florida

State of Florida
Flag of Florida State seal of Florida
Flag Seal
Nickname(s): The Sunshine State
Motto(s): In God We Trust
Map of the United States with Florida highlighted
Official language(s) English[1]
Demonym Floridian
Capital Tallahassee
Largest city Jacksonville
Largest metro area Miami
Area Ranked 22nd in the U.S.
- Total 65,795[2] sq mi
(170,304[2] km2)
- Width 361 miles (582 km)
- Length 447 miles (721 km)
- % water 17.9
- Latitude 24°a27′ N to 31° N
- Longitude 80°a02′ W to 87°a38′ W
Population Ranked 4th in the U.S.
- Total 18,328,340 (2008 est.)[3]

15,982,378 (2000)

- Density 338.4/sq mi (130.67/km2)
Ranked 8th in the U.S.
- Median income $41,171 (36th)
Elevation
- Highest point Britton Hill[4]
345 ft (105 m)
- Mean 98 ft (30 m)
- Lowest point Atlantic Ocean[4]
0 ft (0 m)
Admission to Union March 3, 1845 (27th)
Governor Charlie Crist (R)
Lieutenant Governor Jeff Kottkamp (R)
Legislature {{{Legislature}}}
- Upper house {{{Upperhouse}}}
- Lower house {{{Lowerhouse}}}
U.S. Senators Bill Nelson (D)
George LeMieux (R)
U.S. House delegation 15 Republicans, 10 Democrats (list)
Time zones
- peninsula Eastern: UTC-5/DST-4
- panhandle Central: UTC-6/DST-5
Abbreviations FL Fla. US-FL
Website myflorida.com

florida (/ˈaaflɒaarɪaadə/ ) sanyukt raajya ke dakshinpoorvi kshetr mein sthit ek raajya hai, jiske uttar-pashchimi seema par alaabaama aur uttari seema par jaurjiya sthit hai.sanyukt raajya mein shaamil hone wala yeh 27vaan raajya tha. is raajya ke bhoosthal ka adhikaansh bhaag ek bada praayadveep hai jiske pashchim mein maiksiko ki khaadi aur poorv mein atalaantik mahaasaagar hai.

saadhaaranataya iski garm jalavaayu ki vajah se ise "sanashaain state" ke roop mein upanaamit kiya gaya hai. iske uttari aur madhya kshetron mein uposhnakatibandheeya evam dakshini bhaag mein ushnakatibandheeya jalavaayu pai jaati hai.[5] is raajya mein chaar bade shahari kshetr, kai chhote-chhote audyogik nagar aur bahut se chhote kasbein hain.sanyukt raajya ke janaganana vibhaag (United states seinsas bureau) ka anumaan hai ki 2008 mein is raajya ki janasankhya 18,328,340 thi aur florida, U.S. ke chauthe sarvaadhik aabaadi vaale raajya ke roop mein shreneet tha.[6][7] talahasi, is raajya ki rajdhani aur Miami sabse bada mahaanagareeya kshetr hai. florida ke nivaasiyon ko sateek taur par "floridiyns" ke roop mein jaana jaata hai.

anukram

itihaas

inhein bhi dekhein: Seminole Wars evam Florida in the American Civil War

puraataatvik anusandhaan bataate hain ki kisi bhi Europeeya basti ke basane se hajaaron varsh pehle se florida basa hua hai. yahaan kai svadeshi logon ki jaatiyon mein sarvaadhik gyaat janajaatiyaan eis (Ais), apalaachi (Apalachee), kaloosa (Calusa), timukuaa (Timucua) aur tokobaigo (Tocobago) theen.

Europe ke praacheenatam jeevit sthalon mein America ke "florida" ka naam aata hai. juaan pauns di lion (Juan Ponce de Leóan), ek spainish khojakarta, ne paaskuaa florida ke dauraan aur istar ke chh: din baad 2 April 1513 ki shaam ko is bhoomi ki khoj ke sammaan mein florida ka naamakaran kiya. paaskuaa florida, "flauvari istar" (pushpamaya istar) ke mausam aur "flauvard land" (pushpit bhoomi) ke roop mein is bhoo-aakruti ke liye prayukt hone waali spainish sanjnyaa hai. "inheen do kaaranon ke aadhaar par iska naamakaran kiya gaya."[8](juaan pauns di lion, florida pahunchane vaale pehle Europeeya naheen bhi ho sakte hain; ek report ke anusaar, svadeshi janajaati ka kam-se-kam ek insaan spainish bolata tha jisse unki mulaakaat 1513 mein florida mein hui thi.)[9] us taareekh ke baad se, yeh bhoomi "la florida" ke roop mein gyaat hua, yadyapi joaans di laaet ke history of the new world mein dach maanachitrakaar hesel geritsj dvaara ek maanachitr ke prakaashan ke aadhaar par 1630 ke baad aur tamaam 1700 tak tegesta (tekuesta janajaati ke naam ke aadhaar par) ko florida praayadveep ke liye ek pasandeeda vaikalpik naam ke roop mein prayog kiya gaya.[10][11]

lagbhag 1721 mein florida Indians ke barnaard peekaart ki taanbe ke plate ka utkeernan "Céaréamonies et Coutumes Religieuses de tous les Peuples du Monde"
sheetakaaleen florida, 1893
1810 mein florida ka poorv aur pashchim mein vibhaajan
1864 mein civil yuddh ke dauraan olusti ki ladaai

agali shataabdi mein, safalta ki alag-alag upaadhi ke saath spainish aur French donon ne florida mein apni bastiyaan sthaapit ki. 1559 mein, spainish peinsaakola Don tristaan di luna vaai arellaano ne mahaadveepeeya sanyukt raajya America mein pehli baar Europeeya basti ki sthaapana ki thi. 1561 tak yeh nirjan ho chuka tha aur 1690 ke dashak tak yahaan punarnivaas bhi naheen hua. French huguenots ne fort kairoleen aadhunik samay ka jaiksanavile ka nirmaan 1564 mein kiya tha, lekin agale varsh seint agaisteen ki nai spainish colony ke balon dvaara is par vijay praapt kar liya gaya tha. huguenot neta ke baad jeen ribault ne nae spainish dhamakiyon par vidvata haasil ki. usane spainish bastiyon ko hataane ke liye ek abhiyaan; N root shuroo kiya magar samudra mein bhayankar toofaan ke kaaran is abhiyaan ko beech mein hi rokana pada jismein colony ke saare purush shaamil the. inhonne pedro menadej di aiviles ke sansthaapak seint agasteen ko anumati di ki ve jameeni raaste se kooch karein aur fort kairoleen par jeet haasil karein. adhikaansh huguenots maare gaye aur menadej di aiviles ne dakshin par chadhaai ki env French bede ko tod diya. iske pashchaat matanjs (spainish 'hatya ke liye') naamak nadi ke kinaare kuchh Catholic logon ko chhodkar baaki sab ki hatya kar di gayi. florida par spainishon ka kabhi bhi majaboot kabja naheen raha, sthaaneeya kabeelon sankshep mein jesut aur baad mein fransiskaan friars ke badalne se is kshetr par unka niyantran kamjor padta gaya. sthaaneeya netaaon (kaisikues) ne spainishon ke saamane roman kaitholikon ko badalne aur unke gaanvon mein fransiskaan yaajakon ke svaagat dvaara apni vafaadaari ka pradarshan kiya.

uttar mein angreji kauloniyon aur pashchim mein fraansisi kauloniyon ki sthaapana ke saath florida mein spainishon ke kshetr mein kami aa gayi. apne sahayogiyon creek Indian ki aapoorti aagneyaastron ke saath kar angrejon ne speni shakti ko kamjor kar diya aur unase aagrah kiya ki spainishon ki taaimukuan aur epelesh graahak-janajaati par aakraman karein. angrejon ne seint agasteen par kai baar hamla kar shahar aur iski kaithedral ko jalaakar raakh kar daala, jabki naagrik kaastilo di san maarkos ki deevaar ke peechhe chhip gaye.

is beech spainishon ne daason ko protsaahit kiya ki ve angrej adhikrut kairolins ko bhagaayein aur florida aayein, jahaan ve roman Catholic mat mein badal gaye aur unhein svatantr kar diya gaya. unhonne seint agasteen ke uttar sthit ek pratirodhak samudaaya (bafar kamyuniti) mein apni basti sthaapit ki jise gresiya real di Santa teresa di mose ke naam se jaana jaata tha. yeh kaale logon dvaara sthaapit sabse pehli basti thi jiske tahat United states (sanyukt raajya) ka nirmaan hua.

1763 mein great Britain ne kootaneeti poorvak peris ki shaanti ke maadhyam se florida par fir se niyantran praapt kar liya. britishon ne ise do kauloniyon mein vibhaajit kar diya - East florida, jiski rajdhani seint agasteen thi aur vest florida, jiski rajdhani peinsaakola thi. Britain ne aapravaasiyon ke aayaat ke hisaab se florida ko viksit karna chaaha, jismein maainorka aur grees se bhi kuchh ko shaamil karne ki koshish ki, lekin is pariyojana ke ant mein ve vifal rahe. 1783 mein ameriki kauloniyon se Britain ki haar ke baad Spain ne fir se florida haasil kar liya aur iske pashchaat varsaai ki sandhi kar poorv aur pashchim florida ke vibhaajan ko jaari rakha. jo un kauloniyon mein basane aate the ve unhein bhoomi anudaan ki peshakash karte the aur is tarah bahut se ameriki inke paas aakar bas gaye.

chitr:Prinz Valdemar Arial.jpg
1920 ke dashak ke ant mein Miami real estate mein achaanak vruddhi hone par praveshakon ki madad ke liye prinj vaaldemar ne 1926 mein kuchh saptaah ke liye Miami ke bandargaah ko adhikrut kar use avaruddh kar diya.

