football

football
Football iu 1996.jpg
ek khilaadi (san. 10) golarakshak ko chhaka kar gol karne ke prayaas mein
sarvochch niyantran nikaaya FIFA
upanaam football, paadakanduk, saukar
sabse pehle khela gaya England mein 19veen sadi ke madhya mein
visheshataaeain
anubandh haaain
dal ke sadasya 11 prati dal
mishrit ling haaain, alag pratiyogitaaen
vargeekaran saamoohik khel, geind ka khel
upakaran football
sthal football pitch
olanpik 1900

association football jise aamtaur par sirf football (angreji: foot: paad ya pag, baul: geind) ya saukar kaha jaata hai, duniya ke sabse lokapriya khelon me se ek hai. yeh ek saamoohik khel hai aur ise gyaarah khilaadiyon ke do dalon ke beech khela jaata hain. football ko saamaanyat: ek aayataakaar ghaas ya krutrim ghaas ke maidaan par khela jaata hai jiske donon chhoron par ek ek gol hota hai. khilaadiyon dvaara virodhi dal ke gol me chaalaaki se geind ko daalna hi is khel ka uddeshya hai. khel mein golarakshak hi ek maatr aisa khilaadi hota hai jise geind ko rokane ke liye apna haath istemaal karne ki anumati hoti hai; dal ke baaki khilaadi aamtaur par geind ko maarane (kick ya padaaghaat) ke liye apne pair ka istemaal karte hain tatha kabhi kabhi hava mein geind ko rokane ke liye ve apne dhad ya fir sir ka istemaal karte hain. jo dal khel ke ant ya samay samaapti tak jyaada gol karta hai, vijayi rahata hai. khel ke ant yaani samay samaapti tak yadi score baraabar rahe to us mukaabale ko baraabar ya dra ghoshit karna, ya khel ko atirikt samay me le jaana aur/ya penalty shoot out ke dvaara haar jeet ka faisala karna sab pratiyogita ke svarup par nirbhar karta hai.

aadhunik football ko England me the football association (football sangh) ke gathan ke saath kootabaddh kiya gaya aur jiske 1863 mein bane lauj of the game (khel ke kaanoon) ke aadhaar par hi aaj football kheli jaati hai. antararaashtreeya aadhaar par football ka niyantran Féadéaration Internationale de Football Association (federation intaraneshanel di football association) ya association football ka antararaashtreeya mahaasangh jise sankshep mein FIFA ya FIFA kaha jaata hai, karta hai. football ki sabse pratishthit antararaashtreeya aur lokapriya pratiyogita FIFA vishv cup hai, jiska aayojan har chauthe varsh kiya jaata hai. is pratiyogita ko vyaapak roop se poore vishv mein dekha jaata hai aur iske darshak greeshmakaaleen olympic khelon ko mile darshakon se lagbhag dugane hote hain.

anukram

khel ki prakruti

FIFA U-20 vishv cup 2007 (2007 FIFA U-20 World Cup) mein

aastriya ke saamane (forward) khelne vaale khilaadi rubin okotiye (Rubin Okotie) ne kaango ke gol keepar destin onka ko paar karte hue gol maarane ki koshish ki thi. onka ne gol ko bachaaya (yeh gol edamantan (Edmonton) alberta (Alberta) ke Commonwealth maidaan (Commonwealth Stadium),Canada mein maara gaya tha)
gol keepar ne ghusate hue baul/geind ko girte hue roka

football kuchh niyamon ke anusaar khela jaata hai jise khel ka niyam (Laws of the Game) kaha jaata hai yeh khel ek gol geind ka upayog karte hue khela jaata hai, jo football (football) ke naam se jaana jaata hai gyaarah khilaadiyon ki do teemein hoti hai jismein pratyek khilaadi doosari team ke gol post mein geind daalne ki koshish karti hai jisse gol praapt kiye jaate hain (post aur rekha ke andar) jo team khel ke ant tak jyaada gol karti hai vah team vijeta hoti hai, agar donon hi teemein samaan gol karte hain to khel dra ho jaati hai.

khilaadi khelne ke dauraan (gol keepar (goalkeepers) ko chhod kar) jaan bujhakar apne haath ya baah se geind ko heindal nahi kar sakta yeh khel ka praathamik niyam hai (haalaaainki ve apne haatho ka istemaal geind ko baahar se andar feinkane (throw-in) ke dauraan kar sakte hain) haalaaainki khilaadi aam taur par geind ko sthaanaantarit karne ke liye apne pairon ka istemaal karte hain, ve haathon ko chhod kar apne shareer ke kisi bhi ang ka istemaal kar sakte hain[1]

is vishisht khel mein khilaadi apne vyaktik niyantran jaise dribling (dribbling), apne team ke khilaadiyon ko geind dena aur gol post mein gol maarana jahaaain virodhi team ka gol keepar ke dvaara raksha kiya jaata hai ke maadhyam se gol scoring avsaron ka nirmaan karta hai. virodhi khilaadi geind ko ek dusare ko dete samay geind ko apne kabje lene ki koshish tatha pratidvandi se nibatne ke maadhyam se geind par niyantran kar sakte hain, lekin virodhiyon se shaareerik sampark seemaabaddh hai aam taur par football na rukane wala khel hai yeh khel tabhi rookati hai jab geind maidaan se baahar na jaae ya referee (referee) ke dvaara khel ko na roka jaae thaharaav ke baad khel nirdisht samay ke liye fir se shuroo hoti hai[2]

