan Bengal ke mugal raajyapaal ki anumati ke saath. 1673 mein, French Bijapur ke sultaan ke tahat valikondapuram ki kildar se paundicheri kshetr ka adhigrahan kiya aur is tarah paundicheri ki neenv rakhi gayi thi. 1720 tak, French soorat aur machhaleepattanam mein apne kaarkhaane british ko kho diya tha.

1674 mein fraaainsva Martin, pehle raajyapaal, paundicheri ka nirmaan shuroo kar diya aur ek chhoti machhali pakadne gaanv se ise ek samruddh bandargaah shahar mein badal diya. fraanseesi, dach aur angreji ke saath, Bhaarat mein, nirantar sangharsh mein the. 1693 mein dach paundicheri padabhaar sanbhaal liya. French rysvichk ki sandhi ke maadhyam se 1699 mein shahar vaapas pa liya.

apne charam par

shuruaat se 1741 tak, French ke uddeshyon, british, jaise vishuddh vaanijyik the. us avadhi ke dauraan, French East India company ne shaanti se 1723 mein yaanam, 1739 mein karaaikal aur 1725 mein maahe haasil kar liye. jaldi 18 veen sadi mein, paundicheri ka shahar ek grid paitarn par rakha gaya aur kaafi bada ho gaya tha. piyre kristof le noyar (1726-1735) aur piyre benoit dumas (1735-41) ki tarah saksham raajyapaalon paundicheri kshetr ka vistaar kiya aur yeh ek bada aur dhani shahar bana diya.

France ke niyantran aur prabhaav ke vistaar ke adhiktamavaadi drushya (1741-1754)

jald hi 1741 mein unke aagaman ke baad, French Bhaarat ke sabse prasiddh raajyapaal, Joseph fraaainsva dupleiksh Bhaarat mein France ke ek kshetreeya saamraajya ki mahatvaakaanksha poshan karne ke liye shuroo kiya aur voh bhi door sthit France ki sarkaar ke varishth adhikaariyon ke virodh ke baavajood aur France ki sarkaar ke varishth adhikaariya british ko bhadkaane naheen chaahate the. dupleiksh ki mahatvaakaanksha ke kaaran Bhaarat mein fraanseesi ka british ke saath takaraav aur sainya jhadpon aur raajaneetik shadyantron ki avadhi shuroo ki, France aur great Britain ke beech shaanti ke samay bhi yeh shatruta jaari rahi. Joseph fraaainsva dupleiksh ki sena safalataapoorvak Hyderabad aur kep komorin ke beech ke kshetr ko niyantrit kiya. lekin tab Robert klaaiv jo ek british adhikaari the, 1744 mein Bhaarat aae aur Joseph fraaainsva dupleiksh ka ek Bhaarat me fraanseesi saamraajya banaane ki ummeedo ko dharaashaayi kar diya. Karnataka yuddhe mein haar aur vifal shaanti vaarta ke baad, Joseph fraaainsva dupleiksh ko sarasari taur par 1754 mein barkhaast kar diya aur France ke liye vaapas bulaaya gaya tha.

Joseph fraaainsva dupleiksh ki Deccan ke soobedaar ke saath baithak.

british aur fraanseesi sthaaneeya raajaneeti mein na dakhal dene ki ek sandhi ke baavajood, shadyantron jaari thi. udaaharan ke liye, is avadhi mein fraanseesi ne Bengal ke navaab ke raaj-darbaar mein apne prabhaav ka vistaar kiya aur Bengal mein apne vyaapaar ki maatra ka vistaar kiya. 1756 mein, French Calcutta mein british fort William hamla karne ke liye navaab ko protsaahit kiya. 1757 mein plaasi ki ladaai mein, british, navaab aur unki fraanseesi sahayogi dalon ko haraaya aur Bengal ke poore praant mein british satta badhaaya.

iske baad France, fraanseesi nuksaan pun: praapt karne aur Bhaarat se angrejo ko baahar karne ke liye lalli-tollendal ko bheja. lalli 1758 mein paundicheri mein pahunche, unhonne kuchh praarambhik safalta mili aur 1758 mein kadaloor jile mein fort seint David ko dhvast kar diya, lekin lalli dvaara kiye gaye rananeetik galatiyon 1760 mein paundicheri ki gheraabandi ka kaaran bani. 1761 mein paundicheri, badla lene mein angrejon dvaara nasht kar diya gaya tha aur chaar saal ke liye khandahar bane raha. aur bahut jald hi fraanseesi dakshin Bhaarat par apni pakad ko kho diya.