Indian shaharon par sthir hamlon ke baad, semeenol Indians jo poorvi florida mein base the, jaurjiya bastiyon par chhaapa maarane lage, maana jaata hai ki ve aisa Spain ke ishaare par kar rahe the. sanyukt raajya America ki sena speni kshetr mein ghuspaith ka teji se netrutv karne lagi, 1817-1818 Andrew Jackson ne semeenol indiynon ke khilaaf abhiyaan chhed diya jo pehle semeenol yuddh ke roop mein jaana gaya tha. yuddh ke baad, sanyukt raajya America ne bade prabhaavi dhang se poorv florida par niyantran kar liya. 1819 mein, edams-onis sandhi ke sharton par Spain ne sanyukt raajya America ko florida saunp diya aur badle mein Texas par kisi bhi kism ke daave ko America ne tyaag diya jo usane 5 million dollar mein luisiyaana se khareeda tha.

jaise avasthaapan ki kriya mein vruddhi hui, vaise hi sanyukt raajya America ki sarkaar par Indians ko unke desh florida se hataane ka dabaav badhne laga. jaurjiya ke jameen maalikon ko tang karne ke liye, seminolon bhagode ashveton ko sharan dene lage aur ekeekrut karne lage aur goron aur Indians ke beech takaraav ke saath nae basane vaalon ka taanta lag gaya. 1832 mein, sanyukt raajya America ki sarkaar ne semeenol pramukhon mein se kuchh ke saath paayane lainding ki sandhi par hastaakshar kiye, yeh vaada karte huai ki agar ve svechha se florida chhodne ke liye sahamat hue to unhein misisipi nadi ke pashchim ki bhoomi de di jaayegi. usi samay semeenolon ke bahut log vahaan se chale gaye, jo rah gaye vo fir se apne bhoomi ke daave ke bachaav ki taiyaari mein lag gaye. shvet nivaasiyon ne sarkaar par dabaav daala ki yahaan se Indians ko hata liya jaaye agar jaroorat pade to balapoorvak aur 1835 mein ameriki sena is sandhi ko laagoo karne ke liye yahaan pahunchi.

daayein se florida ke paanch jhande, Spain (1565-1763), Kingdom of great Britain, Spain (1784-1821), mahaasangh aur sanyukt raajya America. France (chinh rahit) florida ke hisse ko bhi niyantran kiya.

1835 ke ant mein doosra semeenol yuddh ded narasanhaar ke saath, jab fort King (okaala) ki sena apne raaja ki shakti badhaane ke liye kila Brooke (taampa) se nikal rah thi to seminolon ne un par praanaghaati hamla kar diya, ek ko chhod sabhi 108 sainikon ki ya to hatya kar di gayi ya ve ghaayal ho gaye. 900 aur 1500 ke beech semeenol Indian yoddhaaon ne saat saal tak sanyukt raajya America ke sainikon ke khilaaf bade prabhaavi dhang se maaro aur bhaago gurilla rananeeti chalaayi. ek karishmaai yuva yuddh neta osiola yuddh aur semeenol ka prateekatv karne ke liye aaya tha, baad mein 1837 mein sangharsh viraam samjhaute ke dauraan use giraftaar kar liya gaya aur ek varsh se bhi kam samay ke andar jail mein usaki mrutyu ho gayi. yuddh 1842 tak kheencha gaya. aisa anumaan hai ki us samay U.S. sarkaar ne yuddh par 20 million US dollar se lekar 40 million US dollar tak ki ek khagoleeya raashi kharch kiya. 3 March 1845 ko florida sanyukt raajya America ka 27vaan raajya ban gaya. iski aabaadi mein dheere-dheere vruddhi hui. ashveton ne basane ke liye seminolon dvaara upayog ki gayi bhoomi par atikraman jaari rakha aur sanyukt raajya America ki sarkaar ko shesh semeenolon ko pashchim ki or bhejane ke liye ek aur prayaas karna pada. teesara semeenol yuddh 1855 se 1858 tak chala aur parinaamasvaroop shesh seminolon ko bhi vahaan se hata diya gaya. yahaan tak ki teen khooni yuddh ke baad bhi, America florida ke sabhi semeenol Indians ko pashchim bhajane mein vifal rahi.[12] haalaanki adhiktar seminolon ko misisipi ke pashchim mein balapoorvak sankari bhoomi par nirvaasit kar diya gaya tha. semeenol neta aripeka (saim jons) sahit saikadon aivaragleds mein rah rahe the aur unhonne apne poorvajon ka mool desh chhodne se inkaar kar diya tha. unke vanshaj aaj bhi vahaan rah rahein hain. ashvet nivaasiyon ne florida mein kapaas ki kheti praarambh ki jiske liye asankhya majadooron ki aavashyakta hui. 1860 tak florida mein sirf 140,424 log the, jinmein se 44% ko gulaam bana liya gaya tha. gruhayuddh se pehle vahaan 1000 se kam rang se mukt log the.[13]

seint agaisteen sanyukt raajya America mein sabse puraana shahar hai, Spain dvaara 1565 mein sthaapit.
chitr:Flaglerstreet 1945.jpg
dviteeya vishv yuddh ke aatmasamarpan ke 20 minute ke baad daaunataaun Miami mein sainikon aur bheed.

10 January 1861 ko ameriki naagrik yuddh ke shuroo hone se pehle florida ne sangh se apne alagaav ki ghoshana kar di, uske das din baad hi raajya America ke sanghi raajyon ka sansthaapak sadasya ban gaya. yuddh 1865 mein samaapt hua. 25 June 1868 ko, florida ka Congressi pratinidhitv bahaal kar diya gaya. punarnirmaan ke baad, ashvet prajaatantravaadi raajya vidhaanasabha ki satta mein vaapas aane mein safal ho gaye. 1885 mein unhonnein ek naya samvidhaan banaaya, vidhiyon ke baad 1889 se unhonne bade prabhaavi dhang se agale kai varshon tak ashveton aur kai gareeb goron ko mataadhikaar dene se vanchit kar diya. praavadhaanon ka chunaav kar, saaksharata pareekshan aur resideinsi aavashyakataaon ko shaamil kiya. raajya mein sabse adhik afreeki amerikiyon ke liye mataadhikaar se vanchit rahane ka daur 1960 ke dashak tak kaayam raha, usi samay civil adhikaar aandolan ke baad sangheeya kaanoon ke apne mataadhikaar ko fir se haasil kiya.

beesaveen sadi ke madhya tak, florida sabse kam aabaadi wala dakshini raajya tha. san 1900 mein iski janasankhya keval 528,542, jinmein se lagbhag 44 pratishat afreeki ameriki the.[14]bol ghun ki vajah se kapaas ki fasalein nasht hone lagi aur 20 veen sadi ke shuroo mein hi afreeki amerikiyon ke virooddh jaateeya hinsa ko bhadka kar unhein akaaran dand diya jaane laga, falasvaroop ve uttari aur madhyapashchim audyogik shaharon mein bahut badi sankhya mein pravaas karne lage.1900 janasankhya ka paanchavaan hissa yaani mote taur par chaalees hajaar ashvet, ek behtar avsar ke liye yahaan se chale gaye.[15] 1920 ke dashak mein raashtreeya aarthik samruddhi ne florida mein paryatan ko protsaahit kiya. apni rooparekha mein achaanak padonnati ke saath sanyukt hokar ek sankshipt avadhi mein hi florida ki bhoomi mein 1920 ke dashak me teji se vikaas hua. 1926 aur 1928 mein vinaashakaari toofaan, share baajaar mein I giraavat aur great dipreshan (vishv aarthik sankat), ke kaaran iski pragati mein ek viraam aa gaya.

dviteeya vishv yudgh ki rachana hone tak florida ki arthavyavastha poori tarah se theek naheen thi, air kandeeshaning ki badhti upalabdhata se garm jalavaayu bhi thanda rahata tha aur jeene ki kam laagat ne raajya ka svarg bana diya tha. yuddh ke baad rast belt aur poorvottar se palaayan ki vajah se aabaadi mein teji se vruddhi hui.haal ke dashakon mein, adhiktar pravaasi ek vikaasasheel arthavyavastha mein achhe rojagaar paane ki ummeed mein aae the. aaj, 18 million se adhik ki anumaanit janasankhya ke saath, florida dakshin-poorv sanyukt raajya America ka sabse adhik aabaadi wala raajya hai, dakshin mein Texas ke baad doosra aur sanyukt raajya America mein chautha sabse adhik aabaadi wala raajya hai.janaganana bureau ka anumaan hai ki "florida, chautha sabse adhik janasankhya wala raajya jiski kul janasankhya 2011 mein New York se jyaada hogi jo abhi teesare sthaan par hai.[16]

bhoogol

florida ke sthalaakrutik naksha
inhein bhi dekhein: List of Florida state parks

florida ke raajya ka adhikaansh bhaag maiksiko ki khaadi, atalaantik mahaasaagar aur florida ke jaladamaroo ke beech ek praayadveep par sthit hai. do samay kshetr mein faile yeh uttar pashchim mein ek pain ke haindal ki banaavat mein maiksiko ke uttari khaadi tak faila hai. iski uttari seema par jaurjiya aur alaabaama raajya hain aur pashchim mein, iski painahaindal jaisi banaavat ke antim chhor par alaabaama hai. yeh kai kairebiyaai deshon vishesh roop se bahaama aur kyooba ke paas sthit hai. florida ka tateeya kshetr bahut vyaapak hai yahi kaaran tha ki dviteeya vishv yuddh ke dauraan ise lakshya banaaya gaya tha, isliye sarkaar ne raajya bhar mein havaai pattiyaan banavaayeen, aaj lagbhag 400 havaai adde hain jo ab bhi kaam kar rahe hain.naishanal drag intelligence center ke mutaabik, florida ke 131 havaai addon ko saarvajanik kiya gaya hai aur 700 se jyaada niji havaai adde, havaai pattiyaan, heliports aur samudri vimaan tal hain.[17]misisipi nadi ke poorvi raajyon mein se florida sabse bada hai aur keval alaaska aur Michigan hi jaleeya kshetr ki ddashti se bada hai.

aivaragleds naishanal park, {2}dakshini florida
ki bisken mein kraindan park

florida praayadveep kaarst choona patthar ki ek khuli pathaar hai, jo aadhaar-shail ke oopar hai. poore raajya bhar mein paani ke neeche gufaaain, sinkahols aur jharane paae jaate hain aur yahaan ke nivaasiyon dvaara upayog mein laaye gaye paani ki aapoorti bhi inke dvaara hoti hai. choona patthar ke oopar jama balui mitti praacheen samudra tat ke roop mein miliyns (laakhon) saal se yahaan hain jabki vaishvik samudra ka jal star chadhta aur utarata rahata hai. gat himkaal ke dauraan, samudra ke nimn jal star aur shushk jalavaayu ke kaaran ek atyadhik vyaapak praayadveep, vruhad roop se savaana ka darshan hua.[18]aivaragleds, ek bahut chaudi aur bahut dheemi gati se bahne waali nadi hai jo praayadveep ko dakshini sire ko gherati hain.