ek peshevar star par adhiktar maichon mein kuchh hi gol ban paate hain. udaaharan svarup, varsh 2005 -06 ke mausam (2005–06 season) mein english premiyer league (Premier League) ek match[3] mein 2.48 ke ausat se gol bana saki khel ke niyamon mein gol keepar[4] ko chhod kar kisi bhi khilaadi ka sthaan nirdhaarit nahi hai, lekin anek nanbaron mein vishesh bhoomikaaon (specialised roles) ko dikhaaya hai mote taur par mukhya roop se ismein teen shreniyaan shaamil hai; striker (striker), ya aage, jiska mukhya kaarya gol maarana hota hai; rakshak (defenders), jo vishesh roop se apne virodhiyon ko gol score karne se rokata hai; aur beech ka khilaadi (midfielder) jo vipakshi ke geind ke oopar se adhikaar chheen kar apne aage khelne vaale khilaadiyon ko geind dene ka kaarya karta hai. is prakaar ke khilaadiyon ko aautafeeld khilaadi ke roop mein ullekh kiya jaata hai, jo gol keepar ke saath pahachaana jaata hai maidaan ke kshetr ke anusaar in sthaanon ko pratibhaag kiya jaata hai jahaaain khilaadi jyaadaatar samay bitaate hain. udaaharan ke liye, vahaaain kendriye rakshak aur baaen aur daayein ke madhyasth khilaadi rahate hain. is das aautafild khilaadiyon ka sanyojan kisi bhi vyastha mein kiya ja sakta hai. pratyek sthaan ke anek khilaadi team ke khelne ki shaili ko apnaate hain; adhiktar aage ke khilaadi aur kuchh rakshak khilaadi uttejit aur aakraamak- dimaagi khel ki rachana karte hain, jab vipakshi dheere tatha aatmarakshak shaili ko apnaate hain jab ek khilaadi adhiktar khelon mein ek vishisht sthaan mein khelta hai, tak khilaadi ke chaal mein kuchh pratibndh hote hain aur khilaadi ko kisi bhi samay us sthaan ko chhodna padta hai.[5] team ke khilaadiyon ki kshaitij rooparekha ko banaavat/nirmaan (formation) ke roop mein jaana jaata hai. aam taur par team ka gathan aur rananeeti par team ke prabandhak (manager)[6] ka vishesh adhikaar hota hai.

itihaas aur parinaam

pure vishv mein football ki lokapriyta ko

maanachitr dikhaata hai. jis desh mein football sabse lokapriya khel hai vahaaain hara rang jabki jahaaain yeh lokapriya nahi hai vahaaain laal rang hai. vibhinn prakaar ke hara aur laal rang prati 1,000 nivaasiyon mein khilaadiyon ke ank ko soochit karte hain.

geind ko maarane wala khel par vichaar karne par maaloom padta hai ki anek deshon mein yeh khela gaya hai FIFA (FIFA) ke anusaar "khel ka praarambhik shaili jahaaain vaigyaanik saboot hai ki yeh kushal takaneek China mein isa poorv doosari tatha teesari sadi meingh khsytgs paaya gaya hai" (kujoo (cuju) ka khel)[7] iske atirikt roman khel harpastam (harpastum) football ka door ka poorvaj ho sakta hai. madhyakaaleen Europe mein football ko anek roopon mein khela gaya hai (football were played in medieval Europe), yadyapi samay aur sthaan donon ke aadhaar par niyam alag alag hote the. madhya 19 veen shataabdi mein vyaapak roop se football ke vibhinn roop ke saath England ke pablik school mein khela gaya tha, football ke aadhunik niyam par aadhaarit tha.

Cambridge niyam (Cambridge Rules) sabse pehle 1848 mein Cambridge vishvavidyaalaya mein taiyaar kiya gaya tha, jo vishesh roop se baad ke code ke vikaas mein prabhaavashaali rahe jismein football sanstha bhi shaamil thi. kembrij niyam ko triniti college, kembrij (Trinity College, Cambridge) mein likha gaya, ek baithak mein etan (Eton), harro (Harrow),ragbi (Rugby),vinchestar (Winchester) aur shrevsburi (Shrewsbury) schoolon ke pratinidhiyon ne bhaag liya tha. unhein sarvagat apnaaya naheen gaya tha 1850s, ke dauraan anek club school ya vishvavidyaalaya se sambaddh nahi the unhonne angreji bolne waali vishv mein football khelne ke vibhinn roopon ko banaaya tha. kuchh apne niyamon ke vishisht code ke saath aae sabse khaaskar shefild football club (Sheffield Football Club) tha jo poorv pablik school ke dvaara 1857,[8] mein gathit hua tha jo 1867 shefild ऍf ai (Sheffield FA) ka gathan ka netrutv kiya. 1862 mein uppingham school (Uppingham School) ke John Charles thring (John Charles Thring) ne prabhaav janak niyamon ka jattha banaaya.[9]

