fraans ka itihaas

985 se lekar 1947 tak ki avadhi mein France ki seemaaon ka vistaar tatha sankuchan

France ka praacheen naam 'gaul' tha. yahaaain anek jangali janajaatiyon ke log, mukhya roop se, keltik log, nivaas karte the. san‌ 57-51 E.poo. mein jooliys seejar ne unhein paraast kar roman saamraajya mein mila liya. vahaaain sheegra hi roman sabhyata ka prasaar ho gaya. pratham shataabdi ke baad kuchh hi varshon mein isaai dharm ka prachaar teji se aarambh ho gaya aur keltik boliyon ka sthaan laateeni bhaasha ne le liya. paaainchaveen shati mein jarman jaatiyon ne usapar akraman kiya. uttar mein Frank log bas gaye. inheen ka ek neta klovis tha jisne san‌ 486 mein anya logon ko hara kar apna raajya sthaapit kiya aur 496 E. mein isaai dharm mein abhishikt ho gaya. uske uttaraadhikaariyon ke samay desh mein pun: araajakata fail gayi. tab san‌ 732 mein Charles maartel ne vidrohiyon ka daman kar shaanti aur ekta sthaapit ki. uske uttaraadhikaari pepin ki mrutyu (768 E. mein) hone ke baad pepin ka putr shaarlamaan gaddi par baitha. usane aaspaas ke kshetron ko jeetkar raajya ka vistaar bahut badha diya, yahaaain tak ki san‌ 800 E. mein Pope ne use pashchimi raajyon ka samraat ghoshit kiya.

shaarlamaan ke uttaraadhikaari ayogya saabit hue jisse saamraajya vikhandit hone laga aur uttar se naarsamain logon ke hamle shuroo ho gaye. ye log naarmandi mein bas gaye. san‌ 987 mein shaasanasootr hyookaipet ke haath mein aaya kintu kuchh samay tak usaka raajya peris nagar ke aas paas ke kshetr tak hi seemit raha. idhar udhar kai saamanton ka bolabaala tha jo yathesht shaktishaali the. 13veen shataabdi tak raaja ki shakti mein kramash: vruddhi hoti gayi kintu is beech shatavarsheeya yuddh (1337-1453) ke kaaran ismein samay samay par baadhaaeain bhi upasthit hoti raheen. jon of aark naamak deshbhakt mahila ne raaja aur uske sainikon mein jo utsaah aur sfoorti bhar di thi, usase saatavein Charles ki mrutyu (1461) tak France ki bhoomi par se angreji aadhiptya samaapt ho gaya. fir looi 11vein ke shaasanakaal mein (1461-83 E.) saamanton ka bhi daman kar diya gaya aur vargandi France mein mila liya gaya.