florida kisi bhi vivrtanik plate ki seemaaon ke paas sthit naheen hai isaliye bhookamp bahut durlabh hai, lekin poori tarah se asambhav naheen hai. January 1879 mein, ek jhatka seint agastin ke nikat hua tha. aisi soochana thi ki itne bhaari jhatke the ki deevaaron se plaastar aur alamaariyon se cheejein nikalkar idhar udhar bikhr gain theen. theek isi tarah ka prabhaav detona beech 50 meal (80 kimi) dakshin mein bhi dekha gaya tha. bhookamp ke kanpan ka asar dakshin mein kaafi door taampa tak aur uttar mein savaana, jaurjiya tak mahasoos kiya gaya tha. 1880 January mein kyooba do shaktishaali bhookamp ka kendra tha jiske jhatakon ki tarangein ki vest, florida ke nagar tak pahunche. ek aur bhookamp florida ke baahar keindrit 1886 chaarleston bhookamp tha. kanpan ka asar poore uttari florida bhar mein mahasoos kiya gaya, seint agastin mein church ki ghanti bajne lagi thi aur florida ke poorvi tat mein base anya shaharon ko bhi jhatka laga tha. September, October aur November 1886 mein bhookamp ke kai jhatke aaye jiska asar jaiksanavile ke nivaasiyon par pada.[19] haal hi mein 2006 mein, ek 6.0 parimaan ka bhookamp maiksiko ki khaadi mein taampa ke dakshin pashchim mein keindrit tha 260 meal (420 kimi) jiski tarangein dakshin pashchim aur madhya florida tak pahunchi. bhookamp bahut chhota tha jo ek soonaami ki utpatti ka kaaran naheen ho sakta tha aur na hi koi kshati ki soochana thi.[20]

florida County naam aur seemaaon dikhaane ka ek naksha
florida ki mein baahiya honda par samudra tat

britain hil, florida ki sabse oonchi choti hai jo ausat samudri satah se 345 feet (105 mi) oopar env sanyukt raajya ke anya raajyon mein sabse kam oonchi bindu hai.[21] oralaindo ke dakshin ke jyaadaatar raajya nimn oonchaai ke hain aur samaanaantar hain jabki kleeyaravaatar ki oonchaai 50-100 feet paani ke satah se (15 – 30 mi) oopar hai. madhya aur uttar florida vishisht roop se samudra tat se 25 meal (40 kimi) ya usase bhi adhik door hai, kaheen-kaheen par 100 se 250 feet (30 – 76 meter) ki chhoti pahaadiyaan unnat hain.sugaralof parvat, praayadveepeeya florida ki sabse 312 fut (95 mi) oonchi choti hai jo lek County mein sthit hai.[22]

naishanal park sarvises ke niyantran mein shaamil kshetr:[23]

  • jheel okeechobi ke paas big saaipres naishanal prisrv
  • Miami-ded County, Miami ke dakshin mein bisken naishanal park
  • new smyarana beech aur titusville ke beech mein kenaavaral naishanal seeshor
  • seint agastin mein kaastillo di san maarkos naishanal monoomeint
  • braidenaton mein di soto naishanal memoriyl
  • ki vest mein draai tortugaas naishanal park
  • dakshini florida mein aivaragleds naishanal park.
  • jaiksanaville mein fort kairoleen naishanal memoriyl
  • seint agastin mein fort matanjs naishanal monoomeint
  • gulf breej ke nikat gulf aailaind naishanal seeshor
  • jaiksanaville mein taaimukuan ikolaujeekal end historik prisrv

USDA United states faurest sarvises ke niyantran mein shaamil kshetr :

  • apaalaachikola nadi ke poorvi kinaare par apaalaachikola naishanal faurest
  • naaisaville ke paas choktaavtchi naishanal faurest
  • sentral florida mein okaala naishanal faurest
  • poorvottar florida mein osiola naishanal faurest

seemaaen

raajya ki seema, atalaantik mahaasaagar se shuroo hokar pashchim, dakshin aur uttar se hoti hui seint mairi'za nadi ke thaalveg tak jaati hai. us nadi ke udgam sthal ke paas, lagbhag pashchim aur thoda-thoda uttar ki taraf seedhi chalti hui yeh us sthaan tak pahunch jaati hai jahaan par flint nadi (jaurjiya ki) aur chattaahoochi nadi (alaabaama/jaurjiya ki seema se neeche) ka sangam florida ke apaalaachikola nadi ka nirmaan karta hai. (jabase voodaraf baandh banaaya gaya, yeh bindu semeenol jheel ke tahat hai.) jaurjiya ke saath seema jheel se hoti hui uttar ki or jaati hai aur thodi doori chattaahoochi ke poorv thaalveg tak pahunch kar fir alaabaama se pashchim ki or perdido nadi se 31° uttari akshaansh tak jaakar dakshin se hoti hui perdido ki khaadi ke maarg se gujar kar thaalveg ki khaadi tak jaati hai. raajya jyaadaatar samudra ya samudri satah ke paas hai.

jalavaayu

florida kees mein royal poinasiyaana ped ka poora khila hua roop, dakshin florida ke ushnakatibandheeya jalavaayu ka ek sanket.
aivaragleds se hote hue poorv ki or Miami beech par garmi ke dinon mein dopahar ke baad hone waali vishisht baarish.
inhein bhi dekhein: List of Florida hurricanes evam List of all-time high and low temperatures by state

yeh sach hai ki raajya ka koi bhi hissa mahaasaagar se bahut door naheen hai jo kuchh had tak florida ki jalavaayu ko prabhaavit karta hai. okeechobi jheel ke uttar mein prabhaavit jalavaayu nam uposhnakatibandheeya hai jabki jheel ke dakshin mein vaastavik roop se ek ushnakatibandheeya jalavaayu hai.[24] raajya mein uchch taapamaan kabhi bhi 100°F (38°C) se adhik naheen jaata, saamaanyat: florida mein garmiyon ka uchch taapamaan 90 °aF (32+°aC) rahata hai.

florida mein sharad ritu ke ant mein env sardiyon ke maheenon ke dauraan kabhi-kabhaar hi thand ka anubhav hota hai, uchch havaaain poore raajya mein taapamaan ko apekshaakrut roop se thanda kar deti hai, iske saath-saath kuchh dinon tak uchch taapamaan 40 aur 50 (4-15 °aC) ke beech aur nimn taapamaan 30 aur 40 (0-10 °aC) ke beech bana rahata hai.

patto ka jhaadna madhya aur uttari florida ka ek aam drushya hai jo November ke ant mein aur sardiyon ke samay mein aarambh hota hai.
florida mein barf padna aam baat naheen hai, lekin florida ke pratyek pramukh shahar mein kam se kam ek baar barf pad chooka hai. uttar florida mein kabhi kabhi barf bhi padta hai.

29 June 1931 ko mauntiselo mein florida ka sabse adhik taapamaan 109 °aF (43 °aC) darj kiya gaya tha. sirf 25 meal (40 kimi) door talahasi mein 13 fravari 1899 ko nyoonatam taapamaan -2 °aF (−19 °aC) tha. July ke ant mein ausat uchch taapamaan mukhya roop se 90°aafaarenahaait (32-35 degree celcius) ke neeche rahata hai. uttari florida mein January ke ant mein ausat nyoonatam taapamaan 40°aafaarenahaait (4-7 degree celcius) aur dakshin florida mein 50°aafaarenahaait (≈ 13 °aC) ke madhya rahata hai.

florida mein mausam ka taapamaan adhiktar varsha par nirbhar karta hai. basant aur garmi ka mausam aksar garm aur geela evam sharad aur sardiyon ka mausam apekshaakrut shaant aur shushk bana rahata hai.

florida kees, jahaan ushnakatibandheeya jalavaayu ke saath taapamaan bahut kam parivrtanasheel hai kyonki ye chaaron or paani se ghira hua hai.ki vest (pashchim) mein, taapamaan shaayad hi kabhi garmiyon mein 90 °afai (32 °ase) adhik aur sardiyon mein 60 °afai (16 °ase) kam hua ho aur na hi kabhi kisi tushaaraapaat ki soochana hai.

florida ka upanaam "sanashaain raajya" hai lekin teevr mausam ka hona raajya mein ek saamaanya ghatna hai. central florida sanyukt raajya America ki bajrapaat rajdhani ke roop mein jaana jaata hai kyonki yahaan kisi bhi desh ki tulana mein adhik bajrapaat hota hai.[25] florida mein kisi bhi raajya ki tulana mein ausat varsha sabse adhik hai. vasant ke ant se patajhad tak raajya ke bahut bade hisse mein dopahar mein aandhiyaan chalana ek aam baat hai. ek saaf mausam wala din toofaan se avaruddh ho sakta hai, par ek ghante ke baad hi dhoop fir se khil jaati hai. in tadit vrushti ka kaaran hai ki maiksiko ki khaadi aur atalaantik mahaasaagar[krupaya uddharan jodein] se nam hava aakar thalachar se takaraati hain jiske kaaran dopahar hote hi bhaari varsha, uchch hava aur kabhi kabhi toofaan bhi aate hain. sanyukt raajya America mein florida hi sabse aage hai jahaan prati varg meal ki raftaar se (paani ke fuhaaron ke saath)[26] toofaan aate hain lekin ye aam taur par midvest aur great plane mein aane vaale toranaido ki teevrata se kam hote hain. aksar bahut tej garaj ke saath ole bhi padte hain.

florida mein himpaat ek durlabh ghatna hai. 1899 ke bhayaavah barfeele toofaan ke dauraan florida ko bhi barfeele toofaan ka saamana karna pada tha; taampa khaadi kshetr mein "khaadi-prabhaav" barf, ka asar bilkul vaisa hi tha jaisa jheel-prabhaav barf ka great leks kshetr mein tha.[27] 1899 barf ke toofaan ke dauraan hi ek samay aisa aaya tha jab florida mein taapamaan 0 degree faarenahaait (-18 degree celcius) se neeche chala gaya tha. florida ke itihaas mein sabse vyaapak himpaat 19 January 1977 ko hua, jab poore raajya mein himpaat hua, yahaan tak ki dakshin mein homasted mein bhi barf giri.itihaas mein darj hai ki kuchh hi samay ke liye Miami samudra tat par bhi barf ki aandhi aayi thi. 2003 mein ek kathin thithurane ki sthiti aayi jab barf ki aandhi ne atalaantik tat par "saagar prabhaav" daala jiska asar dakshin mein kep kenavaral tak pahuncha.[28] 1993 maha-toofaan painahaindal mein barfaani toofaan laaya jabki bhaari varsha aur toranaido ne praayadveep ko gher liya tha. aisa vishvaas hai ki ek toofaan ki sanrachana bilkul chakravaat jaisi hi hoti hai, kuchh khaadi tat ke kshetron mein toofaan ka uchhaal chhah foot ya usase bhi adhik dekha gaya hai.