1765 mein paundicheri Europe mein Britain ke saath ek shaanti sandhi ke baad France ko lautaadi gayi. turant French ne barbaad kar diya shahar ke punarnirmaan shuroo kar diya. 1769 mein, French East India company, aarthik roop se khud ko samarthan karne mein asamarth thi aur French kraaun, dvaara samaapt kar diya gaya tha aur turant French kraaun ne Bhaarat mein fraanseesi kaaloniyon ke prashaasan ki jimmedaari le li.

baad ke varshon

"vishaal british ilaake ke beech mein khoye, ye bandaragaahon koi laabh ke nahi. balki, ve France ke liye bhaavanaatmak moolya ke hain."
fraanseesi Bhaarat ke daak tiktein

1816 mein, napaaliyaan yuddhon ke samaapan ke baad, paundicheri, chandananagar, karaaikal, maahe aur yaanam ke paanch pratishthaanon aur machhaleepattanam, koshikkod aur soorat mein lodge France ko lauta diye gaye. paundicheri apne poorv gaurav ko kho diya tha aur chandananagar Calcutta ke teji se vistaar hote british pratishthaan ke uttar mein ek tuchh chauki ghat kar reh gayi. uttarottar raajyapaalon agale 138 varshon se adhik buniyaadi suvidhaaon, udyog, kaanoon aur shiksha ke kshetr mein sudhaar ke liye, mishrit parinaam ke saath ki koshish ki.

25 January 1871 ke farmaan se, fraanseesi Bhaarat ek nirvaachit saamaanya parishad (Conseil géanéaral) aur nirvaachit sthaaneeya parishdon (Conseil local) pradaan kiye gaye. is upaaya ke parinaam bahut santoshajanak naheen the aur jaldi hi mataadhikaar yogyata ke liye aur mataadhikaar ki kakshaaon mein sanshodhit kiya gaya. raajyapaal paandicheri mein rahate the aur ek parishad dvaara unhe sahaayata pradaan ki jati thi. ve do nichli adaalaton (Tribunaux d'instance) sanchaalit karte the, paundicheri mein ek aur karaaikal mein doosari aur saat hi ek uchch adaalat (Cour d'appel) paundicheri mein, alag se ve har paaainch colony ke liye ek samudaaya adaalaton (Justices de paix) sanchaalit karte the. krushi upaj chaaval, moongafali, tanbaakoo, supaari aur sabjiyon shaamil the.

Bhaarat ke saath punarmiln

August 1947 mein Bhaarat ki aajaadi ke svatantr Bhaarat ke saath France ki bhaarateeya sampatti ka sangh ko protsaahan mila. tatkaal hi machhaleepattanam, koshikkod aur soorat mein ke lodge October 1947 mein svatantr Bhaarat ko saunp diye gaye. 1948 mein France aur Bhaarat ke beech ek samjhaute hua jiske anusaar fraanseesi Bhaarat ke naagrik unke raajaneetik bhavishya chunane ke liye France ke shesh bhaarateeya sampatti mein ek chunaav ke liye sahamat hui. chandananagar ke shaasan May 1950 2 par Bhaarat ko saunp diya gaya tha, uske baad yeh 2 October 1955 ko pashchim Bengal raajya ke saath vilay kar diya gaya tha. 1 November 1954 ko, paundicheri, yaanam, maahe aur karaaikal ke chaar parikshetron vaastavik svatantr Bhaarat ke saath ekeekrut kar diye gaye aur yeh puduchcheri ke sangh shaasit pradesh ban gaya. Bhaarat ke saath French Bhaarat ke vidhi sammat sangh, 1962 tak naheen hui, lekin 1962 me peris mein fraanseesi sansad ne Bhaarat ke saath sandhi ki pushti ki uske baad yeh aadhikaarik taur par kiya gaya tha. is ke saath bhaarateeya mitti par 185 varsh puraana fraanseesi shaasan khatm ho gaya.

Bhaarat mein fraanseesi pratishthaanon ke raajyapaalon ki soochi

aayukt (commissioner)

  • fransois karon, 1668–72
  • fransois baron, 1672–81
  • fransois, 1681 – November 93
  • dach kabja, September 1693 – September 1699 — rysvichk ki sandhi (1697)