aathavein Charles (1483-89) tatha 12vein looi (1489-1515) ke shaasanakaal mein Italy ke viruddh kai ladaaiyaaain ladi gain jinka silsila aage bhi jaari raha. parinaamasvaroop pashchimi Europe mein shaktivruddhi ke liye Spain ke saath kashamakash aarambh ho gayi. jab France mein protestait dharm ka jor badhne laga kai French saradaaron ne raajaneetik uddeshya se use apna liya jisse gruhayuddh ki aag bhadak uthi. French raajatantr svadesh mein to saamaanyat: protestait vichaaron ka daman karna chaahata tha kintu baahar Spain ki taakat na badhne dene ke uddeshya se protestaiton ka samarthan karta tha. navein Charles (1560-74) tatha truteeya henari (1574-89) ke raajyakaal mein gruhayuddhon ke kaaran France ko badi kshati pahuainchi. peris, kaithaalik mat ka gadh bana raha. san‌ 1572 mein hajaaron protestait seint baartholomyoo mein maar daale gaye. nidaan chaturth henari (1589-1610) ne desh mein shaanti sthaapit ki, dhaarmik sahishnuta ki ghoshana ki aur raaja ki sthiti sudrudh bana di. ek kaithaalik dvaara usaki hatya ho jaane par usaka putr 13vaaain looi gaddi par baitha. uske mantri reeshalyoo ne raaja ki aur raajya ki shakti badhaane ka kaam jaari rakha. teesavarsheeya yuddh mein shareek hokar usane France ke liye alases ka kshetr praapt kiya aur use Europe ka pramukh raajya bana diya. 13vein looi ki mrutyu ke baad usaka putr 14vaaain looi (1638-1715) paaainch varsh ki avastha mein France ka shaasak bana (1643). usaka shaasan vastut: baalig hone par 1661 E. mein praarambh hua. shuroo mein usane oopari teemataam mein bahut rupaya fooaink diya, jab usane varsaaya ke prasiddh raajapraasaad ka nirmaan karaaya. vruddhaavastha mein usaka svechhaachaar badhta gaya. usane videshon se yuddh chhedte rahane ki neeti apnaai jisse desh ki sainik shakti aur aarthik sthiti ko kshati pahuainchi tatha videshi upanivesh bhi usase chhin gaye. uske uttaraadhikaariyon 15vein looi (1715-74) tatha 16vein looi (1774-93) ke samay mein bhi raajakosh ka apavyaya badhta gaya. janta mein asantosh failane laga jise vaalateyar tatha rooso ki rachanaaon se protsaahan mila.

July 1789 mein basteel ka vidhvans France ki kraanti ki sabse mahatvapoorn ghatna maani jaati hai.

jab raashtreeya rin bahut badh gaya tab looi 16vein ko vivsh hokar states-general ki baithak bulaani padi. saamaanya janta ke pratinidhiyon ne apni sabha alag bulaai aur use hi raashtrasabha ghoshit kiya. yaheen se fraanseesi kraanti ki shuruaat hui. September, 1792 mein pratham French ganatantr udghoshit hua aur 21 January 1793, ko looi 16vein ko faaainsi de di gayi. baahari raajyon ke hastakshep ke kaaran France ko yuddhasanlagn hona pada. ant mein satta naipoliyn ke haath mein I, jisne kuchh samay baad 1804 mein apne ko France ka samraat ghoshit kiya. vaataraloo ki ladaai (1815 E.) ke baad shaasan fir boorabon raajavansh ke haath mein aa gaya. dasvein Charles ne jab 1830 E. mein niyantrit raajatantr ke sthaan mein nirankush shaasan sthaapit karne ki cheshta ki, to teen din ki kraanti ke baad use hataakar looi Phillip ke haath mein shaasan de diya gaya. san‌ 1848 mein vah bhi sinhaasanachyut kar diya gaya aur France mein dviteeya ganatantr ki sthaapana hui. yeh ganatantr alpasthaayi hi hua. uske adhyaksh looi naipoliyn ne 1852 mein raajyaviplav dvaara apne aapko truteeya naipoliyn ke roop mein samraat ghoshit karne mein safalta praapt kar li. usaki aakraamak neeti ke parinaamasvaroop prasha se yuddh chhid gaya (1870-71), jismein France ko gahari shikast uthaani padi. truteeya naipoliyn ka patan ho gaya aur teesare ganatantr ki sthaapana ki buniyaad padi.

truteeya ganatantr ka samvidhaan san‌ 1875 mein sveekrut hua. isne raajya ko church ke prabhaav se pruthak‌ rakhane ka vachan diya aur saarvajanik purush mataadhikaar ke aadhaar par chunaav karaaya. samvidhaan ka ek bada dosh yeh tha ki raashtrapati maatr kathaputali jaisa tha aur kaaryapaalika bhi shaktiheen thi. isi se ek mantrimandal ke baad doosra mantrimandal banta tha aur atyant prabhaavashaali avar sadan dvaara pruthak‌ kar diya jaata tha. fir bhi ganatantr ne drudhtaapoorvak us sthiti ka saamana kiya jo vaamapanthiyon aur dakshinpanthiyon ke paarasparik jhagadon ke kaaran utpann hoti ja rahi thi. is samay tak Asia tatha Africa ke katipya kshetron par France ka aadhiptya sthaapit ho chuka tha aur prabhaav tatha raajyavistaar ki drushti se usaka sthaan Britain ke baad doosra tha.