23 August 1992 ko florida mein Andrew toofaan sahan karte hue.

chakravaat ke mausam ke dauraan chakravaat ek gambhir khatra hai, jiski sambhaavana 1 June se 30 November tak rahati hai, haalaanki kuchh toofaan ki rachana mausam khatm hone ke baad bhi hoti hai. florida America ka sabse toofaan-pravan raajya hai, saath mein uposhnakatibandheeya ya ushnakatibandheeya jalavaayu, lambe samudra tat par paani hai. 1851 se 2006 tak, florida mein kul 114 chakravaat aaye, unamein se 37 pradhaana—aavarg 3 aur usase bhi adhik ke the.[29] yeh bilkul anhoni baat hai ki ek toofaan ke mausam mein toofaan na aaye aur kisi raajya par apna dushprabhaav na chhode kam se kam ek ushnakatibandheeya toofaan. toofaanon ki shreni mein 4 ya usase adhik, 83% ya to florida ya Texas ko prabhaavit karta hain.[29] florida mein August-October ki avadhi mein toofaan aane ki sabse adhik sambhaavana rahati hai.

ek record ke anusaar 2004 mein florida ko chaar toofaanon ka saamana karna pada.toofaan Charlie (13 August), Francis (4-5 sitmbar), ivaan (16 sitmbar) aur jen (25-26 sitmbar) sab milaakar sanyukt raajya America ki arthavyavastha ko 42 arab dollar ki keemat chukaani padi thi. gyaarah maheene ke bheetar florida mein paanch toofaan aaye jisme toofaan denis paanchavaan toofaan tha jo 10 July 2005 ko aaya. baad mein, toofaan Katrina (25 August) dakshin florida se gujara aur toofaan reeta (20 sitmbar) ko florida kees ke oopar se gujara tha. toofaan vilma (24 October) kep romaano ke paas Marco dweep ke dakshin mein aaya. is tarah ek bahut sakriya toofaan ka mausam khatm hua.

America ke mausami vipda ke itihaas mein toofaan Andrew ka kendra florida tha, toofaan Andrew se huai nuksaan mein America ko $25 billion kharch karna pada tha, jab isne 24 August 1992 ko florida par apna dushprabhaav chhoda tha. anya bhayaavah toofaan ke hamle ki lambi soochi mein 1926 mein Miami toofaan, 1928 mein okeechobi toofaan, 1935 mein lebar de toofaan, 1960 mein toofaan dona aur 1995 mein toofaan opalabhi shaamil hain. haal ke anusandhaan se pata chala hai ki toofaan global vaarming ki vajah se naheen hain balki ek praakrutik chakr ka hissa hai.[30][31]

florida ke vibhinn shaharon ka ausat uchch va nimn taapakram
shahar January February March April May June July August sitmbar October November December
jaiksanavile[32] 65/43 68/45 74/50 80/56 86/64 90/70 92/73 91/73 87/70 80/61 73/51 66/44
ki vest[33] 75/65 76/66 79/69 82/72 85/76 88/78 89/80 90/80 88/78 85/76 80/71 76/67
melaborn[34] 72/51 73/53 77/57 81/61 85/67 88/71 90/73 90/73 88/72 83/67 78/60 73/53
Miami[35] 76/60 77/61 80/64 83/68 86/72 88/75 90/77 90/77 88/76 85/72 81/67 77/62
peinsaakola[36] 61/43 64/46 70/51 76/58 84/66 89/72 90/74 90/74 87/70 80/60 70/50 63/45
talahasi[37] 64/40 67/42 73/48 80/53 87/62 91/69 91/72 91/72 88/68 81/57 72/47 66/41
taampa[38] 71/51 72/52 77/57 82/62 88/68 90/73 90/75 90/75 89/73 84/66 77/58 72/52

jeevajantu

florida aivaragleds mein magaramachh
loar florida kees mein ki hiran
florida skrab J keval florida mein paaya jaata hai.

florida mein anek prakaar ke vanyajeev paaye jaate hain:

  • samudri stanapaayi: baitalanek daulfin, laghu-finnd pilot vhel, uttar atalaantik right vhel, vest Indies ke maanaati
  • sareesrup: ameriki magaramachh aur krokodaail, poorvi daayamandabaik aur pigmi raitalasnek, gofar kachhuaa, green aur ledarabaik saagar kachhue, poorvi indigo saanp
  • stanadhaari: florida teinduaa, safed-poonchh wala hiran, ki hiran, banabilaav florida kaale bhaaloo, nau-bainded aaramaadillos
  • pakshi: baald igal, uttari kaarakaara, ghongha kaait, ausapre, white aur brown pelikns, saagar gals, vooping aur saindahil saaras, rojet spoonabil,, florida skrab J (state aindemik) aur anya.ek upajaatiya jangali Turkey, melaagrees gailopaavo, arthaat upajaateeya osiola, mein se hi florida ke raajya mein mila.[39] ye raajya poorvi uttari ameriki pakshiyon ki kai prajaatiyon ke liye sheetakaal mein rahane ka ek sthaan hai.

1930 ke dashak mein dakshin America se uttar America mein aayaat ke baad se aayaatit laal aag cheenti ki janasankhya apni praadeshik seema se aakasmikroop se badh gayi, jismein florida sahit dakshini sanyukt raajya America bhi shaamil hain. ye mool cheenti prajaatiyon mein sabse adhik aakraamak hoti hain aur iska dank bahut dardanaak hota hai.[40]

paryaavaran ke mudde

florida air kandeeshanar aur pool pumpon par bhaari nirbharata ke baavajood kul oorja khapat mein prati vyakti paintaalisvein sthaan par hai. isame koyala, praakrutik gas, petrolium aur khudara bijli bikri bhi shaamil hai.[41] aisa anumaan hai ki raajya ki 4% oorja naveekaraneeya sansaadhanon ke maadhyam se utpann hota hai.[42] florida ka oorja utpaadan desh ki kul oorja utpaadan ka 6 pratishat hai, jabki pradooshan ka kul utpaadan naaitrojan aaksaaid, 5.6 pratishat kaarban daaioksaaid 5.1 pratishat aur salfar daaiaaksaaid 3.5 pratishat aankade se kam hai.[42]

aisa vishvaas hai ki mahatvapoorn oorja sansaadhanon mein se adhiktar Mexico ki khaadi mein florida ke pashchimi tat par sthit hai lekin 1981 ke baad se is kshetr ko khoj ke liye band kar diya gaya hai.[43] Governor Charlie krist aur florida ke ameriki senator bill nelsan aur mel maartinej donon ne ap-tateeya driling aur anveshan ka virodh kiya hai. poorv raajyapaal jeb bush, ne mool roop se sabhi prakaar ke driling ka virodh kiya tha.[44] 2005 mein unki sthiti badal gayi jab vah ek pratinidhi the unhonne tat se apratibandhit driling 125 meal (201 kimi) ki anumati ka sadan mein pesh vidheyak ka samarthan kiya tha.[45] krist, maartinej aur nelsan ne vidheyak ka virodh kiya, lekin maartinej aur nelsan ne ek senate vaikalpik mein jo painahaindal tat ke 125 meal (201 kimi) aur praayadveepeeya tat ke 235 meal (378 kimi) bheetar driling nishiddh karne ke paksh mein vote daal diya.[46]

July 2007 mein florida ke Governor Charlie krist ne kaaryakaari aadesh par hastaakshar kiye aur jaari kiya ki raajya mein sakhti se nae havaai pradooshan maanakon ko laagoo kiya jaayega is uddeshya ke saath ki 1990 se 2050 tak 80 pratishat ki star se greenahaaus gas utsarjan ko kam karne ki yojana ki ghoshana ki. krist ke aadesh ne bijli companiyon, otomobaailon aur truckon ke liye nae utsarjan lakshya nirdhaarit kiya aur raajya ki agencyon ke liye sanrakshan ke lakshyon ko aur bhi kada kiya evam raajya ke svaamitv vaale vaahanon ke liye vaikalpik indhan ka upayog karne ki aavashyakta bataayi.[47]

laal jvaar bhi florida ke dakshin pashchim tat par ek mudda raha hai. haalaanki is anumaan par vishesh vibhaajan hota raha hai ki laal jvaar ka kaaran kya hai, ye vishaakt shaivaal ke kaaran hota hai ya pradooshan ke kaaran iska abhi tak koi saboot naheen hai, jo bhi ho iski avadhi mein ya laal jvaar ki aavrutti mein badhotri hui hai.[48]

janaankik

janasankhya

Historical populations
Census Pop.
1830 34,730
1840 54,477 56.9%
1850 87,445 60.5%
1860 1,40,424 60.6%
1870 1,87,748 33.7%
1880 2,69,493 43.5%
1890 3,91,422 45.2%
1900 5,28,542 35%
1910 7,52,619 42.4%
1920 9,68,470 28.7%
1930 14,68,211 51.6%
1940 18,97,414 29.2%
1950 27,71,305 46.1%
1960 49,51,560 78.7%
1970 67,89,443 37.1%
1980 97,46,324 43.6%
1990 1,29,37,926 32.7%
2000 1,59,82,378 23.5%
Est. 2008 1,83,28,340 14.7%

florida sanyukt raajya America mein chautha sabse jyaada janasankhya wala raajya hai. florida ki aabaadi ka kendra pok County hai, jo lek vels ke shahar mein sthit hai.[49] 2008 mein florida ki aabaadi 18,328,340 hone ka anumaan tha. 2007 se raajya mein 128,814 ya 0.7% badhi.naveenatam janasankhya ke anumaanon ke prayog se florida raashtra ka teesavaan- sabse teji se badhne wala raajya hai. 2005 mein florida ke charam vikaas varsh ke dauraan, yeh desh ka sabse teji se badhne wala paanchavaan raajya tha aur 2.2% ki vaarshik dar se badha.[3]