in chal rahe prayaason ne 1863 mein football asosiyeshan/sansthaaon (The Football Association) ke nirmaan mein yogadaan diya, jo sabse pehle 26 October (26 October) 1863 ke subah mein great kuin street (Great Queen Street) ke free mesan, tavern landan mein aayojan hua.[10] is avsar par pratinidhitv karne wala chaartar house (Charterhouse) ekamaatr school tha. free mesan tavern ne October aur December ke beech pauainch aur baithakon ka aayojan kiya jo antat: pehla niyamon ka jattha banaaya.antim baithak mein pehla ऍf ai koshaadhyaksh, blaikahith (Blackheath) ke pratinidhi ne pichhle baithak mein do praaroop niyamon ko hataane ke kaaran ऍf ai se apna club vaapas le liya, pehla jo haath mein geind lekar daudne ki anumati tatha doosra anadhikrut pravesh, thokar maarana tatha pakadte hue daudna mein pratibndh lagaana anya english ragbi football club ne is netrutv (English rugby football clubs followed this lead) ka paalan kiya aur ऍf ai mein sammilit nahi hue, ya ऍf ai ko chhod diya aur 1871 mein ragbi football sangh (Rugby Football Union) ka gathan kiya. shesh ke gyaarah club jo ebenejr kab morle (Ebenezer Cobb Morley) ke tahat the ve khel ke mool terah niyamon ki pushti karne ke liye chale gaye.[10] geind ko chinh ke sthaan se haath se fekane ka niyam viktoriyn football niyam (Victorian rules football) ke samaan hi niyam banaaya gaya jo us samay Australia mein viksit tha. shefild ऍf ai ne 1870 tak apne niyamon ke aadhaar par khelte rahe, ऍf ai ne iske kuchh niyam aatmasaat kar liye jisse khel mein thoda hi antar rah gaya.

vartamaan mein khel ke niyam antararaashtreeya football association board (International Football Association Board) ke dvaara nirdhaarit hai.menachestar (Manchester) football asosiyeshan, skautish football asosiyeshan (Scottish Football Association), vels football asosiyeshan (Football Association of Wales) aur aayarish football asosiyeshan (Irish Football Association) ke aapasi baithak ke baad 1886[11] mein is board ka gathan hua.ऍf ai cup (FA Cup) vishv ki sabse puraani pratiyogita hai jiski sthaapana si dabloo alkokk (C. W. Alcock) ne kiya tha aur 1872 se english teemon mein yeh pratiyogita ho rahi hai pehla aadhikaarik antararaashtreeya football match (first official international football match) fir se si dabloo alkokk ke parikshan mein 1872 mein skautlaind aur England ke beech glaasago mein khela gaya. England duniya mein pehla football league (football league) ka ghar hai jiski sthaapana 1888 mein aston (Aston Villa) villa nirdeshak William mak grejor (William McGregor) dvaara birmingham (Birmingham) mein hui thi.[12] mool svarup midlaind aur uttari England ke baarah club mein antarvisht hai. federation international the football asosiyeshan (FIFA), antararaashtreeya football sanstha ka gathan 1904 mein peris mein hua tha aur ghoshana ki gayi thi ki football asosiyeshan[13] khel ke niyamon ka paalan karna hoga. 1913 mein FIFA antararaashtreeya football asosiyeshan board (International Football Association Board) ke pratinidhitv ke pravesh ke kaaran antararaashtreeya khel mein lokapriyta badhi.vartamaan mein FIFA ke chaar pratinidhi aur chaaron british asosiyeshan ka ek pratinidhi board mein shaamil hai.

aaj football vyavasaayik star par puri duniya mein khela jaata hai. apne pasandeeda teemon[14] ka anukaran karne ke liye laakho log niyamit roop se football maidaan jaate hain jabki arabon log telivijn[15] par is khel ko dekhte hain logon ki ek badhi sankhya apne shauk ke star par football khelte hain. FIFA ke dvaara aayojit ek sarvekshan mein takreeban do sau deshon ke do sau chaalees se bhi jyaada log niyamit roop se football khelte hain jo 2001 mein prakaashit hui thi.[16] ismein koi sandeh naheen iske saadhaaran niyam tatha kam upakaran ki aavashyakataaon ke kaaran iske prasaar tatha lokapriyta mein vruddhi hui hai.

vishv ke anek bhaagon mein football vyakti ke jeevan, prashansak (fan), sthaaneeya sammudaayon aur deshon mein bhi mein ek joonoon paida karta hai tatha mahatvapoorn bhoomika nibhaata hai; iseeliye ise duniya ka sabse lokapriya khel maana jaata hai.iesapeeen (ESPN) ne yeh dev ke saath kaha tha ki kote delvoire raashtreeya football team (Côate d'Ivoire national football team) ne thode samay ke liye 2005 mein desh ki naagrik yuddh ko viraam dene mein madat ki thi. iske vipreet, 1969 mein L salvaador aur honduraas ke beech jo football yuddh (Football War) hua tha use football jo vyaapak taur par faila hua hai, antim aasann kaaran maana jaata hai[17] yeh khel 1990 ke yugoslaav yuddh (Yugoslav wars) ke shuruaat mein tanaav paida kar diya tha, jab dinmo jgareb (Dinamo Zagreb) aur red star belagred ([[en:Red Star Belgrade|Red Sta