Governor general

  • fransois, September 1699 – December 31, 1706
  • piyre duliviyer, January 1707 – July 1708
  • guilaum aandre hebert, 1708–12
  • piyre duliviyer, 1712–17
  • guilaum aandre hebert, 1717–18
  • piyre aandre prevost de la prevostiyere, August 1718 – 11 October 1721
  • piyre kristof le noir, 1721–23
  • Joseph beauvolliyer di chourhant, 1723–26
  • piyre kristof le noyar, 1726–34
  • piyre benoit dumas, 1734–41
  • Joseph fraaainsva dupleiksh, January 14, 1742 – October 15, 1754
  • Charles godeheu, October 15, 1754–54
  • George duvaal di leyrit, 1754–58
  • Thomas aarthar, komte de lalli, 1758 – January 16, 1761
  • pratham british kabja, January 15, 1761 – June 25, 1765 — peris ki sandhi (1763)
  • jeen law di lauriston, 1765–66
  • antoine boyellau, 1766–67
  • jeen law di lauriston, 1767 – January 1777
  • guilaum di bellechombe, January 1777–82
  • maarkvis di bussi-kastelnau, 1783–85
  • fraaainsva de souillach, 1785
  • David chharpentiyer de chossigny, October 1785–87
  • Thomas konave, October 1787–89
  • kemili Charles leklerk,1789–92
  • dominik prosper di hermont, November 1792–93
  • lerouksh di touffreville, 1793
aupaniveshik yaanam
aupaniveshik karaaikal 1920 mein
aupaniveshik maahe 1726 mein
  • dviteeya british kabja, August 23, 1793 – 18 June 1802 — emiyenj ki sandhi (1802)
  • kaumte dechaen, June 18, 1802 - August 1803
  • lui benoit, 1803
  • truteeya british kabja, August 1803 – 26 September 1816 — peris ki sandhi (1814)
  • kaumte dupuy, September 26, 1816 – October 1825
  • Joseph kordiyer, October 1825 – June 19, 1826
  • yoojeen panon, 1826 – August 2, 1828
  • Joseph kordiyer, August 2, 1828 – April 11, 1829
  • agaste jaiks nikolas peureuksh di melaya, April 11, 1829 – May 3, 1835
  • hubart jeen Victor, May 3, 1835 – April 1840
  • paul di nourkuer du kamper, April 1840–44
  • lui pujol, 1844–49
  • hyachinth maari de laalaande de kalan, 1849–50
  • Phillip achhille bediyer, 1851–52
  • remand di seint maur, August 1852 – April 1857
  • Alexander doorand the'ubraye, April 1857 – January 1863
  • nepoliyn Joseph lui bontemps, January 1863 – June 1871
  • enthoni-leonse michhauksh, June 1871 – November 1871
  • piyre aristide faron, November 1871–75
  • edolf Joseph entoni trillard, 1875–1878
  • leonse laugiyer, February 1879 – April 1881
  • thiodor drouhett, 1881 – October 1884
  • Stefan richrd, October 1884–86
  • Edward manes, 1886–88
  • George jools piket, 1888–89
  • lui hippolyte maari nouet, 1889–91
  • Leon emil klemeint-Thomas, 1891–1896
  • lui jeen girod, 1896 – February 1898
  • fraaainsva piyre rodiyer, February 1898 – January 11, 1902
  • pelletan, January 11, 1902
  • Victor Louis mairi lanrejk, 1902–04
  • [[filem lemaire], August 1904 – April 1905
  • Yusuf paaskal fraaainsva, April 1905 – October 1906
  • gebriyl lui aङaoulvant, October 1906 – December 3, 1907
  • edriyn jools jeen bonhoure, 1908–09
  • arnest frnaand levesk, 1909 – July 9, 1910
  • alfred albart maartinyoo, July 9, 1910 – July 1911
  • piyre Louis alfred dupart, July 1911 – November 1913
  • alfred albart maartinyoo, November 1913 – June 29, 1918
  • (agyaat), June 29, 1918 – February 21, 1919
  • lui maarshal maasoom gerbinis, February 21, 1919 – February 11, 1926
  • henari liyo yoojeen lagroua, February 11, 1926 – August 5, 1926
  • jeen piyre henari didilot, 1926–28
  • Robert paul mairi di guise, 1928–31
  • fraaainsva edriyn juvanon, 1931–34
  • Leon solomiach, August 1934–36
  • hores vailentin krochikkhia, 1936–38
  • lui eleksis eteen bonvin, September 26, 1938–45
  • nikolas arnest maari mauris jeenadin, 1945–46
  • Charles fraaainsva maari bairan, March 20, 1946 – August 20, 1947

fraanseesi Bhaarat 1946 mein France ka ek pravaasi kshetr (Territoire d'outre-mer) ban gaya'.

aayukt (commissioner)

  • Charles fraaainsva maari bairan, August 20, 1947 – May 1949
  • Charles hambon, May 1949 – July 31, 1950
  • aandre menaard, July 31, 1950 – October 1954
  • George eschargueil, October 1954 – November 1, 1954

Bhaarat ke saath punarmiln

uchchaayukt

  • keval Singh November 1, 1954–57
  • M.ke. krupalaani 1957–58
  • L.aar.S. Singh 1958–58
  • A.S. baim 1960
  • sharat Kumar datta 1961–61

sandarbh

  1. In France, the official name Éaatablissements françaaais dans l'Inde was mostly found in official documents. The expression Inde françaaaise was not often used as it was found too grandiose since the territory of French India was minuscule, particularly compared to British India. Among the population and in the press, the expression Comptoirs de l'Inde was (and is still) universally used. However, a comptoir is a trading post and therefore not a very appropriate word to denote the French possessions in India, which were colonial possessions rather than mere trading posts.
  2. Jacques Weber, Pondichéary et les comptoirs de l'Inde aprèaas Dupleix, Éaditions Denoëal, Paris, 1996, p. 347.
  3. Holden Furber, Rival Empires of Trade in the Orient, 1600-1800, University of Minnesota Press, 1976, p. 201.
  4. Philippe Haudrèare, Les Compagnies des Indes Orientales, Paris, 2006, p 70.
  5. Asia in the making of Europe, pa॰ 747, http://books.google.com/books?id=qBZg0OhbiXMC&pg=PA747 .
  6. The Cambridge history of the British Empire, pa॰ 66, http://books.google.com/books?id=Y-08AAAAIAAJ&pg=PA66 .

granth soochi

  • Sudipta Das (1992). Myths and realities of French imperialism in India, 1763–1783. New York: P. Lang. ISBN 0820416762. 459p.

baahari link