2008 mein is raajya mein rahane vaale 186,102 sevaanivrutt sainya the.[50]

vansh samooh

saaaincha:US DemogTable

jaateeya aur Patrick shrrungaar

2000 ki janaganana mein soochit hai ki jarman (11.8%), aayarish (10.3%), english (9.2%), American (8%), itaaliyn (6.3%), French (2.8%), polish (2.7%), skautish (1.8%) hain.[51]

florida janasankhya ghanatv maanachitr

ameriki naagrik yuddh se pehle, jab gulaami kaanooni tha evam punarnirmaan yug ke dauraan afreeki amerikiyon ne raajya ki janasankhya ka lagbhag aadha hissa dakhal kar liya tha.[52] agali sadi se unke anupaat mein adhik giraavat I, ve mahaan pravaasan ke roop mein uttar ki or chale gaye jab uttari goron ne badi sankhya mein raajya mein sthaanaantarit hona shuroo kiya.

haal hi mein raajya mein nivaasiyon ka anupaat fir se badhne laga hai. aaj ashvet nivaasiyon ka bada kendreekaran uttari florida mein (khaaskar jaiksanavile, gainesville, talahasi aur peinsaakola mein) taampa khaadi kshetr, oralaindo kshetr mein vishesh roop se sanford aur oralaindo mein basa hai. iske alaava, hispainik sabhyata ke ashvet ameriki, dakshin florida mein basane lage. unki sankhya mein ek badi vruddhi hui jab kyooba, haiti aur jamaika ke ashvet mahatvapoorn apravaasan ke liye yahaan aaye.

florida ke hispainik janasankhya mein Miami aur taampa ke kyooban ameriki, taampa aur oralaindo ke puerato rikaans pashchim-madhya aur dakshin florida ke madhya ameriki pravaasi kaamagaar jaise bade samudaayon ke log bhi shaamil hain. 2000 aur 2004, ke beech hispainik samudaaya bahut viksit, adhik samruddh aur gatisheel ho gaya: dakshin pashchim florida ke li County jo ek upanagar hai vahaan sanyukt raajya America mein kisi jagah ke mukaabale sabse teji se hispainik janasankhya ki vruddhi dar jaari hai.

sabhi jaatiyon ke shvet raajya ke pratyek kshetron mein maujood hain. british aur aayarish mool ke log sabhi shaharon/upanagareeya ilaakon mein badi sankhya mein maujood hain. dakshini pashchimi florida mein ek vishaal jarman aabaadi hai. ek badi greek aabaadi taarapon springs kshetr mein, ek bada aur aitihaasik itaalavi samudaaya Miami kshetr mein aur varshon se base vartamaan peedhi ke gore floridiyns, uttari florida ke saanskrutik dakshini kshetron mein base hain. deshi gore floridiyns khaaskar jo log lambe samay se rah rahein hain florida parivaaron mein, ve pyaar se "florida kraikars" ke naam se pukaare jaate hain. anya sabhi dakshini raajyon ki tarah, ve mukhya roop se skauts-aayarish ke vanshaj saath hi kuchh anya british nivaasi bhi hain.[krupaya uddharan jodein] seint agasteen mein aur uske aaspaas ke sabhi nivaasi maainorkans hain jo vahaan 1768 mein british chikitsak Andrew tarnabull ke naye smirna colony se bhaag kar aaye the.[53]

mahaanagareeya kshetr

florida mein mahanagar saankhyiki kshetr ke vitran
inhein bhi dekhein: List of urbanized areas in Florida (by population) evam Florida census statistical areas

florida mein bees mahanagar saankhyiki kshetr (MSAs) hain jo sanyukt raajya America ke prabandhan evam bajat kaaryaalaya (OMB) dvaara paribhaashit hai. florida ke sadsath mein se unachaalees kaaunt ek MSA mein hain. raajya mein florida, mahanagar mein janasankhya ke vitran ko darshaate kshetr praayadveep ke tat ke aaspaas keindrit hain. ve florida ke poorvi tat par ye bilkul ek band firm mein, jaiksanavile MSA se- Miami fort laaudaradel-pompaano beech MSA, poorvi tat par har County ismein shaamil hai, sirf munaro County ko chhodkar. ek aur MSA ka nirantar band praayadveep ke pashchimi tat par taampa se seint.peetarsabarg-kliararvaatar MSA nepals-Marco dweep MSA, heranaando County se kolleeer County tak sabhi tateeya County ismein shaamil hain. praayadveep ke uttari aadhe bhaag ke andar bhi kai MSA hai, poorvi aur pashchimi tat ke MSA ko jodte hain. kuchh MSA florida painahaindal mein faile hain.

raajya mein sabse bade mahaanagareeya kshetr ke roop mein poore dakshin-poorv sanyukt raajya America Miami-fort laaudaradel -pompaano beech saankhyiki metropolitan area hai jismein paanch lakh se adhik log rahate hain.

daaunataaun Miami, florida ka sabse bada kendreeya vyaapaar jila hai. anginat nae kaaryaalaya aur aavaasiya tauvar ke nirmaan hone se Miami sanyukt raajya America ke teesare sabse bade skaailaain ke roop mein shrenit hai.

sabse bade shahar aur kasbe

shahar ki janasankhya > 500,000

  • jaiksanavile 805,605

shahar ki janasankhya > 200,000

  • Miami 424,662
  • taampa 336,823
  • seint peetarsabarg 246,407
  • oralaindo 227,907
  • hiaaleh 212,217

shahar ki janasankhya > 150,000

  • fort laaudaradel 183,606
  • talahasi 171,922
  • kep koral 156,891
  • port seint lusi 151,391

shahar ki janasankhya > 100,000

  • pembrok paains 146,828
  • Hollywood 142,473
  • koral springs 126,875
  • gainesavile 114,375
  • Miami gaardeins 108,862
  • miraamaar 108,240
  • kleeyaravaatar 106,642
  • pompaano beech 102,745
  • paam be 100,116


bhaashaaeain

2000 mein, florida nivaasiyon mein 5 varsh ki umr aur badi umr ke 76.91 pratishat log ghar par angreji mein baat pehli bhaasha ke roop mein karte hain, jabki 16.46 pratishat log spainish aur French kriyol mein baat karte hain (mukhya roop se haaitiyn kriyol) 1.38 pratishat janasankhya ke dvaara boli jaati hai. sabhi nivaasiyon mein French 0.83 pratishat, uske baad jarman 0.59 pratishat aur itaalavi 0.44 pratishat logon dvaara bola jaata hai. iske alaava purtagaali 0.36 pratishat shaamil hai, jabki taigalog ke vakta 0.25 pratishat ho gaye hain, arabi 0.21 pratishat aur viytanaamij 0.20 pratishat log bolte hain. sabhi mein florida ki janasankhya mein 5 varsh ki umr ke aur unase bade 23.80 pratishat log ghar mein angreji ke alaava anya bhaasha mein baat karte hain.[54]

2005 mein florida nivaasiyon mein 5 varsh ki umr aur badi umr ke 74.54 pratishat log ghar parapahali bhaasha ke roop mein angreji mein baat karte hain, jabki 18.65 pratishat log spainish aur 1.73 pratishat janasankhya ke dvaara French kriyol (mukhya roop se kriyol haaitiyn) boli jaati thi. sabhi nivaasiyon mein French 0.63 pratishat, uske baad jarman 0.45 pratishat aur purtagaali 0.44 pratishat logon dvaara boli jaati hai. iske alaava, itaavali 0.32 pratishat shaamil hai, jabki taigalog ke vakta 0.30 pratishat ho gaye hain, viytanaamij 0.25 pratishat aur arabi 0.23 pratishat log bolte hain. sabhi mein florida ki janasankhya mein 5 varsh ki umr ke aur unase bade 25.45 pratishat log ghar mein angreji ke alaava anya bhaasha mein baat karte hain.[54]

iska matlab yeh hai angreji -2.37% ki kami hui, Spanish 2.21%, French kriyol vruddhi (haaitiyn kriyol sahit) 0.35% ki vruddhi hui, French -0.20% ki kami hui, jarman -0.14% ki kami hui, itaalavi -0.12% ki kami hui, purtagaali mein 0.08% ki vruddhi hui, taigalog 0.05% ki vruddhi hui, arabi 0.02% ki vruddhi hui hai aur viytanaami bhaashaaeain bolanevaalon mein 0.05% ki vruddhi hui hai.[54]

florida ki jalavaayu ke kaaran yeh aapravaasiyon ke liye ek lokapriya raajya hai. florida ki saarvajanik shiksha pranaali yeh pramaanit karta hai ki pehli baar 200 chhaatron ke gharon mein angreji ke alaava anya bhaashaaen boli jaati hain. 1990 mein, league of United laitin American sitijns (LULAC) florida raajya ke shiksha vibhaag ke khilaaf ek varg kaarravaai mukadama jeeta ki shikshak ko anya bhaashaaon ke vaktaaon ke liye angreji (ESOL) shikshan mein prashikshit hona aavashyak ho.

florida samvidhaan anuchhed II, dhaara 9, mein yeh praavadhaan hai ki angreji "florida ke raajya ki aadhikaarik bhaasha hai." yeh praavadhaan 1988 mein ek pahal yaachika par nimnalikhit vote se apnaaya gaya tha.