  1. anupreshit lakshya prushth naam

r Belgrade]]) ke madhya match khela ja raha tha jiske kaaran March 1990 mein danga hua.[18]

khel ke niyam

aadhikaarik khel ke niyamon (Laws of the Game) mein satrah niyam hain. football ke sabhi star mein vahi niyam laagu hote hain jabki kuchh samoohon jaise junior, bujurg ya mahilaaon ke liye kuchh sanshodhan ki anumati di jaati hai. aksar niyam vyaapak drushti ke liye bane hote hain, jo khel ke svarup ke aadhaar par lacheelaapan pradaan karta hai. satrah niyamon ke aalaava aaiऍfaibi ki kai faisalein aur anya nirdesh football ke niyman mein yogadaan deta hai. FIFA ke dvaara khel ke niyam prakaashit kiye gaye hain lekin FIFA ke dvaara hi nahi balki antararaashtreeya football asosiyeshan board (International Football Association Board) ke dvaara banaaye rakha gaya hai[19]

khilaadi, upakaran aur karmachaari

pratyek team mein adhiktam gyaarah khilaadi hote hain (atirikt khilaadi (substitute) ko chhodkar) usamein se ek khilaadi goalkeeper (goalkeeper) hona chaahiye.pratiyogita kaanoon bata sakta hai ki ek team ko banaane mein kitne khilaadiyon ki aavashyakta hoti hai; aamtaur par saat hote hain. gol keepar ekamaatr aisa khilaadi hota hai jo apne haath ya baanh mein geind pakad kar khelne ki anumati hoti hai lekin vah apne gol ke saamane penalty kshetr (penalty area) tak hi aisa kar sakta hai. yadyapi ismein kai pojeeshan (positions) hote hain jismein coach ke dvaara rananeeti ke anusaar unako vah pojeeshan milta hai kisi kaanoon[4] mein in pojeeshanon ka ullekh nahi hai aur na usaki aavashyakta hai.

buniyaadi upakaran ya keet (kit) ki jo aavashyakta hai usamein sharts, shorts, moje, joote aur pindali guard (shin guard) aadi ismein shaamil hai. buniyaadi upakaran mein sar guard (Headgear) ki aavashyakta nahi hai, lekin khilaadi apne sar ki chot se suraksha ke liye iska istemaal kar sakte hain khilaadi aisa kuchh pahanane ya istemaal karna varjit hain jisse khud ko ya anya khilaadi ke liye khatarnaak saabit ho jaise gahane ya ghadi gol keepar ko aise kapde pahanane chaahiye jisse anya khilaadiyon tatha adhikaareeyon dvaara aasaani se alag pahachaana jaana chaahiye.[20]

anek khilaadi khel ke beech mein sthaanaapann ke dvaara badle ja sakte hain. adhiktar antararaashtreeya pratiyogita aur gharelu league khelon mein adhiktam teen khilaadi ko badalne ki anumati praapt hai haalaaainki anya pratiyogitaaon ya dostaana maichon mein iski sankhya alag ho sakti hai. khilaadi ko badalne ke peechhe saamaanyat: kaaran chot, thakaan, yuddh kshamata kam ho jaana, ek takaneek, ya asamanjas khel ke ant mein samay ki vyarthata (timewasting) ke liye aadi hote hain. aadarsh vyask maichon mein jo khilaadi ek baar badal jaate hain ve match ka hissa nahi rahate hain.[21]

match ke liye jis referee (referee) ko niyukt kiya jaata hai us match mein uske paas khel ke niyamon ko laagu karne ka poorn adhikaar hota hai (niyam 5) aur usaka nirnaya antim hota hai. referee do sahaayak referee (assistant referee) ke dvaara sahaayata grahan karta hai. uchch stareeya khelon mein ek chautha adhikaari (fourth official) bhi hota hai jo referee ko sahaayata pradaan karta hai aur jarurat ke anusaar uske badle doosra adhikaari bhi aa sakta hai.[22]

pitch

aadarsh pitch maapan (puraane sanskaran dekhein)

jaisa ki niyam England mein bane the aur aarambh mein I ऍf ai bi (IFAB) ke bheetar chaaron british football asosiyeshan ne prashaasit kiya, football pitch ka ek aadarsh aayaam mool roop se shaahi unit (imperial units) mein vyakt kiya gaya. ab niyam ko anumaanit maap ke saath aayaamon ko abhivyakt kiya gaya (koshthak mein paaramparik ikaaiyon dvaara), haal ke maapiye (metrication) ka itihaas ke saath english bolne vaale deshon mein lokapriya ka prayog paaramparik ikaaiyon ko dhyaan mein rakhane ke liya kiya gaya jaise Britain.[23]