vinstan charchil aur general di gaul

pratham mahaayuddh (1914-18) mein France ko Britain tatha amareeka ke saath milkar Germany, aastriya tatha Turkey se yuddh mein sanlagn hona pada. vijay ke parinaamasvaroop yadyapi alases tatha loren ka audyogik kshetr pun: France ko mil gaya, fir bhi ladaai mukhyat: French bhoomi par hi ladi gayi thi, isliye usaki itni adhik barvaadi hui ki varshon tak usaki aarthik avastha sudhar na saki. February, 1934 mein dakshinpanthiyon dvaara kiye gaye vyaapak upadravon ke kaaran vaamapanthiyon ko apni taakat badhaane ka avsar mil gaya. san‌ 1936 ke chunaav mein unhein safalta mili, jisse liyaaain blum ke netrutv mein tathaakathit 'janta ki sarkaar' sthaapit ki ja saki. blum ne yuddh ka saamaan taiyaar karanevaale kitne hi udyogon ka raashtreeyakaran kar diya aur kaarkhaanon mein 40 ghante ka saptaah anivaarya kar diya. anudaar ya roodhivaadi dalon ka virodh badh jaane par blum ko padatyaag kar dena pada. eddaard dalaadiye ke netrutv mein san‌ 1938 mein jo nai sarkaar bani usaka samarthan, hitlari kaaranaamon se aasann sankat ke kaaran vaamapanthiyon ne bhi kiya. September, 1939 mein Britain ke saath saath France ne bhi Germany se yuddh ki ghoshana kar di. 1940 ki garmiyon mein jab jarman sena ne Belgium ko dhvast karte hue peris ki or agragaman kiya to maarshal petaaain ki sarkaar ne Germany se sandhi kar li. fir bhi France ke baahar jarmanon ka virodh jaari raha aur general di gaul ke netrutv mein asthaayi sarkaar ki sthaapana ki gayi. peris ki unmukti ke baad di gaul ki sarkaar elajeeyars se uthakar pairis chali gayi aur Britain, amareeka aadi ne sarkaari taur se use maanyata pradaan kar di.

yuddh samaapt hone par yadyapi France ki aarthik sthiti jarjar ho chuki thi, fir bhi sakriya udyog evam amareeka ki sahaayata se usamein kaafi sudhaar ho gaya. kaaryapaalika ke adhikaaron ke sambandh mein matabhed ho jaane se 1946 mein di gaul ne padatyaag kar diya. December mein jo chaturth ganatantr sthaapit hua, usamein vahi sab kamajoriyaaain theen jo truteeya ganatantr mein theen. saara adhikaar raashtrasabha ke haath mein keindrit tha aur vividh raajaneetik dalon mein ekta na ho sakane ke kaaran koi bhi mantrimandal sthaayitv praapt karne mein asamarth raha. isi beech uttar Africa tatha hindacheen mein French shaasan ke viruddh vidroh ki vyaapakata badhti gayi. tab general di gaul ko pun: pradhaan mantri ke pad par pratishthit kiya gaya. naya samvidhaan banaaya gaya jismein kaaryapaalika evam raashtrapati ke haath majaboot karne ke liye vishisht adhikaar diye gaye. matadaataaon ne atyadhik bahumat se iska samarthan kiya. nae chunaav ke baad December 1958 mein di gol ke netrutv mein paaainchavein ganatantr ki sthaapana hui. san‌ 1961 tak France ne apne adheenasth kitne hi deshon ko svatantr kar diya. ve ab sanyukt raashtrasangh ke sadasya ban gaye hain.

sandarbh

inhein bhi dekhein

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