dharm

florida jyaadaatar kattar hai lekin raajya mein roman Catholic bhi ek bahut bada sampradaaya hai. yahaan bhi ek bade aakaar ka yahoodi samudaaya hai jo mukhya roop se dakshin florida mein sthit hai, koi anya dakshini raajya mein itni badi yahoodi janasankhya naheen hai. florida mein maujooda dhaarmik judaav neeche di gayi saarani mein dikhaaya gaya hai:[55]

sarkaar

inhein bhi dekhein: List of Florida Governors evam United States Congressional Delegations from Florida
florida kaipitl bildings
raashtrapati chunaav ke parinaam
varsh ganataantrik lokataantrik
2008 48.22% 4,045,624 50.96% 4,282,074
2004 52.10% 3,964,522 47.09% 3,583,544
2000 48.85% 2,912,790 48.84% 2,912,253
1996 42.32% 2,244,536 48.02% 2,546,870
1992 40.89% 2,173,310 39.00% 2.072.698
1988 60.87% 2,618,885 38.51% 1,656,701
1984 65.32% 2,730,350 34.66% 1,448,816
1980 55.52% 2,046,951 38.50% 1,419,475
1976 46.64% 1,469,531 51.93% 1,636,000
1972 71.91% 1,857,759 27.80% 718,117
1968 40.53% 886,804 30.93% 676,794
1964 48.85% 905,941 51.15% 948,540
1960 51.51% 795,476 48.49% 748,700

florida ke raajya sarkaar ke sanchaalan aur buniyaadi dhaanche, kartavya aur samaaroh florida ke samvidhaan mein paribhaashit hai, jo raajya ke buniyaadi kaanoon ko sthaapit karta hai aur vibhinn adhikaaron aur logon ko svatantrata ki guaranty deta hai. raajya sarkaar ki teen alag shaakhaaen hain: nyaayapaalika, kaaryapaalika aur vidhaayika.vidhaayika bill agar raajyapaal dvaara hastaakshar kar diya jaaye to poora hokar florida kaanoon ban jaata hai.

florida vidhaanamandal ke antargat florida senate hai jismein 40 sadasya hain aur florida ke house of ripresentetivs, jismein 120 sadasya shaamil hain. florida ke maujooda raajyapaal Republican Charlie krist hai. florida ke Supreme court mein ek mukhya nyaayaadheesh aur chhah nyaayaadheesh shaamil hain.

florida mein 67 kaauntees hain, lekin duval County ke kaaran kuchh riporton mein keval 66 hi dikhaaye gaye hain, jo jaiksanavile ke shahar ke saath samaahit hain. florida mein 379 shahar hain (411 mein se) jo ki niyamit roop se florida ke raajasv vibhaag ko report dete hain, lekin vahaan ki anya nagar paalikaaen naheen deti hain. raajya sarkaar ke liye raajasv ka mukhya srot bikri kar (tax) raha hai, lekin shaharon aur County ke liye praathamik raajasv srot sampatti kar hai.

raajaneeti

punarnirmaan ke baad, gore sanbhraant democrat (lokatantravaadi) satta ke liye ladte rahe jab tak ki ve 1877 mein satta mein naheen aa gaye, aanshik roop se hinsak arddhasainik rananeeti ke maadhyam se mukt hue gulaamon aur sahayogi dalon ko nishaana banaate rahe taaki ve apna matadaan kam karein. 1885 se 1889 tak, raajya vidhaanamandal ke praavadhaanon ke saath yeh paarit hua ki ashveton aur gareeb shveton dvaara matadaan kam ho, jo ek lokapriya shvet democratic gathabandhan ki satta ko ek dhamaki thi. in samoohon ko matadaata soochi se hata diya gaya, gore demokreton ne raajya mein ek party ke satta ki sthaapana ki jaisa ki dakshin ke paar hua tha. 1900 mein afreeki ameriki raajya ki janasankhya mein 44% the,[56] yuddh se pehle bhi isi anupaat mein the, lekin bade prabhaavi dhang se inhein mataadhikaar se vanchit kiya gaya. 1877 se lekar 1948 tak, florida ne 1928 ke chunaav ko chhodkar har chunaav mein raashtrapati ke liye democratic ummeedavaar ke liye hi vote diya.

alagaav, mataadhikaar aur krushi avasaad ke javaab mein kai afreeki ameriki 1910-1940 mein mahaan pravaasan ke lahar mein florida se uttari shaharon mein chale gaye aur fir 1940 ke ant mein bhi gaye. naukri ke liye, unke bachchon ke liye behtar shiksha ki suvidha aur vote karne aur samaaj mein bhaag lene ka mauka dekhkar ve vaapas aaye.florida mein anya samoohon ko pravaas ka mauka mila (is lekh ke anya vargon mein not), 1960 mein raajya mein afreeki amerikiyon ka anupaat 18% ho gaya tha.[57]

1952 se 2008 tak, panjeekrut lokatantriyon ke bahumat hone ke baavajood raajya ne 1964, 1976, 1996 aur 2008 ke chunaav ko chhodkar har chunaav mein Republican (prajaatantravaadi) raashtrapati pad ke ummeedavaar ke liye vote diya. punarnirmaan ke baad pehle Republican Congress pratinidhi 1954 mein chune gaye.[58] punarnirmaan ke baad raajya ke pehle Republican senator 1968 mein chune gaye,[59] aur uske do saal baad pehle Republican Governor.[60]

1998 mein, aisa varnit tha ki jaateeya alpasankhyakon ke uchch pratishat ke kaaran democrat raajya mein sabse adhik mahatvapoorn hain aur saath hi saath uttar-poorv sanyukt raajya America se mukhya roop se aane vaale pratyaaropit shvet udaaravaadi bhi bahut prabhaavashaali hain.[61]dakshin florida mahaanagareeya kshetr iska ek achha udaaharan hai kyonki yahaan vishesh roop se jaateeya alpasankhyak aur shvet udaaravaadi donon hi ek uchch star par hain. is kaaran yeh kshetr raajya ke sabse adhik democratic kshetron mein sthaan rakhata hai. detona mahaanagareeya kshetr, ek had tak kam janasankhya ki drushti se dakshin florida ke samaan hai. oraleindo shahar ki janasankhya mein ek bada hissa hispainik ka tha jo aksar demokreton ke paksh mein rahate hain. florida ke doosare kshetron mein vishesh roop se graameen aur upanagareeya kshetron mein Republican (prajaatantravaadi) adhik prabhaavashaali hain.[61]

I-4 galiyaare kshetr teji se badh raha hai, jo kendreeya florida se gujarte huai detona beech, oralaindo aur taampa/seint peetarsabarg, ko jodte hain, donon ki Republican aur democratic matadaataaon ki sankhya lagbhag samaan hai. ye kshetr aksar raajya ke roodhivaadi uttari bhaag ka aur udaar dakshini bhaag ka vilay bindu hai yeh raajya ke sabse bade swing (jhoola) kshetr banane ke roop mein dekha jaata hai. haal ke dinon mein, jo bhi ho I-4 galiyaare kshetr, florida ke 40% matadaataaon se yukt hai aur raashtrapati pad ke chunaav mein florida raajya ke vote se hi aksar jeet nirdhaarit kiya jaata hai.[62]

democratic party ke matadaata panjeekaran mein badhat banaae rakhate hai aur donon raajyavyaapi 67 kaauntiyon mein se 40 mein bhi, Miami-ded County, brovaard County aur paam beech County, raajya ke teen sabse adhik aabaadi vaale County bhi inmein shaamil hain.[63] 2008 mein, panjeekaran mein democratic ke badhat ke baavajood, Republican raajyapaalika niyantran, anya raajyavyaapi vaikalpik kaaryaalayon, raajya vidhaanamandal ke donon sadanon aur pratinidhi sabha mein raajya ki 25 seaton mein se 15 seatein hi mileen. florida lagaataar raashtrapati ke chunaav mein ek swing raajya ke roop mein soocheebaddh hai. 2000 ke chunaav mein najadeeki chunaavi ladaai mein raajya ne ek nirnaayak bhoomika nibhaai thi.

2008 mein, Republican florida praathamik chunaav aur democratic florida primary chunaav mein unke vote ko aadha kar diya gaya, jab donon paartiyon ke pratinidhiyon ne raashtreeya niyamon ka ullanghan August kanavenshan mein kiya.

saarvajanik suraksha

2009 mein florida paanchavein sabse khatarnaak raajya ke sthaan par tha. 2008 mein pratibaddh jurm ke record par aadhaarit iska sthaan gambhir hai.[64]

shilpakala

jabki kai gharon aur vyaavasaayik imaaraton desh mein doosare jagahon ke samaan lagte hain, raajya ka spainish rivaaival florida varnaakoolar aur meditereniyn rivaaival style sahit raajya ke kuchh bhaag mein kuchh anoothi shaili viniyojit hai.[65][66]

arthavyavastha

kainedi space center se [149] ka shubhaaranbh.
Miami ka bandargaah duniya ka sabse bada potavihaar bandargaah hai aur duniya ki sabse badi anginat potavihaar companiyon ka mukhyaalaya hai.
Miami ke brikel faaineinsiyl distrikt mein U.S mein antarraashtreeya bankon ke doosra sabse bada sankendran shaamil hai.
dakshin florida jalavaayu ganne ugaane ke liye achha hai.