antararaashtreeya maichon ke liye peech ki lambaai 100-110&na meter ki shreni mein hai (110-120 yaard) aur chaudaai 64-75&n meter ki shreni mein hai (70-80 yaard) gair antararaashtreeya maichon ke liye 91-120 meter lambaai ho sakta hai (100-130yaard) aur chaudaai 45-91meetar (ho sakta hai agar peech ek varg nahi banta hai. sabse badi seema rekhaaen touch rekhaaen ya kinaare ki rekhaaen hain jabki chhoti seema (jahaaain se gol maara jaata hai)gol ki rekhaaen hain. aayataakaar gol pratyek gol rekha ke madhya par sthit hoti hai.[24] puri maidaan mein oordhvaadhar gol post ka bheetari kinaara 7.3 meter avashya hota hai (8 yaard) iske aalaava kshaitij krausabaar jo gol post dvaara samarthit hoti, ka nichla chhor 2.44 meter hona chaahiye.(8 feet) aam taur par jaal gol ke peechhe rakha jaata hai, lekin kaanoon ke anusaar usaki koi aavashyakta naheen hai.[25]

pratyek gol ke saamane ka kshetr penalty kshetr (penalty area) ke roop mein jaana jaata hai. yeh kshetr gol rekha ke dvaara chinhit rahati hai, do rekhaaen gol post se shuroo hoti aur jo gol post se 16.5 meter ki duri tak hoti hain (18 yaard) aur peech ki pankti or 16.5 meter badhati jaati hain aur rekha vahaaain milti hai. is kshetr ka anek kaarya hai, sabse pramukh kaarya yeh hai ki gol keepar geind ko kahaaain pakadta hai aur kahaaain bachaav dal ke sadasyon dvaara penalty faul hoti hai jisse penalty kick (penalty kick) ki saja milti hai. anya chinhein geind ke pojeeshan ya khilaadi ka kick maarane, gol kick, penalty kick aur kornor kick ko paribhaashit karti hain.[26]

avadhi aur taai ko todne ki vidhi

ek aadarsh football match 45 minit ka do avadhi ka hota hai jise haalv (aadha) kehte hain. pratyek aadha nirantar chalti rahati hai arthaat ghadi tab bhi naheen rookati jab geind khel se baahar chali jaati hai. saamaanyat: do aadha ke beech mein pandrah minit ka aadhe samay mein viraam hota hai match ka ant pura samay kahalaata hai.

referee match ka aadhikaarik samay ka dhyaan rakhane wala hota hai aur khilaadi ko badalate samay, khilaadi ko chot lagne ke kaaran khel ruk jaati hai ya anya thaharaav ke kaaran referee bhatta ke roop mein aur samay de sakta hai saamaanyat: joda gaya samay ko thaharaav samay ya chot samay kaha jaata hai aur yeh poorn roop se referee ke vivekaadhikaar par nirbhar hoti hai. referee ka ek sanket se match ka ant hota hai. jahaaain match mein chautha adhikaari hota hai, aadhe ke ant mein referee sanket deta hai ki thaharaav samay kitna jodna chaahiye. uske baad chautha adhikaari khilaadi aur darshakon ko pakade hue board se soochit karta hai. uske baad bhi referee us samay ko bada sakta hai.[27] atyadhik samay jodne ka kaarya 1891 mein ek match ke dauraan stok (Stoke) aur aston villa (Aston Villa) ke beech ek ghatna ki vajh se hui thi. match ka keval 1-0 minit baaki tha aur stok ko penalty mila tha. gol keepar villa geind ko maidaan ke baahar maar diya aur jab tak geind vaapas aati tab tak 90 minit samaapt ho gaye the aur khel samaapt ho gaya.[28]

league pratiyogitaaon mein khel ka samaapan dra ke saath ho sakta hai, lekin kuchh nok out pratiyogitaaon mein agar khel nirdhaarit samay tak taai raha to vah match atirikt samay tak chal sakta hai, jo pandrah minit ka do avadhi hota hai. agar score atirikt samay ke baad bhi taai rahata hai to kuchh pratiyogitaaon mein penalty shoot out (penalty shootouts) (adhikaarik roop mein khel ke niyam ke anusaar penalty chinh se kick maarana kaha jaata hai) ka prayog kiya jaata hai jismein jo team aage aaegi vah team pratiyogita ke agale charan mein jaayegi.atirikt samay ke dauraan jo gol ki jaati hai vah khel ka antim score hota hai lekin penalty chinh se jo kick maara jaata hai usaka prayog keval yeh nirnaya karne ke liye hota hai ki kaun si team pratiyogita ke agale charan mein jaayegi.(penalty shoot out ke dauraan jo gol score kiye jaate hain vah antim score ka hissa naheen hota).

do pairon ke pratiyogita mein (jismein pratyek team apne desh mein ek baar khelega) khel mein samaan score vaale banaane vaale teemon ke aage le jaane ke liye desh ke baahar ke gol wala niyam (away goals rule) ka prayog kar sakte hain aur vijeta vahi hota hai jo desh se baahar pair se khelne wala hota hai. yadi parinaam fir bhi baraabar ho to aam taur par penalty chinh se kick maarana aavashyak hai haalaaainki kuchh pratiyogitaaon mein taai hone se khel ko fir se khela jaana aavashyak hai.

1990s ke ant se 2000, ke shuruaat tak I ऍf ai bi (IFAB) ne penalty shoot out ki aavashyakta ke bina hi jeet haasil karne ki takareeb banaaye jo aksar avaanchhaneeya tareeke se match ka samaapan hona dekha gaya. ismein atirikt samay ke shuruaat mein hi khel ko samaapt kar dena shaamil hai, jab atirikt samay mein jab pehla gol score hota hai (svarn gol (golden goal)) ya yadi ek team atirikt samay ke ant tak score mein aage hota hai (silver/chaandi gol (silver goal)). svarn/golden gol ka prayog 1998 (1998) aur 2002 (2002) ke vishv cup mein hua tha. 1998. ke vishv cup mein golden/svarn gol ke dvaara pehla khel nirnaya paaraague (Paraguay) par France (France) ki vijay hui thi. Germany (Germany) pehla aisa raashtra tha jisne pramukh pratiyogita Euro 1996 (Euro 1996) mein chjech republeek (Czech Republic) ko final mein golden/svarn gol ke dvaara score karke haraaya tha.Euro 2004 (Euro 2004) mein silver/chaandi ka prayog hua tha. I ऍf ai bi[29] ke dvaara donon hi prayogon ko band kar diya gaya.

geind khel ke bheetar aur baahar

niyam ke tahat khel ke dauraan geind jab bheetar ho tab ka khel aur geind jab baahar ho tab ka khel yeh khel ke do buniyaadi tattv hain pratyek khel avadhi ke shuruaat kick maarane (kick-off) ke saath hoti hai (kendra se ek team ke dvaara kick ka jattha maarana) aur khel ke samay ke ant tak geind ke saath har samay khelte rahana hota hai jab tak geind maidaan ke baahar na chala jaae ya referee ke dvaara khel ko roka na jaae. jab geind khelne ke laayak nahi rahata tab khel aath ristaart vidhi ke ek vidhi ke dvaara khel fir se shuroo hoti hai jo kaise yeh khel laayak nahi hai par nirbhar karti hai.

chitr:FreekickatLincoln.JPG
ek khilaadi free kick

lene hi wala hai

  • geind maarana; virodhi team ke dvaara gol maarana ya pratyek avadhi ka khel shuroo karna. [2]
  • andar feinkana (Throw-in); jab geind puri tarah se rekha paar kar jaati hai tab us virodhi team ko inaam milta jo geind antim baar chhoota hai.[30]
  • gol kick (Goal kick); jab geind puri tarah gol rekha ko paar kar jaati hai gol ke bina hi score hota hai aur hamlaavar ke dvaara geind ko antim baar chhoone ke kaaran raksha karne waali team ko inaam milta hai.[31]
  • kornor kick (Corner kick); jab geind bina gol ke hi gol rekha ko paar kar jaati hai aur raksha karne waali team ke dvaara geind ko antim baar chhoone ke kaaran hamlaavar team[32] ko inaam mein milta hai.
  • apratyaksh muft kick (Indirect free kick); gair dand faul ke roop mein virodhi team ko inaam mein milti hai, jab kuchh takaneeki atilanghan ya pratidvandi ko bina kisi vishesh faul ke baahar bhej diya jaae aur khel ruk jaae. apratyaksh free kick se seedhe gol praapt naheen kiya ja sakta[33]
  • pratyaksh muft kick (Direct free kick); beimaani karne ke kaaran soocheebaddh dand milti hai.[33]
  • penalty kick (Penalty kick); baimaani karne ke kaaran pratyaksh muft kick milti hai lekin penalty kshetr mein beimaani karne ke kaaran virodhi team ko inaam ke roop mein penalty kick milti hai.[34]
  • drop geind (Dropped-ball); jab referee kisi anya kaaran ke liye khel ko rok de jaise khilaadi ko gambhir chot lagne se, baahari party ke dvaara hastakshep ya geind ka khraab ho jaane ki vajah se yeh hota hai. vyask khelon mein fir se shuroo karna asaamaanya hai.[2]

beimaani aur durvyahaar

khel ke niyam mein yeh soocheebaddh hai ki faul (foul) tabhi hota hai jab khilaadi khelte samay koi aparaadh karta hai. faul/beimaani jo ek aparaadh hai kaanoon 12 mein soocheebaddh hai. jaan bujh kar geind ko haath se chhoona, pratidvandi ko pakad lena ya pratidvandi ko dhakka maarana ityaadi dand yogya faul hote hain aur faul kahaaain par hota hai uske aadhaar par pratyaksh muft kick (direct free kick) ya penalty kick (penalty kick) saja ke roop mein milti hai apratyaksh muft kick (indirect free kick) ke dvaara anya prakaar ke faul ki saja hoti hai.[1]

penalty kshetr ke bheetar aparaadh karne se

khilaadi ko penalty

kick milti hai.