2007 mein florida ka sakal ghareloo utpaad graus domestik product (GDP) 734.5 arab dollar tha. apne sakal ghareloo utpaad mein sanyukt raajya America mein yeh chauthi sabse badi arthavyavastha hai.[67]prati vyakti niji aay 38,417 dollar thi, jo desh ke 20veen shreni mein the.[68] 2007 mein raajya ke kul utpaadan ke liye pramukh yogadaan kramash: saamaanya sevaaon, vitteeya sevaaon, vyaapaar, parivhan aur saarvajanik upayogitaaon, vinirmaan aur nirmaan ke the.

paryatan raajya ki arthavyavastha ka sabse bada kshetr hai. raajya mein garm mausam aur samudra taton ka sakadon meelon tak faile rahane ke kaaran har saal kareeb 60 million paryatak yahaan ki or aakarshit hote hain. manoranjan park vishesh roop se oralaindo kshetr, paryatan ka ek mahatvapoorn bhaag hai. vault dijni world rijaurt duniya ki sabse badi avakaash risaurt hai, ismein chaar theem park, lek buena vista, florida aur 20 se adhik hotel aur yoonivrsal oralaindo rijaurt, boosh gaardens, si world aur anya pramukh udyaanon ke saath raajya drive paryatan bhi shaamil hai. kai shaharon mein bhi samudra tat par paryatan sthal lokapriya hain, visheshakar sardiyon ke maheenon mein.

doosra sabse bada udyog krushi hai. 2006 mein America – ki arthavyavastha mein khatte fal, vishesh roop se naarangi ka ek bada hissa hain aur florida ke khatte falon ke utpaadan mein adhikaansh bhaag neenboo, santare ka 74 pratishat, keenoo ka 58 pratishat se 67 pratishat aur angoor ke 54 pratishat tha. raajya mein naarangi vaanijyik utpaadan ka 95 pratishat ka upayog jyaadaatar santare ke ras ke sansaadhan ke roop mein hota hai jo ki (ek sarkaari raajya peya) bhi hai.[69]neenboo mein lagne wala keeda chinta ka ek mudda bana hua hai. anya utpaadon mein ganna, strawberry, tamaatar aur ajavaain shaamil hain.[70] aivaragleds krushi kshetr krushi ka ek pramukh kendra hai. krushi ka paryaavaraneeya prabhaav, visheshakar jal pradooshan aaj florida mein ek pramukh mudda hai.

fausfet khanan bon ghaati mein keindrit hai, yeh raajya ka teesara sabse bade udyog hai. sanyukt raajya America mein kisaanon ke faasfet ki jaroorat ka 75 pratishat faasfet ka utpaadan yeh raajya akela hi karta hai jo vishv ki aapoorti ka 25 pratishat hai. iska lagbhag 95 pratishat ka istemaal krushi ke liye (90 pratishat urvarak aur 5 pratishat pashu aahaar sanpoorak ke roop mein) aur 5 pratishat ka istemaal anya kaamon ke liye kiya jaata hai.[71]

(sabse ullekhaneeya kainedi space center) 1962 mein, kep kenavaral mein NASA merit dweep prakshepan site ke aagaman ke baad se, florida mein ek bada eyarospes udyog viksit hua hai.

iske atirikt haal hi mein raajya ke pramukh mahaanagareeya kshetron mein chikitsa aur baayo (jaiv) takaneek udyog mein sahasa vruddhi dekhi gayi hai. haal hi mein oralaindo ko barnham sansthaan, ek pramukh baayo praudyogiki aur chikitsa anusandhaan company ke nae mukhyaalaya ke liye aadhikaarik site ke roop mein chuna gaya tha.

2004 tak yeh raajya bhi kuchh anya raajyon mein se ek tha jahaan nyoonatam majadoori ka koi kaanoon naheen tha jab matadaataaon ne ek samvaidhaanik raajya nyoonatam vetan ki sthaapana kar sanshodhan paarit kiya (nyoonatam majadoori kaanoon mein adviteeya) aur anivaarya kiya ki har chhah maheene par mudraasfeeti ke hisaab se ise samaayojit kiya jaaega. vartamaan mein 1 January 2009 se florida ke raajya mein nyoonatam vetan 7.21 dollar hai.[72]

aitihaasik ddashti se florida ki arthavyavastha pashu paalan aur krushi par aadhaarit thi, (visheshakar ganna, neenboo, tamaatar aur strawberry). 1900 ke aarambh mein, jameen ke sattebaajon ne florida ki khoj ki aur henari plant aur henari flaigaler jaise vyaapaariyon ne yahaan rel road pranaali ko viksit kiya, jo logon ko yahaan mausam aur sthaaneeya arthavyavastha ke kaaran laane lage.tab se paryatan mein bhaari uchhaal aaya, vikaas ka ek naya chakr chala aur kheton ke liye bade saude hue.

nau raajyon mein florida hi ek aisa raajya hai jahaan koi vyaktigat aay kar (anyon ki soochi) laagoo naheen hai. raajya mein "amoort niji sampatti par kar lagaaya gaya tha" (share, bonds, myuchual fund, mudra baajaar fund, aadi), lekin yeh kar 2006 ke baad samaapt kar diya gaya. raajya bikri kar ki dar 6% hai.[73] sthaaneeya sarkaaron ke liye ek atirikt 1.5% tak ki sthaaneeya vikalp bikri kar laagoo kar sakte hain. ek sthaan ke upayog kar ka dar apne sthaaneeya vikalp sahit bikri kar ki dar, kisi bhi roop mein samaan hi rahega.raajya ke baahar khareed kar, agar khareed ki taareekh se chhah maheene ke bheetar florida mein laaya gaya to upayog kar laagoo hoga. dastaaveji tiktein dastaavej sthaanaantaran aur bandhak par kar aavashyak hain. anya karon kaurporet aay, sanchaar sevaaon, berojgaari, thos apashisht, beema premium, pradooshak aur vibhinn indhan kar shaamil hain.

2008 mein teesari timaahi ke ant mein florida mein desh ka sabse adhik anuchit dar bandhak ke liye thi, bandhak ke saath bakaaya dar 7.8% kam se kam 60 dinon ke liye thi.[74] raajya mein doosra sabse jyaada kredit card aparaadh dar tha, card graahakon ko 1.45% dar ke saath adhik se adhik 90 dinon ke bakaaya ek ya ek se adhik kredit card par dena padta tha.[74] raashtreeya aavaas baajaar ki 2009 ki soochi hai ki real aistet mein achaanak giraavat se florida mein bahut adhik log prabhaavit hue the.[75] 2000 ke aarambh mein nirmaan mein teji aane se 300.000 khaali ghar florida mein hain 2009 ke raajya ke aankadon ke anusaar.[76]

florida mein ek aur pramukh aarthik engine sanyukt raajya America ki sena hai. vartamaan mein raajya mein 24 sainya adde hain, aavaas teen ekeekrut kamaan ke yoddha, sanyukt raajya America ka madhya kamaan taampa mein, sanyukt raajya amarika ka dakshini kamaan doraal mein aur sanyukt raajya America ke vishesh abhiyaan kamaan taampa mein.vartamaan mein florida mein 109,390 ameriki sainik tainaat hain[77] jinka yogadaan, seedhe aur paroksh roop se, 52 arab dollar ek saal ka raajya ki arthavyavastha mein hain.[78]

shiksha

Miami mein florida intaranaishanal university
chitr:Westcott 8445.jpg
talahasi mein florida state university
chitr:Pba.jpg
pashchim paam beech mein paam beech atalaantik university
oraleindo mein university of central florida
chitr:CenturyTower.jpg
gainesville mein university of florida
chitr:UofMiamiLakeOsceola.jpg
koral gabes mein university of Miami
inhein bhi dekhein: Education in Florida

florida ke saarvajanik praathamik aur maadhyamik school florida ke shiksha vibhaag dvaara prashaasit hain.

florida ke state university system

florida ke state university system ek vishvavidyaalaya pranaali jo 1905 mein sthaapit ki gayi thi aur vartamaan mein florida board of gavarnars dvaara niyantrit hai. 2008 shaikshanik varsh ke dauraan 301,570 chhaatr the, jinhonne in sansthaanon mein se kisi ek mein adhyayan kiya.

valign="top" width=35%
  • florida A end M university
  • florida atalaantik university
  • florida gulf kost university
  • florida intaranaishanal university
  • florida state university
  • new college of florida
valign="top" width=35%
  • university of florida
  • university of central florida
  • university of North florida
  • university of south florida
  • university of vest florida

florida mein niji vishvavidyaalaya

florida ke svatantr kaalej aur vishvavidyaalaya florida raajya ke 28niji aur shaikshanik sansthaanon ki ek sanstha hai.[79]

florida mein kai bade aur chhote niji sansthaan hain. "svatantr kaalej aur florida ke vishvavidyaalaya", florida mein niji vishvavidyaalayon ke hiton ki seva karte hain. is sangathan ne bataaya ki unke sadasya sansthaanon mein 2006 ke ant tak 121,000 se jyaada chhaatr shiksha praapt kar chuke hain.[80]

valign="top" width=35%
  • bairi university
  • beekon college
  • bethun-kukamain university
  • kleeyaravaatar krishchiyn college
  • ekard college
  • Edward vaatars college
  • embari-ridl eronautikl university
  • flaigalar college
  • florida college
  • florida hauspitl college of helth science
  • florida instityoot of technology
  • florida memoriyl university
  • florida saaudarn college
  • haujes university
valign="top" width=35%
  • jaiksanavile university
  • lin university
  • nova saauthaistarn university
  • paam beech atalaantik university
  • ringaling college of Art end dijaain
  • raulins college
  • seint liyo university
  • seint Thomas university
  • saauthaistarn university
  • stetasan university
  • university of Miami
  • university of taampa
  • vaarnar university
  • vebar intaranaishanal university

iske atirikt, vahaan 20 college aur vishvavidyaalaya ka ICUF ke saath koi sambaddh naheen hain, lekin florida ke raajya mein in vishvavidyaalayon ko poori maanyata praapt hain.

valign="top" width=35%
  • eve Maria university
  • baaptist college of florida
  • boka raitan Arts college
  • kaarlos elbiju university
  • evarest university
  • aivaragleds university
  • florida krishchiyn college
  • fort laaudaradel instityoot of Art
  • ful sel university
  • haub saaund college
valign="top" width=35%
  • jaunsan end vels university
  • jons college
  • Miami intaranaishanal university
  • naurthavud university
  • oralaindo kyulinri akedami
  • peinsaakola krishchiyn college
  • raasamusen college
  • seint jaun's college
  • shilr intaranaishanal university
  • triniti college

florida college system

florida college pranaali florida ke atthaais sarkaari collegeon ka prabandhan aur dhan ka kaam bhi sanbhaalati hai.

valign="top" width=35%
  • brevard kamyuniti college
  • brovaard college
  • central florida kamyuniti college
  • chipola college
  • daayatona state college
  • edeesan college
  • florida keej kamyuniti college
  • florida state college ait jaiksanavile
  • gulf kost kamyuniti college
  • hilsaboro kamyuniti college
  • Indian rivr state college
  • lek city kamyuniti college
  • lek-samtar kamyuniti college
  • naurthavest florida state college
valign="top" width=35%
  • Miami ded college
  • North florida kamyuniti college
  • paam beech kamyuniti college
  • paasko-haranaindo kamyuniti college
  • peinsaakola junior college
  • polk kamyuniti college
  • seint jauns rivr kamyuniti college
  • seint peetarsabarg college
  • sainta fe college
  • semeenol state college of florida
  • south florida kamyuniti college
  • state college of florida, manaati-saaraasota
  • [[talahasi

kamyuniti college]]