referee khilaadi ya kisi khilaadi ke badle mein aae khilaadi ko referee dand ke roop mein uske durvyavahaar (misconduct) ke liye (peela card (yellow card)) ya maidaan ke baahar bhej sakta hai (laal card (red card)) ek hi khel mein doosari baar peela card milne ka arth hai red/laal card ka milna aur uske baad maidaan se baahar.yadi ek khilaadi ko baahar nikaal diya jaata hai to uske sthaan mein koi doosra khilaadi nahi aa sakta hai. durvyavahaar kabhi bhi ho sakta hai aur jab aparaadhon mein durvyavahaar ka gathan hua hai aur soocheebaddh hai, iski paribhaasha bahut vyaapak hai. vishesh roop se "khraab vyavahaar" jaisa aparaadh adhiktar maichon mein dikhlaai deti hai jo khel ki bhaavana ka ullanghan karti hai, bhale hi ve vishisht aparaadh ke roop mein soocheebaddh nahi hai. kisi khilaadi, kisi khilaadi ke badle mein aae khilaadi ya vaikalpik khilaadi ke badle aae khilaadi ko referee yello/peela card ya red/laal card dikha sakta hai. gair khilaadi jaise prabandhak aur sahaayak karmachaari ko yello/peela ya red/laal card naheen dikhaaya ja sakta lekin yadi ve ek jimmedaar dhang se swayam ko sanchaalit karne mein asafal rahe to unhein takaneeki kshetr se nishkaasit kiya ja sakta hai.[1]

khel ko rokane ke bajaaye referee aparaadh karne vaale team ke virodhi team ko faayda de sakta hai tatha khel ko jaari rakh sakta hai."laabh ke saath khelna" ke roop mein yeh jaana jaata hai. referee vaapas khel mein bula sakta hai aur yadi pratyaashit laabh chhoti avadhi ke bheetar nahi hoti hai, to mool aparaadh ke liye dandit kar sakta hai aam taur par yeh chaar se paaainch second leti hai. yahaaain tak ki khelte samay faayda hone ki vajh se agar aparaadh ka dand sunishchit naheen ho paati lekin agale padaav tak durvyavahaar karne vaale khilaadi ko saja mil sakti hai.

of side (offside) ka kaanoon sabse jyaada jatil hai. of side niyam aage ke khilaadi geind ke bina doosra bachaav khilaadi ke aage nahi ja sakta (virodhi team ke gol rekha ke ekdam sameep) (jahaaain gol keepar ko bhi shaamil kar sakte hain)[35]

prabandh nikaaya

federation international dafutabaul asosiyeshan (Féadéaration Internationale de Football Association) (FIFA), football ki maanyata praapt antararaashtreeya niyantran sanstha (aur sahaayak khel jaise futasal (futsal) aur samudra tateeya football (beach soccer)) hai. FIFA mukhyaalaya jurich mein sthit hai.

FIFA ke saath chh: kshetreeya sangathan jude hue hain; ye hain;

raashtreeya sangh alag alag deshon ke bheetar football ka nireekshan karti hai. ye FIFA aur unke mahaadveepeeya sanghon ke saath sambaddh rahe hain.

pramukh antar raashtreeya pratiyogita

FIFA dvaara aayojit vishv cup (World Cup) ek pramukh antararaashtreeya football pratiyogita hai. chaar saal mein ek baar is pratiyogita ka aayojan hota hai. 190 se bhi jyaada raashtreeya team arhat pratiyogita mein mahaadveepeeya sangh ke final mein sthaan paane ke liye bhaag lete hain chaar saal mein ek baar aayojit hone vaale is pratiyogita mein batees team bhaag leti hai aur yeh takreeban chaar saptaah tak chalti hai.[36]2006 ka FIFA vishv cup (2006 FIFA World Cup) Germany mein hua tha; 2010 ka vishv cup dakshin Africa (South Africa) mein huwa tha.[37]

los enjils (Los Angeles) ke 1932 ke khelon ko chhodkar 1900, se pratyek greeshmakaaleen olympik khel (Summer Olympic Games) mein football pratiyogita (football tournament) hoti haivishv cup se pehle olympic (vishesh kar ke 1920 dauraan) ki vishv cup mein yahi sthiti thi. mool roop se yeh khel avyavasaayi hai,[13] baharahaal, 1984 ke greeshmakaaleen olympic se (1984 Summer Olympics) peshevar khilaadiyon ko anumati di gayi, yadyapi kuchh pratibandhon ke baavajood majboot pakshon ke dvaara kshetr rakshan se apne deshon ki raksha vartamaan mein, 23 star ke neeche olympic puroosh pratiyogita/tournament khela gaya hai. pichhle olympic mein[38] pratyek team ke jyaada umr ke khilaadiyon ki sankhya seemit thi lekin 2008 ke olympic mein yeh pratha samaapt ho gayi. olympic pratiyogita ko aam taur par vishv cup ki tarah vahi pratishtha aur mahattv naheen diya jaata.1996; mein mahila pratiyogita ko sammilit kiya gaya; puroosh pratiyogitaaon ke vipreet bina aayu pratibndh ke poorn antararaashtreeya match mahila olympic tournament khela gaya. iske kaaran ise antararaashtreeya sammaan mila aur mahila vishv cup ki tulana FIFA se kiya gaya. (FIFA Women's World Cup)