  • vaileinsiya kamyuniti college

yaataayaat

raajamaarg

pramukh sadkon aur shaharon ke saath florida ke maanachitr

florida ke antarraajyeeya, raajya raajamaargon aur ameriki raajamaarg florida ke yaataayaat vibhaag dvaara sanchaalit hain. florida ke antarraajyeeya raajamaarg pranaali mein 1,473 meal (2,371 kimi) raajamaarg shaamil hai aur raajya mein 9,934 meal (15,987 kimi) gair-antarraajyeeya raajamaarg hain, jaise florida raajya raajamaarg aur ameriki raajamaarg.

florida praathamik antarraajyeeya maargon mein shaamil hain:

  • I-4.svg I-4, jo raajya ko dvibhaajit karti hai taampa, lekalaind, oralaindo aur detona beech, ko jodti hai, I-95 ko detona beech mein aur I-75 ko taampa mein jodti hai.
  • I-10.svg I-10 hai, jo painahaindal ke aarapaar, jaiksanavile, lek city, talahasi aur peinsaakola, jankshanon ke saath I-95 ko jaiksanavile mein aur I-75 lek city mein jodti hai.
  • I-75.svg I-75 jo lek city ke paas raajya mein pravesh karti hai jaiksanavile ke (45 meal pashchim) aur dakshin ki or jaari rahate huai gainesville, okaala, 'taampa ke poorvi upanagar, braidenatan, saaraasota, fort maayars aur nepals, jahaan yeh "eligetar aile" ko paar karti hui dakshin ki or mud jaati hai aur ek tol sadak kile laaudaradel tak jaakar hiyaaleh / Miami jheel mein samaapt hoti hai jiska jankshan I-10 ke saath lek city mein aur I-4 taampa mein hai.
  • I-95.svg I-95 jo jaiksanavile ke paas raajya mein pravesh karti hai aur atalaantik tat tak jaati hai detona beech hote huai melaborn / titusville, paam be, vero beech, fort piyrs, port seint lusi, stuart, vest paam beech aur fort laaudaradel tak jaati hai aur daaunataaun Miami se pehle jankshanon ke saath I-10 jaiksanavile mein aur I-4 detona beech mein samaapt ho jaateen hai.
Miami ka palmetto expressway florida ke sabse vyast sadkon mein se ek hai.

maargon ke nirmaan se pehle 1956 ke sangheeya sahaayata raajamaarg adhiniyam ke tahat, florida mein ek lambi raajya paar tol road ka nirmaan shuroo hua, florida's tarnapaaik. 1957 mein fort piyrs se dakshin golden gledas intarachenj ka pehla anubhaag, poora kiya gaya. doosare bhaag mein uttar ke oralaindo se vaaildavood ke liye (vartamaan ke gaanvon) aur dakshin ki or vistaar hokar Miami se homasted jaakar yeh 1974 mein poori ho gayi thi.

raajya ke raajamaarg ek vishesh kram mein gine jaate hain. raajya mein raajamaargon ke pehle ank, kuchh apavaadon ke saath isaprakaar rakhe gaye jaise raajya sadak 112 intarastet-95 ko Miami antarraashtreeya havaai adde se jodta hai ya oralaindo mein raajya sadak-15, pehla ank yeh sanket deta hai ki raajya sadak kis kshetr ka hai, ye uttar mein 1 se dakshin mein 9 tak gine jaate hain. uttar dakshin florida raajya sadak ka number aam taur par ajeeb hai jo ginti mein poorv se pashchim ki taraf badhta hai aur poorv pashchim florida raajya sadak bhi uttar se dakshin ki or gina jaata hain. is sammelan ke baad, state road 907 ya Miami beech ka olatan road, state road 997 se soodoor poorv mein hai jo krom evenyoo ya Miami-ded County ka soodoor pashchim uttar-dakshin road hai. is niyam ka doosare ullekhaneeya apavaad raajya sadak 826, ya palmetto expressway hai (chitr uttar ki taraf badhta hua) haalaanki jinki ginti sam hai, uttar se dakshin ke liye hi lebal lage hai. raajya ki sadkon par ek se chaar ank hi diye gaye hain inke mahatva aur sadak ke sthaan ko dhyaan mein rakhate huai .[81] County sadkein bhi aksar isi pranaali ka paalan karti hain.

intarasiti rel

Miami antarraashtreeya havaai adde duniya ka 10vaan sabse bada kaargo havaai adda hai.

florida mein aimatraik ki seva chalti hai: sainaford, greater oralaindo mein aimatraik auto train ka dakshini tarmins hai jo lairatan, varjeeniya, dakshin vaashingantan, deesi se aarambh hoti hai. sanset limited, ka poorvi tarmins bhi oralaindo hai, jo poore dakshini sanyukt raajya America mein nai oraliyans, Houston aur sain entoniyo dvaara hoti hui loss enjils ke pashchimi tarmins ke liye yaatra karti hai. florida mein do atirikt aimatraik rel seva upalabdh hai (silver star aur silver mityor), jo New York shahar aur Miami ke beech sanchaalit hai.

havaaiadde

inhein bhi dekhein: List of airports in Florida

florida mein pramukh antarraashtreeya havaai adde hain jo 2006 mein 15 million se bhi adhik yaatriyon ko (prausesd) sansaadhit kiya, oralaindo antarraashtreeya havaai adda (34,128,048), Miami antararaashtreeya havaai adda (32,533,974), fort laaudaradel Hollywood antarraashtreeya havaai adda (21,369,577) aur taampa antararaashtreeya havaai adda (18,867,541).

maadhyamik havaai adde jahaan 2006 mein vaarshik yaatri 5 million se adhik the dakshin pashchim florida antarraashtreeya havaai adda (fort maayars) (7,643,217) paam beech antarraashtreeya havaai adda (vest paam beech) (7,014,237)[82] aur jaiksanavile antarraashtreeya havaai adda (5,946,188) shaamil hain .

kshetreeya havaai adde, jo 2006 mein ek million yaatriyon se adhik ko sansaadhit kiya tha peinsaakola (1,620,198) aur saaraasota-braidanatan (1,423,113) hain. sanaford, jo mukhya roop se antarraashtreeya chaartar vimaan sevaaon dvaara pesh kiya jaata hai 2006 mein 1,649,565 yaatriyon ko sansaadhit kar liya tha.[83]

khel

Miami mein the American airlines erena, Miami heet ke homkort.
oralaindo mein the emave erena, oralaindo jaadoo ka homkort.
sanaraaij mein the bainkaatalaantik center, florida painthars ka ghar.
Miami garden mein laindashaark, florida marlins ka ghar, the Miami daulfin aur Miami toofaan.
taampa mein seint peet times forum, taampa be laaitaning ka ghar aur taampa be storm.
seint peetarsabarg mein traupikaana field, taampa be rej ka ghar.
detona beech mein detona antarraashtreeya speedave
inhein bhi dekhein: List of sports teams in Florida

raajya mein lagbhag sabhi MLB teemon ke 2/3 sadasya is major league besabaul ke vasant prashikshan mein, upasthit rahate hai. florida mein ek sthaayi major league star ke peshevar khel ki team tab tak naheen thi jab tak 1966 mein ameriki football league ko Miami daulfin se joda naheen gaya tha. raajya mein ab teen NFL team, do MLB team, do NBA team aur do NHL team hain.

do erena football league ki team florida mein hain.

golf, tennis aur auto resing lokapriya hain.

chhote league besabaul, football, baasketabaul, aais hockey, saukkar aur inador football teemein florida mein maujood hain. florida ke vishvavidyaalayon mein mahaavidyaalaya khel mandal ki kai teemein hain.

club league kreeda-sthal championship
Miami daulfins naishanal football league laindashaark stadium (Miami) 2 (1972, 1973)
Miami heet naishanal baasketabaul association American airlines erena (Miami) 1 (2006)
florida marlins major league besabaul laindashaark stadium (Miami) 2 (1997, 2003)
florida painthars naishanal hockey league bainkaatalaantik center (sanaraaij) 0
Miami FC USL first divijn (saukar) traupikl park stadium (Miami) 0
taampa be byookaaniyrs naishanal football league remand James stadium (taampa) 1 (2003)
taampa be rej major league besabaul traupikaana field (seint peetarsabarg) 0
taampa be laaitaning naishanal hockey league seint peet times forum (taampa) 1 (2004)
taampa be storm erena football league seint peet times forum (taampa) 5 (1991, 1993, 1995, 1996, 2003)
oralaindo maijik naishanal baasketabaul association emave erena (oralaindo) 0
oralaindo pridetars erena football league emave erena (oralaindo) 2 (1998, 2000)
jaiksanavile jaguaars naishanal football league jaiksanavile myunisipl stadium 0

vasant prashikshan

florida major league besabaul vasant prashikshan ke liye paaramparik ghar hai, anaupachaarik dhg se aayojit "grepafroot league teemon ke saath." 2009 ke liye, florida vasant prashikshan ke liye pramukh league teemon ki mejabaani karegein:

club sthaan
Atlanta brevs vault dijni world
baalteemor oreeols fort laaudaradel
baustan red sauks fort maayars
sinsinaati reds saaraasota
detroit taaigars lekalaind
florida marlins jupitr
haausatan estros kisimi
minesota tvins fort maayars
New York mets port seint lusi
New York yaankees taampa
filaadelfiya filis kleeyaravaatar
pitsabarg paairets braidenatan
seint Louis kaardinls jupitr
taampa be rej port shaarlot
Toronto blue jes dyoonadin
Washington naishanals viyera

not: sinsinaati reds gudaiyar, erijona, 2010 ke liye ja rahein hain .

auto resing track

  • detona antarraashtreeya speedave
  • homasted -Miami speedave
  • sarbing antarraashtreeya resave
  • seint peetarsabarg ki sadkein
  • vault dijni world speedave

bandhu raajya

sistar adhikaar kshetr desh varsh[84]
kyongi दक्षिण कोरिया dakshin Korea 2000
laingvedauk-rausilaun फ़्रान्स France 1989
nueva espaarta वेनेजुएला venejuela 1999
taaivaan provins चीनी ताइपे taaivaan, R.O.C. 1992
vaakaayaama preefekchar जापान Japan 1995
western kep दक्षिण अफ़्रीका dakshin Africa 1995

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