vishv cup ke baad mahaadveepeeya pratiyogita sabse mahatvapoorn antararaashtreeya football pratiyogita hai, jiska aayojan pratyek mahaadveep sangh ke dvaara hota hai aur jismein raashtreeya teemon ke beech sangharsh/pratiyogita hoti hai. ye hain Europeeya championship (European Championship) (yu E ऍf ai) kopa America (Copa Améarica) (si O N em bi O L) raashtreeya afreekan cup (African Cup of Nations) (si ai ऍf), Asia cup (Asian Cup) (ai ऍf si), si O N si ai si ai ऍf gold cup (CONCACAF Gold Cup) (si O N si ai si ai ऍf) aur O ऍf si raashtreeya cup (OFC Nations Cup) (O ऍf si) club football ka sabse sammaanajanak pratiyogita mahaadveepeeya championship hai, jismein aam taur par raashtreeya championon ke beech pratiyogita hoti hai, udaaharan ke liye Europe mein yu E ऍf ai chainpiyans league (UEFA Champions League) aur dakshin America mein kopa librta dors the America (Copa Libertadores de Améarica). pratyek mahaadveepeeya pratiyogita ka vijeta FIFA club vishv cup (FIFA Club World Cup)[39] mein bhaag leta hai.

gharelu pratiyogita

Spanish sesk febregaas (Cesc Fàabregas) (safed kameej, shastraagaar (Arsenal)) aur braajeeliyn Anderson (Anderson) (laal kameej, menachestar United) english premiyer league (Premier League) mein khelte hain.

pratyek desh ka gavarning nikaaya league pranaali (league system) sanchaalit karta hai saamaanya roop se iske kai prabhaag (division) hote hain jismein team ko pure kaal mein parinaam ke aadhaar par adhik ank milte hain. team dvaara praapt kiye ankon ke anusaar unako ek taalika (table) mein rakha jaata hai.round robin pratiyogita/tournament (round-robin tournament) mein saamaanyat: pratyek team anya sabhi teemon ke saath apne raajya tatha raajyon ke baahar pratyek mausam mein khelte hain. mausam ke ant mein sheersh team ko champion ghoshit kiya jaata hai. kuchh sheersh teemon ko ek uchch prabhaag mein bhej diya (promoted) jaata hai aur ek ya ek se adhik teemon ko neeche ke prabhaag mein ravaana (relegated) kar diya jaata hai. deshon ke league mein jo team sheersh par jaakar haar jaati hai nimnalikhit mausam mein antararaashtreeya club pratiyogita mein khelne ke yogya ho sakte hain ya khel sakte hain. laitin America (Latin America) ke league ke is pranaali mein kuchh mukhya apavaad hote hain, jo football championship ko do bhaagon mein vibhkt karta hai jiska naam hai apertura aur klausura (Apertura and Clausura) jismein pratyek champion ko sammaanit kiya jaata hai.

deshon ke bahumat se ek ya ek se adhik pratiyogita cup ke saath league pranaali ki poorti karta karta hai. inka aayojan dastak-baahar (knock-out) ke aadhaar par hota hai, tatha pratyek match ka vijeta agale round/daur mein jaata hai; aur haarne waali team pratiyogita mein fir bhaag naheen le sakti.

kuchh deshon mein ke sheersh prabhaag mein jyaada manhage star khilaadiyon ki suvidha rahati hai; chhote deshon aur nimn prabhaagon mein dviteeye shreni ke anshakaalik khilaadi ho sakte hain. yooropiyn league ke pauainch sheersh- seriyeya (Serie A) (Italy) la leega (La Liga) (Spain) premiyer league (Premier League) (England),[40] bandesliga (Bundesliga) (Germany) aur ligue (Ligue 1) (France)- vishv ke sabse aakarshit tatha sarvashreshth khilaadi hain.

is khel ka naam

1863, mein football asosiyeshan/sanstha dvaara England mein football ke niyamon ko suvyavasthit kiya gaya aur us samay football keanya roopon (other forms of football) vishesh kar ragbi football (rugby football) khela jaata tha iseeliye asosiyeshan football ko alag karne ke liye gadha gaya. sokkar shabd ka udbhav England mein hua, 1880s mein pehli baar "asosiyeshan" shabd ka gavaaainru roop dikhaai diya aur England ke kaptaan Charles reford-brovn (Charles Wreford-Brown) ko aksar iska shri diya jaata tha.[41]

aaj yeh khel jahaaain sabse lokapriya hai aamtaur par un deshon mein football code ke naam se jaana jaata hai jin deshon mein yeh alag code se lokapriya hai, saamaanyat: use sokkar kaha jaata hai aur vaastav mein sayunkt raashtra aur Canada ke gavarning nikaaya ka aadhikaarik naam hai FIFA vishv khel ka gavarning nikaaya ne paaribhaashit kiya hai ki apne vidhiyon[42] ke kaaran yeh asosiyeshan football hai, lekin FIFA aur antararaashtreeya olympic samiti (International Olympic Committee) ke dvaara football shabd ka prayog sabse adhik hua hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh

  1. a aa i
  2. a aa i
  3. a aa
  4. a aa
  5. (webarchive)
  6. a aa (webarchive)
  7. (webarchive)
  8. sande taaims (The Sunday Times) ne football ke itihaas ki vyaakhya ki hai. reed antarraashtreeya pustakein limited 1996. p.11 ISBN 1-85613-341-9
  9. a aa
  10. pratiyogita ke itihaas mein pratiyogi teemon ki sankhya badalti rahi hai. abhi haal mein 1998 (1998), 24 se 32. ka badlaav tha

baahari sambandh/links